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No. 58 Cornhijl 




District Clerk's Office. 

BE it remembered, Tint on the third day of February, A. D. 1814, and in the thirty- 
eighth year of the Independence of the United States of America, BRADFORD .tnd 
READ, of the said district, have deposited in this office the title of a book, the right 
whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words following, to wit : 

" An INTRODUCTION to Physiological and Systematical BOTANY. By JAMES 
EDWARD SMITH, M.D. F. R. S &c. &c. President of the Linnaean Society. "Con- 
sider the lilies of the field how they grow." First American, from the second English 
edition; with Notes, by JACOB BIGELOW, M.D" 

In conformity to the act of the congress of the United States, entitled, " An act for the 
encouragement of learning, by securing the copies of irups, charts, and books, to the 
authors and proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned ;" and also 
to an act, entitled, *' An act supplementary to an act, entitled, an act for the encour- 
agement of learning, by securing the copies of imps, charts, and books, to the authors 
and proprietors of such copies, during rhe times therein mrntioned ; and extending the 
benefits thereof to the arts of designing, engraving, and etching historical, and other 

WILLIAM S. SHAW. \ Cler }£ the P ia S! Ct 
t oj Maaachuietts. 




A h e present edition has been undertaken from the 
desire of introducing in this country an elementary work, 
which possesses high reputation, and is now in general 
use in Great Britain. It very happily unites the requi- 
sites for an Introduction to Botany, being professedly 
constructed on an intelligible and popular plan, and pro- 
ceeding from a man, whose eminent advantages and ex- 
tensive learning have given authority to his name, and 
placed him at the head of the science in his own coun- 

In preparing for the press an American edition, some 
additions have been thought necessary to adapt the 




work to its present time and place of publication. 
These have been attended to, as far as the short time of 
preparation would admit. It will be observed, that the 
author, for his examples and illustrations, has principally 
cited English and foreign plants, contained in the 
English, and Exotic Botany, and the Botanical Magazine. 
To the greater portion of students in this country a 
majority of these plants, as well as their figures, are 
inaccessible. In order to obviate the inconvenience 
arising from this source, care has been taken to dis- 
tinguish most of those, which are native in this coun- 
try, and, as far as possible, to facilitate a reference 
to them by the insertion of their common names. 
(Xher examples taken from American plants have also 
been subjoined, where additional illustrations seemed 
advisable. A number of physiological improvements 
and speculations, principally of later date than the Lon- 
don edition, will be found briefly detailed in the notes 
accompanying this. Where occasional deficiencies have 
been found in the definitions, the vacancy has been 
filled up ; as will be seen under the words calyx, petiole, 
&c A table of contents has been added, and, for the 
benefit of those who do not possess a glossary of botan- 
ical terms, the general index has been increased to twice 
3ts original size. Under these circumstances, it « 


trusted, the present edition will not be unacceptable 
to the public, particularly to students attending the bo- 
tanical lectures in this place, for whose use it was 
originally undertaken. As the additions have been 
made in a compendious manner, and are chiefly of the 
mechanical kind, the editor flatters himself, they will be 
ascribed to a desire of rendering the work more conve- 
nient and useful ; and not to any motives of vanity, of 
which he is wholly unconscious, at seeing his name 
on the title page. 


The Notes added to this edition are included in 
brackets [ ]. 




THE circumstances which induce me to solicit your 
Lordship's protection for the following pages are such, 
that I trust they will ensure pardon for myself, and 
more indulgence for my performance than, I might ex- 
pect, even from your Lordship's usual goodness to- 
wards me. 

The contents of these pages were, in a very unfinish- 
ed state, honoured with the approbation and encourage- 
ment of an excellent and lamented lady, to whom they 
were destined to be offered in their present less unwor- 
thy condition. I should have been proud to have shel- 
tered them under her patronage, because I have always 
found the most intelligent critics the most indulgent. 
Their general tendency at least, as calculated to render 
an interesting and useful science accessible, and in eve- 


ry point eligible, to the more accomplished and refined 
of her own sex, could not fail to have been approved by 
her, who knew and exemplified so well the value and 
importance of such pursuits, and their inestimable effects 
upon the mind. These hopes, which my late honoured 
friend and patroness had, with her usual benignity, en- 
couraged, are now most unhappily defeated, and I have 
no resource but in your Lordship, who is no stranger to 
my pretensions, nor to my sentiments, and in whom I 
have not now for the first time to seek an able and en- 
lightened patron. I remain, 

with the profoundest respect, 
my Lord, 
your Lordship's most obliged 
and obedient servant, 


Nov. 15, 1807. 



Advertisement to the American edition . . 3 

Author's dedication 7 

Preface 9 

Chapter I. Distinction between Animals, 
Vegetables, and Fossils — On the vital prin- 
ciple essential to the two former . . . . 81 

Chapter II. Definition of Natural History, 
and particularly Botany — Of the general 
texture of Plants S7 

Chapter III. Of the Cuticle or Epider- 
mis 31 

Chapter IV. Of the Cellular Integument 36 



Chapter V. Of the Bud 38 

Chapter VI. Of the Wood 41 

Chapter VII. Of the Medulla or Pith . 46 
Chapter VIII. Of the Sap-Vessels, and 
course of the Sap ; with Mr. Knight's 

theory of vegetation 49 

Chapter IX. Of the Sap, and Insensible 
Perspiration 63 

Chapter X. Of the Secreted Fluids of 
Plants. Grafting. Heat of the vegetable 
body 68 

Chapter XI. The process of vegetation. 

Use of the Cotyledons 87 

Chapter XII. Of the Root, and its various 
kinds 94 

Chapter XII. Different kinds of Stems and 
Stalks of Plants 105 

Chapter XIV. Of Buds 119 

Chapter XV. Of Leaves, their situations, 

insertions, surfaces, and various forms . 124 

Chapter XVI. Of the functions of Leaves 153 



Chapter XVII. Of the several hinds of 
Fulcra, or Appendages to a Plant . . . 178 

Chapter XVIII. Of the Inflorescence, or 
Mode of Flowering, and its various forms 187 

Chapter XIX. Of the Flower and Fruit 194 
Chapter XX. Of the peculiar functions of 
the Stamens and Pistils, with the experi- 
ments and observations of Linnceus and 
others on that subject 246 

Chapter XXI. Of the Diseases of Plants 
particularly as illustrative of their Vital 
Principle . , 265 

Chapter XXII. Of the Systematical Ar- 
rangement of Plants. Natural and Arti- 
ficial Methods. Genera, Species, and va- 
rieties. Nomenclature 273 

Chapter XXIII. Explanation of the Lin- 
nazan and Artificial System .... 302 

Chapter XXIV. Illustrations of the Lin- 
ncean Classes and Orders 316 

Explanation of the Plates 389 

Index of Remarkable Plants, or those of 



which any particular mention, or any change 

in their classification is made 297 

Index of the Explanations and Illustrations 
of Technical Terms, §*c 4C3 



After the many elementary works on Botany which 
have appeared in various languages, any new attempt of 
the same kind may, at first sight, seem unnecessary. 
But when we consider the rapid progress of the science 
within a few years, in the acquisition and determination 
of new plants, and especially the discoveries and im- 
provements in vegetable physiology : when we reflect 
on the views with which those fundamental works of 
Linnaeus, the basis of all following ones, were composed, 
and to whom they were addressed, we must be aware 
of their unfitness for purposes of general and popular 
utility, and that something else is wanting. If we ex- 
amine the mass of introductory books on botany in this 
light, we shall find them in some cases too elaborate and 
intricate, in others too obscure and imperfect : they are 
also deficient in that very pleasing and instructive part 
of botany the anatomy and physiology of plants. There 
are indeed works, such as Rose's Elements of Botany, 
and Darwin's Phytologia, with which no such faults 
can be found. The ibrmer is a compendium of Lin- 
nsean learning, the latter a store of ingenious philosophy ; 


but they were designed for philosophers, and are not 
calculated for every reader. Linnaeus and his scholars 
have generally written in Latin. They address them- 
selves to physicians, to anatomists, to philosophers, little 
thinking that their science would ever be the amusing 
pursuit of the young, the elegant and the refined, or 
they would have treated the subject differently. It 
appears to me, therefore, that an introductory publica- 
tion is still desirable in this country, on an original plan, 
easy, comprehensive, and fit for general use, and such 
were the reasons which first prompted me to the under- 

When, however, I had proceeded a considerable way 
in its execution, I found that such a work might not 
only serve to teach the first outlines of the science, but 
that it might prove a vehicle for many observations, 
criticisms, and communications, scarcely to be brought 
together on any other plan ; nor did it appear any objec- 
tion to the general use of the book, that, besides its 
primary intention, it might be capable of leading into 
the depths of botanical philosophy, whether physiolo- 
gical, systematical, or critical, any student who should 
be desirous of proceeding so far. A volume of this 
size can indeed be but elementary on subjects so exten- 
sive ; but if it be clear and intell'gible as far as it goes, 
serving to indicate the scope of the science of botany, 


and how any of its branches may be cultivated further, 
my purpose is answered. The subject has naturally 
led me to a particular criticism of the Linnaean system 
of arrangements, which the public, it seems, has expect- 
ed from me. Without wasting any words on those 
speculative and fanciful changes, which the most ignor- 
ant may easily make, in an artificial system ; and with- 
out entering into controversy with the very few compe- 
tent writers who have proposed any alterations ; I have 
simply stated the result of my own practical observations, 
wishing by the light of experience to correct and to 
confirm what has been found useful, rather than rashly 
to overthrow what perhaps cannot on the whole be im- 

As the discriminating characters of the Linnsean sys? 
tern are founded in nature and fact, and depend upon 
parts essential to every species of plant when in perfec- 
tion ; and as the application of them to practice is, above 
all other systems, easy and intelligible ; I conceive noth- 
ing more useful can be done than to perfect, upon its 
own principles, any parts of this system that experience 
may show to have been originally defective. This is 
all I presume to do. Speculative alterations in an arti- 
ficial system are endless, and scarcely answer any more 
useful purpose than changing the order of letters in an 
alphabet. The philosophy of botanical arrangement, or 


the study of the natural affinities of plants, is quite an- 
other matter. But it would be as idle, while we pursue 
this last-mentioned subject, so deep and so intricate that 
its most able cultivators are only learners, to lay aside 
the continual use of the Linnaean system, as it would be 
for philologists and logicians to slight the convenience, 
and indeed necessity, of the alphabet, and to substitute 
the Chinese character in its stead. If the following 
pages be found to elucidate and to confirm this compar- 
ison, I wish the student to keep it ever in view. 

Tne illustration of the Linnaean system of classifica- 
tion, though essential to my purpose, is however but a 
small part of my aim. To explain and apply to practice 
those beautiful principles of method, arrangement and 
discrimination, which render botany not merely an 
amusement, a motive for taking air and exercise, or an 
assistance to many other arts and sciences ; but a school 
for the mental powers, an alluring incitement for the 
young mind to try its growing strength, and a confirma- 
tion of the most enlightened understanding in some of 
its subhmest most important truths. That every path 
tending to ends so desirable may be accessible, I have 
not confined myself to systematical subjects, wide and 
various as they are, but I have introduced the anatomy 
and physiology of plants to the botanical student, wish- 
ing to combine all these several objects ; so far at least 


that those who do not cultivate them all, may be sensible 
of the value of each in itself, and that no disgraceful ri- 
valship or contempt, the offspring of ignorance, may be 
felt by the pursuers of any to the prejudice of the rest. 

I have treated of physiological and anatomical subjects 
in the first place, because a true knowledge of the struc- 
ture and parts of plants seems necessary to the right 
understanding of botanical arrangement ; and I trust 
the most superficial reader will here find enough for 
that purpose, even though he should not be led to pur- 
sue these subjects further by himself. I have every- 
where aimed at familiar illustrations and examples, refer- 
ring, as much as possible, to plants of easy acquisition. 
In the explanation of botanical terms and characters, I 
have, besides furnishing a new set of plates with referen- 
ces to the body of the work, always cited a plant for my 
purpose by its scientific name, with a reference to some 
good and sufficient figure. For this end I have generally 
used either my own works English and Exotic Botany, 
all the plates of which, as well as of the present volume, 
are the performance of the same excellent botanist as 
well as artist ; or Curtis's Magazine, much of which 
also was drawn by Mr. Sowerby. I have chosen these 
as the most comprehensive and popular books, quoting 
others only when these failed me, or when I had some 
particular end in view. If this treatise should be adopted 


for general use in schools or families, the teacher at least 
will probably be furnished with those works, and will 
accommodate their contents to the use of the pupils. I 
am aware of the want of a systematical English descrip- 
tion of British plants, on the principles of this Introduc- 
tion ; but that deficiency I hope as soon as possible to 
6upply. In the mean while Dr. Withering's work may 
serve the desired purpose, attention being paid only to 
his original descriptions, or to those quoted from Eng- 
lish writers. His index will atone for the changes I 
cannot approve in his system. Wherever my book may 
be found deficient in the explanation of his or any other 
terms, as I profess to retain only what are necessary, or 
in some shape useful, the Language of Botany, by Pro- 
fessor Martyn, will prove extremely serviceable. 

Hiving thus explained the use and intention of the 
present work, perhaps a few remarks on the recommen- 
dations of the study of Botany, besides what have already 
been suggested, may not here be misplaced. 

I shall not labour to prove how delightful and instruc- 
tive it is to 

" Look through Nature up to Nature's God." 

Neither, surely, need I demonstrate, that if any judi- 
cious or improved use is to be made of the natural bodies 
around us, it must be expected from those who discrim- 
inate their kinds and study their properties. Of the 


benefits of natural science in the improvement of many- 
arts, no one doubts. Our food, our physic, our luxuries 
are improved by it. By the inquiries of the curious new 
acquisitions are made in remote countries, and our re- 
sources of various kinds are augmented. The skill of 
Linnaeus by the most simple observation, founded how- 
ever on scientific principles, taught his countrymen to 
destroy an insect, the Cantharis navalis, which had cost 
the Swedish government many thousand pounds a year 
by its ravages on the timber of one dockyard only. 
After its metamorphoses, and the season when the fly 
laid its eggs, were known, all its ravages were stopped 
by immersing the timber in water during that period. 
The same great observer, by his botanical knowledge, 
detected the cause of a dreadful disease among the horn- 
ed cattle of the north of Lapland, which had previously 
been thought equally unaccountable and irremediable, 
and of which he has given an exquisite account in his 
Lapland tour, as well as under Cicata virosa, Engl. Bot. 
t. 479, in his Flora Lapponica. One man in our days, 
by his scientific skill alone, had given the bread-fruit to 
the West-Indies, and his country justly honours his 
character and pursuits. All this is acknowledged. 
We are no longer in the infancy of science, in which its 
utility, not having been proved, might be doubted, nor 
is it for this that I contend. I would recommend bota- 


ny for its own sake. I have often alluded to its benefits 
as a mental exercise, nor can any study exceed it in 
raising curiosity, gratifying a taste for beauty and inge- 
nuity of contrivance, or sharpening the powers of dis- 
crimination. What then can be better adapted for 
young persons ? The chief use of a great part of our 
education is no other than what I have just mentioned. 
The languages and the mathematics, however valuable 
in themselves when acquired, are even more so as they 
train the youthful mind to thought and observation. In 
Sweden, Natural History is the study of the schools, by 
which men rise to preferment ; and there are no people 
with more acute or better regulated minds than the 

To those whose minds and understandings are already 
formed, this study may be recommended, indepen- 
dently of all other considerations, as a rich source of 
innocent pleasure. Some people are ever inquiring 
" what is the use" of any particular plant, by which 
they mean " what food or physic, or what materials for 
the painter or dyer does it afford ?" They look on a 
beautiful flowery meadow with admiration, only in pro- 
portion as it affords nauseous drugs or salves. Of hers 
consider a botanist with respect only as he may be able 
to teach them some profitable improvement in tanning, 
or dyeing, by which they may quickly grow rich, and 


be then perhaps no longer of any use to mankind or to 
themselves. They would permit their children to study 
botany, only because it might possibly lead to profes- 
sorships, or other lucrative preferment. 

These views are not blameable, but they are not the 
sole end of human existence. Is it not desirable to call 
the soul from the feverish agitation of worldly pursuits, 
to the contemplation of Divine Wisdom in the beautiful 
oeconomy of Nature ? Is it not a privilege to walk with 
God in the garden of creation, and hold converse with 
his providence ? If such elevated feelings do not lead 
to the study of Nature, it cannot far be pursued without 
rewarding the student by exciting them. 

Rousseau, a great judge of the human heart and ob- 
server of human manners, has remarked, that " when 
science is transplanted from the mountains and woods 
into cities and worldly society, it loses its genuine 
charms, and becomes a source of envy, jealousy and 
rivalship." This is still more true if it be cultivated 
as a mere source of emolument. But the man who 
loves botany for its own sake knows no such feelings, 
nor is he dependent for happiness on situations or scenes 
that favour their growth. He would find himself nei- 
ther solitary nor desolate, had he no other companion 
than a "mountain daisy," that " modest crimson-tipped 


flower," so sweetly sung by one of Nature's own poets. 
The humblest weed or moss will ever afford him some- 
thing to examine or to illustrate, and a great deal to ad- 
mire. Introduce him to the magnificence of a tropical 
forest, the enamelled meadows of the Alps, or the won- 
ders of New Holland, and his thoughts will not dwell 
much upon riches or literary honours, things that 
" Play round the head, but come not near the heart." 

One idea is indeed worthy to mix in the pure con- 
templation of Nature, the anticipation of the pleasure 
we may have to bestow on kindred minds with our own, 
in sharing with them our discoveries and our acquisi- 
tions. This is truly an object worthy of a good man, 
the pleasure of communicating virtuous disinterested 
pleasure to those who have the same tastes with our- 
selves ; or of guiding young ingenuous minds to wor- 
thy pursuits, and facilitating their acquisition of what 
we have already obtained. If honours and respectful 
consideration reward such motives, they flow from a 
pure source. The giver and the receiver are alike in- 
vulnerable, as well as inaccessible, to " envy, jealousy 
or rivalship," and may pardon their attacks without an 

The natural history of animals, in many respects even 
more interesting than botany to man as an animated 
being, and more striking in some of the phaenomena 


which it displays, is in other points less pleasing to a 
tender and delicate mind. In botany all is elegance 
and delight. No painful, disgusting, unhealthy experi- 
ments or inquiries are to be made. Its pleasures spring 
up under our feet, and, as we pursue them, reward us 
with health and serene satisfaction. None but the most 
foolish or depraved could derive any thing from it but 

what is beautiful, or pollute its lovely scenery with una- 
miable or unhallowed images. Those who do so, either 
from corrupt taste or malicious design, can be compared 
only to the fiend entering into the garden of Eden. 

Let us turn from this odious picture to the contem- 
plation of Nature, ever new, ever abundant in inex- 
haustible variety. Whether we scrutinize the damp 
recesses of woods in the wintry months, when the 
numerous tribes of mosses are displaying their minute, 
but highly interesting structure ; whether we walk 
forth in the early spring, when the ruby tips of the haw- 
thorn-bush give the first sign of its approaching vegeta- 
tion, or a little after, when the violet welcomes us with 
its scent, and the primrose with its beauty ; whether 
we contemplate in succession all the profuse flowery 
treasures of the summer, or the more hidden secrets of 
Nature at the season when fruits and seeds are forming ; 
the most familiar objects, like old friends, will always 
afford us something to study and to admire in their 


characters, while new discoveries will awaken a train ol 
new ideas. The yellow blossoms of the morning, that 
fold up their delicate leaves as the day advances ; others 
that court and sustain the full blaze of noon ; and the 
pale night-scented tribe, which expand, and diffuse their 
very sweet fragrance, towards evening, will all please in 
their turn. Though spring is the season of hope and 
novelty, to a naturalist more especially, yet the wise 
provisions and abundant resources of Nature, in the 
close of the year, will yield an observing mind no less 
pleasure, than the rich variety of her autumnal tints 
affords to the admirers of her external charms. The 
more we study the works of the Creator, the more wis- 
dom, beauty and harmony become manifest, even to our 
limited apprehensions ; and while we admire, it is im- 
possible not to adore. 

" Soft roll your incense, herbs, and fruits, and flowers, 

In mingled clouds, to Him, whose sun exalts, 

Whose breath perfumes you, and whose pencil paints !" 







X hose who with a philosophical eye have contempla- 
ted the productions of Nature, have all, by common 
consent, divided them into three great classes, called the 
Animal, the Vegetable, and the Mineral or Fossil King- 
doms. These terms are still in general use, and the 
most superficial observer must be struck with their 
propriety. The application of them seems at first sight 
perfectly easy, and in general it is so. Difficulties 
occur to those only who look very deeply into the 

Animals have an organized structure which regularly 
unfolds itself, and is nourished and supported by air 
and food ; they consequently possess life, and are sub- 
ject to death ; they are moreover endowed with sensa- 
tion, and with spontaneous, as well as voluntary, motion. 


Vegetables arc organized, supported by air and food, 
endowed with life and subject to death as well as ani- 
mals. They have in some instances spontaneous, 
though we know not that they have voluntary, motion. 
They are sensible to the action of nourishment, air, and 
light, and either thrive or languish according to the 
wholesome or hurtful application of these stimulants. 
This is evident to all who have ever seen a plant growing 
in a climate, soil, or situation, not suitable to it. Those 
who have ever gathered a rose, know but too well how 
soon it withers ; and the familiar application of its fate 
to that of human life and beauty is not more striking to 
the imagination than philosophically and literally true. 
The sensitive plant is a more astonishing example of 
the capability of vegetables to be acted upon as living 
bodies. Other instances of the same kind we shall 
hereafter have occasion to mention. 

The spontaneous movements of plants are almost as 
readily to be observed as their living principle. The 
general direction of their branches, and especially of the 
upper surface of their leaves, though repeatedly disturb- 
ed, to the light ; the unfolding and closing of their 
flowers at stated times, or according to favourable or 
unfavourable circumstances, with some still more curi- 
ous particulars to be explained in the sequel of this 
work, are actions undoubtedly depending on their vital 
principle, and are performed with the greater facility in 
proportion as that principle is in its greatest vigour. 
Hence arises a question whether Vegetables are endowed 
with sensation. As they possess life, irritability and 
motion, spontaneously directing their organs to what is 


natural and beneficial to them, and flourishing according 
to their success in satisfying their wants, may not the 
exercise of their vital functions be attended with some 
degree of sensation, however low, and some consequent 
share of happiness ? Such a supposition accords with all 
the best ideas we can form of the Divine Creator ; nor 
could the consequent uneasiness which plants must suf- 
fer, no doubt in a very low degree likewise, from the 
depredations of animals, bear any comparison with their 
enjoyment on the whole. However this may be, the 
want of sensation is most certainly not to be proved 
with regard to Vegetables, and therefore of no use as a 
practical means of distinguishing them, in doubtful 
cases, from Animals. 

Some Philosophers*" have made a locomotive power 
peculiarly characteristic of Animals, not being aware of 
the true nature of those half-animated beings called 
Corals and Corallines, which are fixed, as immoveably 
as any plants, to the bottom of the sea, while indeed 
many living vegetables swim around them, unattached 
to the soil, and nourished by the water in which they 
float. f Some have characterized Animals as nourished 
by their internal, and Vegetables by their external sur- 
face, the latter having no such thing as an internal 
stomach. This is ingenious and tolerably correct ; but 
the proofs of it must fail with respect to those minute 
and simply- constructed animals the Polypes, and the 
lower tribes of Worms, whose feelers, put forth into 
the water, seem scarcely different from roots seeking 

* Jungius, Boerhaavc, Ludvvig and many others. 

t Dr. Alston, formerly professor of botanv at Edinburgh. 


their food in the earth, and some of which may be 
turned inside out, like a glove, without any disturbance 
of their ordinary functions. The most satisfactory re- 
mark I have for a long time met with on this difficult 
subject is that of M. Mirbel, in his Traite cVAnatomie 
at cle Physiologie Veg tales* a work I shall often have 
occasion to quote. He observes, vol. I. p. 19, " that 
plants alone have a power of deriving nourishment, 
though not indeed exclusively, from inorganic matter, 
mere earths, salts or airs, substances certainly incapable 
of serving as food for any animals, the latter only feeding 
on what is or has been organized matter, either of a 
vegetable or animal nature. So that it should seem to 
be the office of vegetable life alone to transform dead 
matter into organized living bodies." This idea ap- 
pears to me so just, that I have in vain sought for any 
exception to it. 

Let us however descend from these philosophical 
speculations to purposes of practical utility. It is suffi- 
cient for the young student of Natural History to know, 
that in every case in which he can be in doubt whether 
he has found a plant or one of the lower orders of ani- 
mals, the simple experiment of burning will decide the 
question. The smell of a burnt bone, coralline, or 
other animal substance, is so peculiar that it can never 
be mistaken, nor does any known vegetable give out 
the same odour.(l) 

* Published at Paris two or three years since, in 2 vols. 8vo. 

(1) [It has been remarked that some vegetable products, such 
as the gluten of wheat, caoutchonc, and the juice of the papaw 
nee ; give out in burning nearly the same peculiar odour which 
is afforded by animal matter."] 


The Mineral Kingdom can never be confounded with 
the other two. Fossils are masses of mere dead unor- 
ganized matter, subject to the laws of chemistry alone ; 
growing indeed, or increasing by the mechanical addi- 
tion of extraneous substances, or by the laws of chem- 
ical attraction, but not fed by nourishment taken into an 
organized structure. Their curious crystallization bears 
some resemblance to organization, but performs none 
of its functions, nor is any thing like a vital principle to 
be found in this department of Nature. 

If it be asked what is this vital principle, so essential 
to animals and vegetables, but of which fossils are desti- 
tute, we must own our complete ignorance. We know 
it, as we know its Omnipotent Author, by its effects. 

Perhaps in the fossil kingdom heat may be equivalent 
to a vital principle ; but heat is not the vital principle 
of organized bodies, though probably a consequence of 
that principle. 

Living bodies of animals and plants produce heat ; 
and this phenomenon has not, I think, been entirely 
explained on any chemical principles, though in fossils 
the production of heat is in most cases tolerably well 
accounted for. In animals it seems to have ne closest 
possible connexion with the vital energy. But the ef- 
fects of this vital energy are still more stupendous in the 
operations constantly going on in every organized body, 
from our own elaborate frame to the humblest moss or 
fungus. Those different fluids, so fine and transparent, 
separated from each other by membranes as fine, which 
compose the eye, all retain their proper situations 



(though each fluid individually is perpetually removed 
and renewed) for sixty, eighty, or a hundred years, or 
more, while life remains. So do the infinitely small 
vessels of an almost invisible insect, the- fine and pellu- 
cid tubes of a plant, all hold their destined fluids, con- 
veying or changing them according to fixed laws, but 
never permitting them to run into confusion, so long as 
the vital principle animates their various forms. But 
no sooner does death happen, than, without any alteration 
of structure, any apparent change in their material con- 
figuration, all is reversed. The eye loses its form and 
brightness ; its membranes let go their contents, which 
mix in confusion, and thenceforth yield to the laws of 
chemistry alone. Just so it happens, sooner or later, to 
the other parts of the animal as well as vegetable frame. 
Chemical changes, putrefaction and destruction, imme- 
diately follow the total privation of life, the importance 
of which becomes instantly evident when it is no more. 
I humbly conceive therefore, that if the human under- 
standing can in any case flatter itself with obtaining, in 
the natural world, a glimpse of the immediate agency of 
the Deity, it is in the contemplation of this vital principle, 
which seems independent of material organization, and 
an impulse of his own divine energy. 

[ 27 ] 



Natural History properly signifies that study by which 
we learn to distinguish from one another the natural 
bodies, whether Animal, Vegetable or Mineral, around 
us ; to discover as much as possible their nature and 
properties, and especially their natural dependence on 
each other in the general scale of beings. In a more 
extensive sense it may be said to teach their secondary 
properties, or the various uses to which they have been, 
or may be, converted, in the service of mankind or of 
other animals ; inasmuch as an acquaintance with their 
natural qualities is our only sure guide to a knowledge 
of their artificial uses. But as this definition would in- 
clude many arts and sciences, each of them sufficient to 
occupy any common mind, as Agriculture, Dietetics, 
Medicine, and many others, it is sufficient for a philo- 
sophical naturalist to be acquainted with the general 
principles upon which such arts and sciences are founded. 

That part of Natural History which concerns plants is 
called Botany, from IW>», the Greek word for a herb 
or grass. It may be divided into three branches ; 1st, 
The physiology of plants, or a knowledge of the struc- 
ture and functions of their different parts ; 2dly, The 
systematical arrangement and denomination of their 
several kinds ; and 3dly, Their ceconomical or medical 
properties. All these objects should be kept in view 
by an intelligent botanist. The two first are of essential 


service to each other, and the last is only to be pursued, 
with any certainty, by such as are versed in the other 
two. The present publication is intended to explain 
the fundamental principles of them all, with as much 
practical illustration as may be necessary for those who 
wish to become well acquainted with this delightful sci- 
ence. Botany has one advantage over many other use- 
ful and necessary studies, that even its first beginnings 
are pleasing and profitable, though pursued to ever so 
small an extent ; the objects with which it is conversant 
are in themselves charming, and they become doubly so 
to those who contemplate them with the additional sense, 
as it were, which science gives ; the pursuit of these 
objects is an exercise no less healthful to the body, than 
the observation of their laws and characters is to the 

In studying the functions of the Vegetable frame, we 
must constantly remember that it is not merely a collec- 
tion of tubes or vessels holding different fluids, but that 
it is endowed with life, and consequently able not only 
to imbibe particular fluids, but to alter their nature ac- 
cording to certain laws, that is, to form peculiar secre- 
tions. This is the exclusive property of a living being. 
Animals secrete milk and fat from food which has no 
resemblance to those substances ; so Vegetables secrete 
gum, sugar, and various resinous substances from the 
uniform juices of the earth, or perhaps from mere water 
and air. The most different and discordant fluids, sepa- 
rated only by the finest film or membrane, are, as we 
have already observed, kept perfectly distinct, while life 
remains ; but no sooner does the vital principle depart, 


than secretion, as well as the due preservation of what 
has been secreted, are both at an end, and the principle 
of dissolution reigns absolute. 

Before we can examine the physiology of vegetables, 
it is necessary to acquire some idea of their structure. 

Much light has been thrown upon the general texture 
of Vegetables by the microscopic figures of Grew, Mul- 
pighi and others, repeated by Dr. Thornton in his Illus- 
tration of the Linnasan System, but more especially by 
the recent observations and highly magnified dissections 
of M. Mirbel. See his Table of Vegetable Anatomy in 
the work already mentioned. From preceding writers 
we had learned the general tubular or vascular structure 
of the vegetable body, and the existence of some peculiar 
spirally-coated vessels in many plants. On these slen- 
der foundations physiologists have, at their pleasure, 
constructed various theories, relative to the motion of 
the sap, respiration and other functions, presumed to be 
analogous to those of animals. The anatomical observa- 
tions of Mirbel go further than those of Grew, &c. and it 
is necessary to give a short account of his discoveries. 

He finds, by the help of the highest magnifying pow- 
ers, that the vegetable body is a continued mass of tubes 
and cells ; the former extended indefinitely, the latter 
frequently and regularly interrupted by transverse par- 
titions. These partitions being ranged alternately in the 
corresponding cells, and each cell increasing somewhat 
in diameter after its first formation, except where re- 
strained by the transverse partitions, seems to account 


for their hexagonal figure.* See Tab. \. f. a. i he 
membranous sides of all these cells and tubes are very 
thin, more or less transparent, often porous, variously 
perforated or torn. Of the tubes, some are without any 
lateral perforations, / b, at least for a considerable ex- 
tent ; others pierced with holes ranged in a close spiral 
line, / c ; in others several of these holes run together, 
as it were, into interrupted spiral clefts, f. d ; and in 
some those clefts are continued, so that the whole tube, 
more or less, is cut into a spiral line, f. e ; which, in 
some young branches and tender leaves, will unroll to a 
great extent, when they are gently torn asunder. The 
cellular texture especially is extended to every part of 
the vegetable body, even into the thin skin, called the 
cuticle, which covers every external part, and into the 
fine hairs or down which, in some instances, clothe the 
cuticle itself. 

Before we offer any thing upon the supposed func- 
tions of these different organs, we shall take a general 
vievv of the Vegetable body, beginning at the external 
part and proceeding inwards. 

* In microscopic figures they are generally drawn like circles 
intersecting each other. 

[ 31 ] 



Every part of a living plant is covered with a skin or 
membrane called the cuticle, which same denomination 
has been given by anatomists to the scarf skin that cov- 
ers the animal body, protecting it from the injuries of 
the air, and allowing of due absorption and perspiration 
through its pores. 

There is the most striking analogy between the animal 
and the vegetable cuticle. In the former, it varies in 
thickness from the exquisitely delicate film which covers 
the eye, to the hard skin of the hand or foot, or the far 
coarser covering of a Tortoise or Rhinoceros ; in the 
latter it is equally delicate on the parts of a flower, and 
scarcely less hard on the leaves of the Pearly Aloe, or 
coarse on the trunk of a Plane tree. In the numerous 
layers of this membrane continually peeling off from 
the Birch, we see a resemblance to the scales which 
separate from the shell of a Tortoise. By maceration, 
boiling, or putrefaction, this part is separable from the 
plant as well as from the animal, being, if not absolutely 
incorruptible, much less prone to decomposition than 
the parts it covers.(2) The vital principle, as far as we 
can judge, seems to be extinct in it. 

(2) [The durability of the epidermis may every year be ob- 
served in our woods, where cylinders of birch bark are found in 
a state of perfect preservation, long after the wood within them 
has decayed.] 


The cuticle admits of the passage of fluids from within 
as well as from without, but in a due and definite pro- 
portion in every plant : consequently it must be porous ; 
and the microscope shows, what reason would teach us 
to expect, that its pores are different in different kinds of 
plants. In very succulent plants, as Aloes, a leaf of 
which being cut off will lie for many weeks in the sun 
without drying entirely, and yet when partly dry will 
become plump again in a few hours if plunged into 
water, the cuticle must be very curiously construct- 
ed, so as to admit of ready absorption, and very tardy 
perspiration. Such plants are accordingly designed to 
inhabit hot sandy countries, where they are long expos- 
ed to a burning sun, with very rare supplies of rain. 

This part allows also of the passage of air, as is prov- 
ed by experiments on the functions of leaves. Light 
probably acts through it, as the cuticle is a colourless 
membrane. We know the effects of light to be very 
important in the vegetable oeconomy. 

But though this fine membrane admits extraneous 
substances, so as to have their due effect upon the veg- 
etable constitution, according to fixed laws, it no less 
powerfully excludes all that would be injurious to the 
plant, either in kind or proportion. Against heat or 
cold it proves, in general, but a' feeble defence ; but 
when clothed with hair or wool, it becomes a very 
powerful one. Against the undue action of the atmos- 
phere it is so important a guard, that, when any tender 
growing part is deprived of it, the greatest mischiefs 
ensue. It forms in the Vegetable^ as well as the Am- 


mal, a fine but essential barrier between life and de- 

Some have imagined that the cuticle gave form to the 
vegetable body, because it sometimes being over tight 
causes contractions on the stem of a tree, as in the 
plum or cherry, and because it is found to be cracked 
wherever an unnatural excrescence is produced on the 
bark. No doubt the cuticle is formed so as to accom- 
modate itself only to the natural growth of the plant, 
not to any monstrosities, and those lumps cause it to 
burst ; just as it happens to ripe fruits in very wet sea- 
sons. Their cuticle is constructed suitably to their 
usual size or plumpness, but not to any immoderate 
increase from too great absorption of wet. If the cuti- 
cle be removed from any part, no swelling follows, as 
it would if this membrane only kept the tree in shape. 

The extension of the cuticle is astonishing, if we 
consider that it is formed, as Grew well observes, on 
the tenderest embryo, and only extended during the 
growth of the plant, and that it appears not to have any 
connexion with the vascular or living part of the vege- 
table body. But though so accommodating in those 
parts where it is wanted, on the old trunks of most trees 
it cracks in every direction, and in many is entirely 
obliterated, the old dead layers of their bark performing 
all the requisite offices of a cuticle. 

M. Mirbel indeed, though he admits the importance 
of this part in the several ways above mentioned, con- 
tends that it is not a distinct organ like the cuticle of 
animals, but merely formed of the cellular parts of the 
plant dilated and multiplied, and changed by their new 


situation. This is very true ; but upon the same prin 
ciple the human cuticle can scarcely be called a distinct 
organ. Its texture is continually scaling off externally, 
and it is supplied with new layers from within. Just so 
does the cuticle of the Birch peel off in scales, separa- 
ble, almost without end, into smaller ones. 

Examples of different kinds of cuticle may be seen 
in the following plants. 

On the Currant tree it is smooth, and scales off in 
large entire flakes, both from the young branches and 
old stem. The same may be observed in the Elder. 

The fruit of the Peach and the leaf of the Mullein 
have a cuticle covered with dense and rather harsh wool, 
such as is found on many Mexican plants, and on more 
Cretan ones. The latter we know grow in open places 
under a burning sun. 

The leaf of the White Willow is clothed with a fine 
silky or satiny cuticle. 

The cuticle of the Betony, and of many other plants, 
is extended into rigid hairs or bristles, which in the 
Nettle are perforated and contain a venomous fluid. 

On the fruit of the Plum, and on many leaves, we 
find a blueish dry powder covering the cuticle, which 
is a resinous exudation, and it is difficult to wet the 
surface of these plants. Rain trickles over them in 
large drops. 

In the Cork tree, the common Maple, and even the 
Dutch Elm, the cuticle is covered with a fungous sub- 
stance most extraordinary in its nature, though familiar 
to us as cork. 


In grasses and some other plants the ingenious Mr. 
Davy has found a flinty substance in the cuticle. 

What seems to be the cuticle on the trunk of the 
Plane, the Fir, and a kind of Willow called Salixtrian- 
dra, rather consists of scales of bark, which having per- 
fot med their functions and become dead matter, are re- 
jected by the increasing bark beneath them ;(3) and this 
accords with M. Mirbel's idea of the cuticle. The old 
layers of bark in the Chestnut, Oak, and many other 
trees, though not cast off, are of the same nature ; and 
these under the microscope exhibit the same cellular 
texture as the real cuticle. 

(3) [Hence the while appearance exhibited at certain seasons 
of the year by the trunk and branches of the Button wood tree 
(Platanus occidentalis.)") 

[ 36 ] 



Immediately under the Cuticle we find a succulent 
cellular substance, for the most part of a green colour, 
at least in the leaves and branches, which is called by 
Du Hamel the Enveloppe cellulaire, and by Mirbel the 
Tissu herbace. This is in general the seat of colour, 
and in that respect analogous to the rete mucosum> or 
pulpy substance situated under the human cuticle, 
which is Dale in the European, and black in the Negro ; 
but we must carry the analogy no further, for these two 
parts perform no functions in common. Du Hamel 
supposed this pulp to form the cuticle ; but this is im- 
probable, as his experiments show, when that membrane 
is removed, that the Cellular Integument exfoliates, at 
least in trees, or is thrown off in consequence of the 
injury it has sustained, and a new cuticle, covering a 
new layer of the same succulent matter, is formed under 
the old one. Annual stems or branches have not the 
same power, any more than leaves. 

But little attention has been paid to this organ till 
lately, though it is very universal, even, as Mirbel ob- 
serves, in Mosses and Ferns, The same writer remarks 
that " leaves consist almost entirely of a plate of this 
" substance, covered on each side by the cuticle. The 
" stems and branches of both annual and perennial plants 
" are invested with it ; but in woody parts it is dried 
(l up and reproduced continually, such parts only having 


u that reproductive power. The old layers remain, are 
" pushed outward by the new ones, and form at length 
" the rugged dry dead covering of the old trunks of 
" trees." 

When we come to consider the curious functions of 
leaves, we shall find this part to be of the very first im- 
portance. In it the principal changes operated upon 
the juices of plants by light and air, and the consequent 
elaboration of all their peculiar secretions, take place. 

C 36 ] 



Under the Cellular Integument we find the Bark, con- 
sisting of but one layer in plants or branches only one 
year old, and often not distinguishable from the wood. 
In the older branches and trunks of trees, it consists of 
as many layers as they are years old, the innermost be- 
ing called the liber ; and it is in this layer only that the 
essential vital functions arc carried on for the time being, 
after which it is pushed outwards with the Cellular In- 
tegument, and becomes like that a lifeless crust. These 
older layers, however, are for some time reservoirs of 
the peculiar secreted juices of the plant, which perhaps 
they may help to perfect. 

In some roots the bark, though only of annual dura- 
tion, is very thick ; as in the Carrot, the red part of 
which is all bark. In the Parsnep, though not distinctly 
coloured^ it is no less evident. In the Turnip it is 
much thinner, though equally distinct from the wood or 
body of the root. 

The Bark contains a great number of woody fibres, 
running for the most part longitudinally, which give it 
tenacity, and in which it differs very essentially from the 
parts already described. These woody fibres when 
separated by maceration exhibit in general a kind of 
net-work, and in many instances great regularity and 
beauty of structure. In a family of plants to which 
the Mezereon belongs, the fibres of the inner bark have 
a beautiful white shining appearance like silk. In one of 
this tribe, a native of Jamaica, and called Luce Bark> 


that part mav be separated by lateral extension into an 
elegant kind of lace. 

In the old bark of the Fir tribe, on the contrary, noth- 
ing of this kind is discernible. The bark of the Cluster 
Pine, Pinus Pinaster, some inches in thickness, is sepa- 
rable into thin porous layers, each of them the production 
of one season, which do really seem to be, according to 
M. Mirbel's theory, hardened and dried Cellular Integ- 
ument ; but they are rather perhaps that vascular part of 
the Bark which once contained the secreted fluid, or 
turpentine, so abundant in this tree. 

The bark of Oak trees twenty or thirty years old, if 
cut and long exposed to the weather, separates into 
many fine thin layers, of a similar, though less delicate, 
texture to the Lace Bark of Jamaica. All these layers, 
in a living state, are closely connected with each other by 
the cellular texture which pervades the vegetable body in 
general, as well as by transverse vessels necessary for the 
performance of several functions hereafter to be mentioned. 

In the bark the peculiar virtues or qualities of partic- 
ular plants chiefly reside, and more especially in several 
of its internal layers nearest to the wood. Here we find 
in appropriate vessels the resin of the Fir and Juniper, 
the astringent principle of the O ik and Willow, on 
which their tanning property depends, the fine and valu- 
able bitter of the Peruvian Bark, and the exquisitely ar- 
omatic oil of the Cinnamon. The same secretions do 
indeed, more or less, pervade the wood and other parts 
of these plants, but usually in a less concentrated form. 

When a portion of the bark of a tree is removed, the 
remainder has a power of extending itself laterally, 
though very gradually, till the wound is closed. This 


is accomplished by each new layer, added to the bark 
internally, spreading a little beyond the edge of the pre- 
ceding layer. The operation of closing the wound goes 
on the more slowly, as the wood underneath, from ex- 
posure to the air, has become dead, and frequently rot- 
ten, proving an incumbrance, which though the living 
principle cannot in this instance free itself from, it has 
no power of turning to any good account. If, however, 
this dead wood be carefully removed, and the wound 
protected from the injuries of the atmosphere, the new 
bark is found to spread much more rapidly ; and as ev- 
ery new layer of bark forms, as will be proved in the 
next chapter, a new layer of wood, the whole cavity, 
whatever it may be, is in process of time filled up. 

This operation of Nature was turned to great advan- 
tage by the late Mr. Forsyth of Kensington gardens, 
the history of whose experiments is before the public. 
Under his management many timber trees, become en- 
tirely hollow, were filled with new wood, and made to 
produce fresh and vigorous branches ; and pear-trees 
planted in the time of King William, and become so de- 
cayed and knotty as to bear no fruit worth gathering, 
were by gradual paring away of the old wood and bark, 
and the application of a composition judiciously con- 
trived to stick close and keep out air and wet, restored 
to such health and strength as to cover the garden wails 
with new branches bearing a profusion of fine fruit. 
These experiments have passed under my own actual 
observation, and I am happy to bear testimony to the 
merits of a real lover of useful science, and one of the 
most honest and disinterested men I ever knew. 

t 41 1 



When the bark is removed, we come to the substance 
of the wood, which makes the principal bulk of the 
trunk or branch of a tree or shrub. When cut across, 
it is found to consist of numerous concentric layers, 
very distinct in the Fir, and other European trees in 
general. Each of these circular layers is externally 
most hard and solid. They differ however among 
themselves in this respect, as well as in their breadth on 
the whole. It often happens that all the layers are 
broadest towards one side of the tree, so that their com- 
mon centre is thrown very much out of the actual cen 
tre of the trunk. 

The wood owes its strength and tenacity to innumer- 
able woody fibres, and consists of various vessels run- 
ning for the most part longitudinally ; some having a 
spiral coat, others not. Of these vessels, some in their 
youngest state convey the sap from the root to the ex- 
tremities of the branches and leaves ; others contain the 
various peculiar or secreted juices ; others perhaps con- 
tain air. The whole are joined together by the cellular 
substance already described. 

Linnzeus and most writers believe that one of the 
abovementioned circular layers of wood is formed every 
year, the hard external part being caused by the cold of 
winter ; consequently, that the exact age of a sound 
tree when felled may be known by counting these rings, 



It has even been asserted that the date of peculiarly 
severe winters may be found in the harder more con- 
densed rings formed at those periods ; and moreover, 
that the north side of a tree may always be know by the 
narrowness and density of the rings on that side. ( All 
this is controverted by Mirbel, chiefly on the authority 
of Du Hamel, who nevertheless scarcely says enough 
to invalidate the ancient opinion on the whole. It is 
very true that there may be occasional interruptions in 
the formation of the wood from cold or fickle seasons, 
and that in some trees the thin intermediate layers, 
hardly discernible in general, which unite to form the 
principal or annual ones, may, from such fluctuation of 
seasons, become more distinct than is natural to them. 
Such intermediate layers are even found more numerous 
in some trees of the same species and age than in 
others. But as there is always a most material differ- 
ence between summer and winter, so I believe will there 
always be a clear distinction between the annual rings 
of such trees as show them at all. Trees of hot coun- 
tries indeed, as Mahogany, and evergreens in general, 
have them but indistinctly marked ; yet even in these 
they are to be seen. With regard to their greater com- 
pactness on the north side of a tree, Du Hamel justly 
explodes this idea. In fact, there is most wood formed, 
and consequently these circles are broadest, on the side 
most favorable to vegetation, and where there are most 
branches and leaves. This in a solitary tree is generally 
towards the south ; but it is easy to perceive the occa- 
sional variations which must arise from local exposure,, 
soil, moisture, and other causes. 


In some trees, a number of the outermost rings differ 
greatly in colour from the innermost, and are called by 
workmen the sap. In the Laburnum the former are 
yellow, the latter brown. In the Oak and many other 
trees a similar difference, though less striking, is percep- 
tible, and in most the external rini^s are much less firm, 
compact, and durable than the rest, retaining more vital 
principle, and more of the peculiar juices of the plant. 
Such rings are all comprehended by Du Hamel under 
the name of Aubier, alburnum ; and he rightly observes 
that this difference often extends to a greater number of 
rings on one side of a tree than on another. It seems 
that the more vigour there is in a tree, or side of a tree, 
the sooner is its alburnum made perfect wood. By this 
term, however, is properly understood only the layer of 
new unhardened wood of the present year. When the 
word alburnum is used in the following pages, it applies 
to this part only. 

Physiologists have long differed and do still differ 
about the origin of the wood. Malpighi and Grew 
thought it was formed by the bark, and the best obser- 
vations have confirmed their opinion. Hales supposed 
the wood added a new layer to itself externally every 
year. Linnaeus had a peculiar notion, that a new layer 
of wood was secreted annually from the pith, and added 
internally to the former ones. Truth obliges us to con- 
fess that the latter theory is most devoid of any kind of 
proof or probability. 

Du Hamel, by many experiments, proved the wood 
to be secreted or deposited from the innermost part of 
the bark or liber. He introduced plates of tinfoil under 


the barks of growing trees, carefully binding up their 
wounds, and, after some years, on cutting them across, 
he found the layers of new wood on the outside of the 
tin. His original specimens I have examined in the 
public museum at Paris. 

Dr. Hope, the late worthy Professor of Botany at 
Edinburgh, instituted an experiment, if possible more 
decisive, upon a branch of Willow three or four years 
old. The bark was carefully cut through longitudinally 
on one side for the length of several inches, so that it 
might be slipped aside from the wood in the form of a 
hollow cvlinder, the two ends beins: undisturbed. The 
edges of the bark were then united as carefully as possi- 
ble, the wood covered from the air, and the whole bound 
up to secure it from external injury. After a few years, 
the branch was cut through transversely. * The cylinder 
of bark was found lined with layers of new wood, whose 
number added to those in the wood from which it had 
been stripped, made up the number of rings in the 
branch above and below the experiment. For an ac- 
count of this experiment I am indebted to Dr. Thomas 
Hope, the present Chemical Professor at Edinburgh. 

Du Hamel engrafted a portion of the bark of a Peach- 
tree upon a Plum. After some time he found a layer 
of new wood under the engrafted bark, white like that 
of the Peach, and evidently different from the red wood 
of the Plum. Moreover, in this and other experiments 
made with the same intention, he found the layers of 
new wood always connected with the bark, and not 
united to the old wood. See his Physique des Arbrcs, 
vol 2. 29, &c. It deserves also to be mentioned, that 
by performing this experiment of engrafting a portion of 


bark at different periods through the spring and sum- 
mer, the same accurate observer found a great difference 
in the thickness of the layer of new wood produced 
under it, which was always less in proportion as the 
operation was performed later in the season. 

That the bark or liber produces wood seems therefore 
proved beyond dispute, but some experiments persuad- 
ed Du Hamel that in certain circumstances the wood 
was capable of producing a new bark. This never hap- 
pened in any case but when the whole trunk of a tree 
was stripped of its bark. A Cherry-tree treated in this 
manner exuded from the whole surface of its wood in 
little points a gelatinous matter, which gradually ex- 
tended over the whole and became a new bark, under 
which a layer of new wood was speedily formed. Hence 
Mirbel concludes, vol. 1. 176, that the alburnum and 
the wood are really the origin of the new layers of wood 
by producing first this gelatinous substance, or matter 
of organization, which he and Du Hamel call cambium, 
and which Mirbel supposes to produce the liber or 
young bark, and at the same time, by a peculiar arrange- 
ment of the vascular parts, the alburnum or new wood. 
His opinion is strengthened by the observation of a 
tribe of plants to be explained hereafter, Palms, Grasses, 
&c. in which there is no real bark, and in which he 
finds that the woody fibres do actually produce the cam- 
bium. Dr. Hope's experiment will scarcely invalidate 
this opinion, because it may be said the cambium had 
already in that case formed the liber. 

This matter will be better understood when we come 
to speak of Mr. Knight's experiments on the course of 
the sap. 

[ 46 j 


of the Medulla cm pith. 

The centre or heart of the vegetable body, within the 
wood, contains the Medulla or Pith. This, in parts 
most endued with life, as roots, and young growing 
stems or branches, is a tolerably firm juicy substance, 
of an uniform texture, and commonly a pale green or 
yellowish colour. Such is its appearance in the young 
shoots of Elder in the spring ; but in the very same 
branches, fully grown, the pith becomes dry, snow- 
white, highly cellular, and extremely light, capable of 
bei j :g compressed to almost nothing. So it appears 
likewise in the common Red or White Currant, and 
numerous other plants. In many annual stems the pith, 
abundant and very juicy while they are growing, be- 
comes little more than a web, lining the hollow of the 
complete stem, as in some Thistles. Many grasses and 
umbelliferous plants, as Conium maculatum or Hemlock, 
have always hollow stems, lined only with a thin smooth 
coating of pith, exquisitely delicate and brilliant in its 

Concerning the nature and functions of this part va- 
rious opinions have been held. 

Du Hamel considered it as merely aellular substance, 
connected with what is diffused through the whole 
plant, combining its various parts, but not performing 
any remarkable office in the vegetable (Economy. 

Linnaeus, on the contrary, thought it the seat of life 
and source of vegetation ; that its vigour was the mair> 


cause of the propulsion of the branches, and that the 
seeds were more especially formed from it. This lat- 
ter hypothesis is not better founded than his idea, already 
mentioned, of the pith adding new layers internally to 
the wood. In fact the pith is soon obliterated in the 
trunks of many trees, which nevertheless keep increas- 
ing, for a long series of years, by layers of wood added 
every year from the bark, even after the heart of the tree 
is become hollow from decay. 

Some considerations have led me to hold a medium 
opinion between these two extremes. There is, in cer- 
tain respects, an analogy between the medulla of plants 
and the nervous system of animals. It is no less assid- 
uously protected than the spinal marrow or principal 
nerve. It is branched off and diffused through the 
plant, as nerves are through the animal. Hence it is 
not absurd to presume that it may, in like manner, give 
life and vigour to the whole, though by no means, any 
more than nerves, the organ or source of nourishment. 
It is certainly most vigorous and abundant in young and 
growing branches, and must be supposed to be subser- 
vient, in some way or other, to their increase. Mr. 
Lindsay of Jamaica, in a paper read long ago to the 
Royal Society, but not published, thought he demon- 
strated the medulla in the leaf-stalk of the Mimosa pu- 
dica, or Sensitive Plant, to' be the seat of irritability, nor 
can I see any thing to invalidate this opinion. 

Mr. Knight, in the Philosophical Transactions for 
180., p. 548, supposes the medulla may be a reservoir 
of moisture, to supply the leaves whenever an excess of 
perspiration renders such assistance necessary, and he 


has actually traced a direct communication by vessels 
between it and the leaf. " Plants," says that ingenious 
writer, " seem to require some such reservoir ; for their 
young leaves are excessively tender, and they perspire 
much, and cannot, like animals, fly to the shade and the 

This idea of Mr. Knight's may derive considerable 
support from the consideration of bulbous- rooted grass- 
es. The Common Catstail, Phleum firatense, Engl. 
Bot. t. 1076, when growing in pastures that arc uni- 
formly moist, has a fibrous root, but in dry situations, 
or such as are only occasionally wet, it acquires a bul- 
bous one, whose inner substance is moist and fleshy, 
like the pith of young branches of trees. This is evi- 
dently a provision of Nature to guard the plant against 
too sudden a privation of moisture from the soil. 

But, on the other hand, all the moisture in the me- 
dulla of a whole branch is, in some cases, too little to 
supply one hour's perspiration of a single leaf. Neither 
can I find that the moisture of the medulla varies, let 
the leaves be ever so flaccid. I cannot but incline 
therefore to the opinion that the medulla is rather a re- 
servoir of vital energy, even in these bulbous grasses. 

Mr. Knight has shown that the part in question may 
be removed without any great injury to a branch, or at 
least without immediate injury, but I have had no op- 
portunity of making any experiments on this particular 

[ 49 ] 



Much contrariety of opinion has existed among phys- 
iologists concerning the vascular system of plants, and 
the nature of the propulsion of the sap through their 
stems and branches. Indeed it is a subject upon which, 
till lately, very erroneous ideas have prevailed. 

That the whole vegetable body is an assemblage of 
tubes and vessels is evident to the most careless observ- 
er ; and those who are conversant with the microscope, 
and books relating to it, have frequent opportunities of 
observing how curiously these vessels are arranged, and 
how different species of plants, especially trees, differ 
from each other in the structure and disposition of them. 
Such observations, however, if pursued no further, lead 
but a little way towards a knowledge of the wonderful 
physiology of vegetables. 

In our 2d chapter, mention is made of the general 
cellular and vascular texture of plants ; we must now 
be a little more particular in our inquiries. 

That plants contain various substances, as sugar, 
gum, acids, odoriferous fluids and others, to which their 
various flavours and qualities are owing, is familiar to 
every one ; and a little reflection will satisfy us that such 
substances must each be lodged in proper cells and ves- 
sels to be kept distinct from each other. They are ex- 
tracted, or secreted, from the common juice of the plant, 
and called its peculiar or secreted fluids. Various ex- 


pcrimcnts and observations, to be hereafter enlarged up- 
on, prove also that air exists in the vegetable body, and 
must likewise be contained in appropriate vessels. Be- 
sides these, we know that plants are nourished and invi- 
gorated by water, which they readily absorb, and which 
is quickly conveyed through their stalks and leaves, no 
doubt by tubes or vessels on purpose. Finally, it is ob- 
servable that all plants, as far as any experiment has 
been made, contain a common fluid, which at certain 
seasons of the year is to be obtained in great quantity, 
as from vine branches by wounding them in the spring 
before the leaves appear, and this is properly called the 
sap. It is really the blood of the plant, by which its 
whole body is nourished, and from which the peculiar 
secretions are made. 

The great difficulty has been to ascertain the vessels 
in which the sap runs. Two of the most distinguished 
inquirers into the subject, Malpighi and Grew, believed 
the woody fibres, which make so large a part of the 
vegetable body, and give it consistence and strength, to 
be the sap-vessels, analogous to the blood-vessels of 
animals, and their opinion was adopted by Du Hamel. 
In support of this theory it was justly observed that these 
fibres are very numerous and strong, running longitudi- 
nally, often situated with great uniformity (an argument 
for their great importance,) and found in all parts of a 
plant, although in some they are so delicate as to be 
scarcely discernible. But philosophers sought in vain 
for anv perforation, any thing like a tubular structure, 
in the woody fibres to countenance this hypothesis, for 
they are divisible almost without end, like the muscular 


fibre. This difficulty was overlooked, because of die 
necessity of believing the existence of sap- vessels some- 
where ; for it is evident that the nutrimental fluids of a 
plant must be carried with force towards certain parts 
and in certain directions, and that this can be accom- 
plished by regular vessels only, not, as Tournefort sup- 
posed, by capillary attraction through a simple spongy 
or cottony substance. 

I received the first hint of what I now believe to be 
the true sap-vessels from the 2d section of Dr. Darwin's 
Phytologia, where it is suggested that what have been 
taken for air-vessels are really absorbents destined to 
nourish the plant, or, in other words, sap-vessels. The 
same idea has been adopted, confirmed by experiments, 
and carried to much greater perfection by Mr. Knight, 
whose papers in the Philosophical Transactions for 1801, 
1804 and 1805 throw the most brilliant light upon it, 
and, I think, established no less than an entirely new 
theory of vegetation, by which the real use and func- 
tions of the principal organs of plants are now for the 
first time satisfactorily explained. 

In a young branch of a tree or shrub, or in the stem 
of an herbaceous plant, are found, ranged round the 
centre or pith, a number of longitudinal tubes or vessels, 
of a much more firm texture than the adjacent parts, 
and when examined minutely, these vessels often appear 
to be constructed with a spiral coat. This may be seen 
in the young twigs and leaf stalks of Elder, Syringa, 
and many other shrubs, as well as in numerous herba- 
ceous plants, as the Peony, and more especially many 
of the Lily tribe. If a branch ^or stalk of any of these 


plants be partly cut through or gently broken, and its 
divided portions slowly drawn asunder, the spiral coats 
of their vessels will unroll, exhibiting a curious specta- 
cle even to the naked eye. In other cases, though the 
spiral structure exists, its convolutions are scarcely se- 
parable at all, or so indeterminate as to be only marked 
by an interrupted line of perforations or slits, as shown 
by M. Mirbel. Indeed the very same branches which 
exhibit these spiral vessels when young, show no signs 
of them at a more advanced period of growth, when 
their parts are become more woody, firm, and rigid. 
No such spiral-coated vessels have been detected in the 
bark at any period of its growth. 

Malpighi asserts that these vessels are always found 
to contain air only, no other fluid ; while Grew reports 
that he sometimes met with a quantity of moisture in 
them. Both judged them to be air-vessels, or, as it 
were, the lungs of plants, communicating, as these phi- 
losophers presumed, with certain vessels of the leaves 
and flowers, of an oval or globular form, but destitute 
of a spiral coat. These latter do really contain air, but 
it rather appears from experiment that they have no di- 
rect communication with the former. Thus the tubes 
in question have always been called air-vessels, till Dar- 
win suggested their real nature and use.* He is per- 
haps too decisive when he asserts that none of them are 
air-vessels because they exist in the root, which is not 
exposed to the atmosphere. We know that air acts 
upon the plant under ground, because seeds will not 

* Du Hamel, indeed, once suspected that they contained 
" highly rarefied sap," but did not pursue the idea. 


vegetate in earth under the exhausted receiver of an air- 
pump. Phil. Trans. No. 23. I do not however mean 
to contend that any of these spiral vessels are air-vessels, 
nor do I see reason to believe that plants have any sys- 
tem of longitudinal air-vessels at all, though they must 
be presumed to abound in such as are transverse or hor- 

Dr. Darwin and Mr. Knight have, by the most sim- 
ple and satisfactory experiment, proved these spiral 
vessels to be the channel through which the sap is con- 
veyed. The former placed leafy twigs of a common 
Fig-tree about an inch deep in a decoction of madder, 
and others in one of logwood. After some hours, on 
cutting the branches across, the coloured liquors were 
found to have ascended into each branch by these vessels, 
which exhibited a circle of red dots round the pith, sur- 
rounded by an external circle of vessels containing the 
white milky juice, or secreted fluid, so remarkable in 
the fig-tree. Mr. Knight, in a similar manner, inserted 
the lower ends of some cuttings of the Apple-tree and 
Horsc-chesnut into an infusion of the skins of a verv 
black grape in water, an excellent liquor for the pur- 
pose. The result was similar. But Mr. Knight pur- 
sued his observations much further than Dr. Darwin 
had done ; for he traced the coloured liquid even into 
the leaves, " but it had neither coloured the bark nor 
the sap between it and the wood ; and the medulla was 
not affected, or at most was very slightly tinged at its 
edges." Phil. Trans, for 1801, p. 535. 

The result of all Mr. Knight's experiments and re- 
marks seems to be, that the fluids destined to nourish a 


plant, being absorbed by the root and become sap, are 
carried up info the leaves by these vessels, called b) him 
central vessels, from their situation near the pith. A 
particular set of them, appropriated to each leaf, branches 
off, a [c\v inches below the leaf to which they belong, 
from the main channels that pass along the alburnum, 
and extend from the fibres of the root to the extremity 
of each annual shoot of the plant. As they approach the 
leaf to which they are destined, the central vessels be- 
come more numerous, or subdivided. " To these ves- 
sels," says Mr. Knight, " the spiral tubes are every 
where appendages."^. 336. By this expression, and 
by a passage in the following page,* 337, this writer 
might seem to consider the spiral line, which forms the 
coars of these vessels, as itself a pervious tube, or else 
that he was speaking of other tubes with a spiral coat, 
companions of the sap-vessels ; but the plate which ac- 
companies his dissertation, and the perspicuous mode in 
which he treats the subject throughout, prevent our 
mistaking him on the last point. In order to conceive 
how the sap can be so powerfully conveyed as it is 
through the vessels in which it flows, from the root of a 
tall tree to its highest branches, we must take into con 
siderat,on the action of heat. We all know that this is 
necessary to the growth and health of plants ; and that it 
reqmres to be nicely adjusted in degree, in order to suit 

• - The whole of the fluid, which passes from the wood to 


the constitutions of different tribes of plants destined for 
different parts of the globe. It cannot but act as a stim- 
ulus to the living principle, and is one of the most pow- 
erful agents of Nature upon the vegetable as well as 
animal constitution. Besides this, however, various 
mechanical causes may be supposed to have their effect ; 
as the frequently spiral or screw-like form of the vessels, 
in some of which, when separated from the plant, Mal- 
pighi tells us he once saw a very beautiful undulating 
motion that appeared spontaneous. This indeed has 
not been seen by any other person, nor can it be sup- 
posed that parts so delicate can, in general, be removed 
from their natural situation, without the destruction of 
that fine irritability on which such a motion must de- 
pend. We may also take into consideration the agitation 
of the vegetable body by winds, which is known by 
experience to be so wholesome to it,* and must serve 
powerfully to propel the fluids of lofty trees ; the pas- 
sage, and evolution perhaps, of air in other parts or ves- 
sels surrounding and compressing these ; and lastly the 
action, so ingeniously supposed by Mr. Knight, of those 
thin shining plates called the silver grain, visible in oak 
wood, which passing upon the sap-vessels, and being 
apparently susceptible of quick changes from variations 
in heat or other causes, may have a powerful effect. 
" Their restless temper," says Mr. Knight, " after the 
tree has ceased to live, inclines me to believe that they 
are not made to be idle whilst it continues alive." Phil. 

* See Mr. Knight's experiments in confirmation of this in the 
Phil. Trans, for 1803, fi. 208. 


Trans, for 1801,/;. 344. These plates are presumed 
by the author just quoted to be peculiarly useful in as- 
sisting the ascent of the sap through the alburnum of 
the trunk or chief branches, where indeed the spiral 
coats of the vessels are either wanting, or less elastic 
than in the leaf-stalks and summits of the more tender 

However its conveyance may be accomplished, it is 
certain that the sap does reach the parts above mention- 
ed, and there can surely be now as little doubt of the 
vessels in which it runs. That these vessels have been 
thought to contain air only, is well accounted for by Dr. 
Darwin, on the principle of their not collapsing when 
emptied of their sap ; which is owing to their rigidity, 
and the elastic nature of their coats. When a portion 
of a stem or branch is cut off, the sap soon exhales from 
it, or rather is pushed out by the action of the vessels 
themselves : hence they are found empty ; and for the 
same reason the arteries of animals were formerlv 
thought to contain air only. When the sap-vessels 
have parted with their natural contents, air and even 
quicksilver will readily pass through them, as is shown 
by various experiments. Arguments in support of any 
theory must be very cautiously deduced from such ex- 
periments, or from any other observations not made on 
vegetables in their most natural state and condition ; and, 
above all, that great agent the vital principle must always 
be kept in view, in preference to mere mechanical con- 

These to which I give the common name of sap- 
vessels, comprehending the common tubes of the albur- 


num., and the central vessels, oi" Mr. Knight, may be 
considered as analogous to the arteries of animals ; or 
rather they are the stomach, lacteals and arteries all in 
one, for I conceive it to be a great error in Dr. Darwin 
to call by this name the vessels which contain the pecu- 
liar secretions of the plant.* These sap-vessels, no 
doubt, absorb the nutritious fluids afforded by the soil, 
in which possibly, as they pass through the root, some 
change analogous to digestion may take place ; for there 
is evidently a great difference, in many cases, between 
the fluids of the root, at least the secreted ones, and 
those of the rest of the plant ; and this leads us to pre- 
sume that some considerable alteration may be wrought 
in the sap in its course through that important organ. 
The stem, which it next enters, is by no means an es- 
sential part, for we see many plants whose leaves and 
flowers grow directly from the root. 

Part of the sap is conveyed into the flowers and fruit, 
where various fine and essential secretions are made 
from it, of which we shall speak hereafter. By far the 
greater portion of the sap is carried into the leaves, of 
the great importance and utility of which to the plant 
itself Mr. Knight's theory is the only one that gives us 
any adequate or satisfactory notion. In those organs 
the sap is exposed to the action of light, air and mois- 
ture, three powerful agents, by which it is enabled to 
form various secretions, at the same time that much su- 
perfluous matter passes off bv perspiration. These 
secretions not only give peculiar flavours and qualities 

* P/iytologia, sect. 2. 


to the leaf itself, but are returned by another set of ves- 
sels, as Mr. Knight has demonstrated, into the new layer 
of bark, which they nourish and bring to perfection, 
and which they enable in its turn to secrete mattei for a 
new layer of alburnum the ensuing year. It is presum- 
ed that one set of the returning vessels of trees may 
probably be more particularly destined to this latter 
office, and another to the secretion of peculiar fluids in 
the bark. See Phil. Trans, for 1801, p. 337. In the 
bark principally, if I mistake not, the peculiar secretions 
of the plant are perfected, as gum, resin, &c. each un- 
doubtedly in an appropriate set of vessels. From what 
has just been said of the office of leaves, we readily per- 
ceive why all the part of a branch above a leaf or leaf- 
bud dies when cut, as each portion receives nourish- 
ment, and the means of increase, from the leaf above it. 
By the above view of the vegetable oeconomy, it ap- 
pears that the vascular system of plants is strictly annual. 
This, of course, is admitted in herbaceous plants, the 
existence of whose stems, and often of the whole indi- 
vidual, is limited to one season ; but it is no less true 
with regard to trees. (4) The layer of alburnum on the 

(4) [The effect of girdling trees, as practised in new settle- 
ments in the United States, is readily explained on the theory of 
Mr. Knight. In this operation a circle of bark and also of the 
alburnum or outer wood is removed from around the trunk. A 
check is thus put both to the ascent and descent of the sap, and 
the tree dies in consequence sooner or later. Sometimes how- 
ever the sap ascends through a trunk which has been girdled, 
and the tree puts out leaves in the ensuing summer. This tact 
is not explained by the principles here laid down, but agrees with 
a subsequent paper of Mr. Knight (Phil. Trans. 1806) in which 


one hand is added to the wood, and the liber, or inner 
layer of the bark, is on the other annexed to the layers 

he concludes that the cellular substance gives passage to the 
sap. Though the conclusions of this paper can hardly be ad- 
mitted in their full extent, it is nevertheless probable that the 
cellular substance of the trunk may exert a vicarious office and 
afford a temporary passage to the sap when its proper vessels 
are interrupted. 

If a ring of bark only is removed, the sap may continue to as- 
cend with freedom, but is obstructed in its descent. This ope- 
ration may be performed with perfect safety to the tree, provid- 
ed the ring taken out is sufficiently narrow, so that the space 
may be filled up with new bark from above, during the same 
season. In trees which form new bark readily upon the surface 
©f the alburnum, as in the instance page 45, the whole trunk 
may be stripped with impunity, .and sometimes with advantage 
to the future health and productiveness of the tree. It is how- 
ever often necessary that the trunk should be artificially covered 
during the reproduction of the bark. Du Hamel mentions trees 
in perfect health 15 or 18 years after having been thus depriv- 
ed ot their bark. 

Some improvements in the cultivation of fruits have been 
founded upon the intersection of the bark. Buffon removed a 
girdle of bark. 3 inches in width, from the trunks of some fruit 
trees, and found that they produced blossoms and fruit 3 weeks 
sooner than the other trees in their neighbourhood. Mr Wil- 
liams in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society, states that 
grapes came to maturity much earlier, were larger, and better 
flavoured, when a small circle of bark, one or two eighths of an 
inch in width, was removed from around the alburnum of the 
fruitful branches, while the fruit was in its young state. This 
method is annually practised in the vicinity of Boston by differ- 
ent individuals with the best success. The explanation depends 
on the theory of Mr. Knight, the sap being interrupted in its de- 
scent, and confined to the branches above the incision, so that a 
greater quantity of it goes to nourish the fruit. 1 


formed in the preceding seasons, and neither have any 
share in the process of vegetation for the year ensuing. 
Still, as they continue for a long time to be living bodies, 
and help to perfect, if not to form, secretions, they must 
receive some portion of nourishment from those more 
active parts which have taken up their late functions. 

There is a tribe of plants called monocotyledones, 
having only one lobe to the seed,* whose growth re- 
quires particular mention. To these belongs the natu- 
ral order of Palms, which being the most lofty, and, in 
some instances, the most long-lived of plants, have justly 
acquired the name of trees. Yet, paradoxical as it may 
seem, they are rather perennial herbaceous plants, hav- 
ing nothing in common with the growth of trees in 
general. Their nature has been learnedly explained by 
M. Desfontaines, a celebrated French botanist, and by 
M. Mirbel in his Traite (VAnatomie et cle Physiologic 
Vegetales, vol. 1. p. 209, and Linnaeus has long ago 
made remarks to the same purpose. The Palms are 
formed of successive circular crowns of leaves, which 
spring directly from the root. These leaves and their 
footstalks are furnished with bundles of large sap-vessels 
and returning vessels, like tjie leaves of our trees. 
When one circle of them has performed its office, an- 
other is formed within it, which being confined below, 
necessarily rises a little above the former. Thus suc- 
cessive circles grow one above the other, by which the 
vertical increase of the plant is almost without end. 
Each circle of leaves is independent of its predecessor, 
and has its own clusters of vessels, so that there can be 

* Or rather no true cotyledon at all 


no aggregation of woody circles ; and yet in some of 
this tribe the spurious kind of stem, formed in the man- 
ner just described, when cut across shows something of 
a circular arrangement of fibres, arising from the origi- 
nal disposition of the leaves. The common orange lily, 
Lilium bullriferum, Curt. Mag. t. 36, and white lily, 
L. catx&diim, t. 278, which belong to the same natural 
family called monocotyledojies, serve to elucidate this 
subject. Their stems, though of only annual duration, 
are formed nearly on the same principle as that of a Palm, 
and are really congeries of leaves rising one above an- 
other, and united by their bases into an apparent stem. 
In these the spiral coats of the sap-vessels are very easily 

To conclude this subject of the propulsion of the sap, 
it is necessary to say a few words on the power which 
the vessels of plants are reported to possess of convey- 
ing their appropriate fluids equally well in either direc- 
tion ; or, in other words, that it is indifferent whether 
a cutting of any kind be planted with its upper or lower 
end in the ground. On this subject also Mr. Knight 
has afforded us new information, by observing that, in 
cuttings so treated, the returning vessels retain so much 
of their original nature as to deposit new wood above 
the leaf-buds ; that is, in the part of the cutting which, 
if planted in its natural position, would have been below 
them. It appears, however, that the sap-vessels must 
absorb and transmit their sap in a direction contrary to 
what is natural ; and it is highly probable, that, after 
some revolving seasons, new returning vessels would be 
formed in that part of the stem which is now below the 


buds. I presume there can be no doubt that succes- 
sive new branches would deposit their wood in the 
usual position. It is nevertheless by no means common 
for such inverted cuttings to succeed at all. An ex- 
periment to a similar purpose is recorded by Dr. Hales, 
Vegetable Staticks, p. 132, f. H, of engrafting together 
three trees standing in a row, and then cutting off the 
communication between die central one and the earth, so 
that it became suspended in the air, and was nourished 
merely through its lateral branches. The same exper- 
iment was successfully practised by the late Dr. Hope 
at Edinburgh upon three Willows, and in the years 
1781, 2, and 3, I repeatedly witnessed their health and 
vigour. It was observed that the central tree was sev- 
eral days later in coming into leaf than its supporters, 
but I know not that any other difference was to be per- 
ceived between them. The tree which wanted the sup- 
port of the ground was, some years after, blown down, 
so that we have now no opportunity of examining the 
course of its vessels, or the mode in which successive 
layers of wood were deposited in its branches ; but the 
experiment is easily repeated. 

In the weeping variety of the Common Ash, now so 
frequent in gardens, the branches are completely inver- 
ted as to position, yet the returning fluids appear to run 
exactly in their natural direction, depositing new wood, 
as they are situated above the buds or leaves ; and if the 
end of any branch be cut, all beyond (or below) the next 
bud dies ; so that in this case gravitation, to which Mr. 
Knight attributes considerable power over the returning 
fluids, Phil. Trans, for 1804, does not counteract the 
ordinary course of nature. 

C 63 } 




The sap of trees, as has been mentioned in the last 
©hapter, may be obtained by wounding a stem or branch 
in spring, just before the buds open, or in the end of au- 
tumn, though less copiously, after a slight frost ; yet 
not during the frost. In the Palm-trees of hot coun- 
tries, it is said to flow from a wound at any time of the 
year. It has always been observed to flow from the 
young wood or alburnum of our trees, not from the bark ; 
which agrees with Mr. Knight's theory. 

A common branch of the Vine cut through will yield 
about a pint of this fluid in the course of twenty-four 
hours. The Birch, Betula alba, affords plenty of sap ; 
some other trees yield but a small quantity. It flows 
equally upward and downward from a wound, at least 
proportionably to the quantity of stem or branch in eith- 
er direction to supply it. Some authors have asserted 
that in the heat of the day it flows most from the lower 
part of a wound, and in the cool of the evening from the 
upper; hence they concluded it was ascending during 
the first period, and descending in the latter. If the 
fact be true some other solution must be sought ; nor 
would it be difficult to invent a theory upon this subject : 
but we rather prefer the investigation of truth on more 
solid foundations. 

This great motion, called the flowing, of the sap, 
which is to be detected principally in the spring, and 
slightly in the autumn, is> therefore totally distinct from 


that constant propulsion of it going on in every growing 
plant, about which so much has been said in the pre- 
ceding chapter, and which is proved by taking an entire 
herb of any kind that has been gathered and suffered 
to begin to fade, and immersing its root in water. By 
absorption through the sap- vessels it presently revives, 
for those vessels require a constant supply from the 

This flowing of the sap has been thought to demon- 
strate a circulation, because, there being no leaves to car- 
ry it off by perspiration, it is evident that, if it were at 
these periods running up the sap- vessels with such ve- 
locity, it must run down again by other channels. As 
soon as the leaves expand, its motion is no longer to be 
detected. The effusion of sap from plants, when cut or 
wounded, is, during the greater part of the year, compar- 
atively very small. Their secreted fluids run much 
more abundantly. 

I conceive therefore that this flowing is nothing more 
than a facility in the sap to run, owing to the peculiar 
irritability of the vegetable body at the times above men- 
tioned ; and that it runs only when a wound is made, 
being naturally at rest till the leaves open, and admit of 
its proper and regular conveyance. Accordingly, lig- 
atures made at this period, which show so plainly the 
course of the blood in an animal body, have never been 
found to throw any light upon the vegetable circulation. 
This great facility in the sap to run is the first step to- 
wards the revival of vegetation from the torpor of win- 
ter ; and its exciting cause is heat, most unquestionably 
by the action of the latter on the vital principle, and 


scarcely by any mechanical operation, or expansive pow- 
er upon the fluids. The eflfect of heat is in proportion 
to the degree of cold to which the plant has been accus- 
tomed. In forced plants the irritability, or, to use the 
words of a late ingenious author* - , who has applied this 
principle very happily to the elucidation of the animal 
ceconomy, excitability, is exhausted, as Mr. Knight 
well remarks, and they require a stronger stimulus to 
grow with vigour. See/;. 91. Hence vegetation goes 
on better in the increasing heat of spring than in the de- 
creasing heat of autumn. And here I cannot but offer, 
by way of illustration, a remark on the theory advanced 
by La Cepede, the able continuator of BufFon, relative 
to serpents. That ingenious writer mentions, very tru- 
ly, that these reptiles awake from their torpid state in 
the spring, while a much less degree of heat exists in 
the atmosphere than is perceptible in the autumn, when, 
seemingly from the increasing cold, they become be- 
numbed ; and he explains it by supposing a greater de- 
gree of electricity in the air at the former season. Dr. 
Brown's hypothesis, of their irritability being as it were 
accumulated during winter, offers a much better solution, 
either with respect to the animal or vegetable constitu- 
tion. For the same reason, it is necessary to apply 
warmth very slowly and carefully to persons frozen, or 
even chilled only, by a more than usual degree of cold, 
which renders them more susceptible of heat, and a tern- i 
perate diet and very moderate stimulants are most safe 

* Dr. John Brown, formerly of Edinburgh. See the 14th 
Section of Dr. Darwin's Phytologia on this subject. 

o6 OF THE 9 XV, 

and useful to the unexhausted constitutions of children. 
The same principle accounts for the occasional flowing 
of the sap in autumn after a slight frost. Such a pi t ma- 
ture cold increases the sensibility of the plant to any 
warmth that may follow, and produces, in a degree, the 
same state of its constitution as exists after the longer 
and severer cold of winter. Let me be allowed a fur- 
ther illustration from the animal kingdom. Every body 
(ymversant with labouring cattle must have observed 
how much sooner they are exhausted by the warm days 
of autumn, when the nights are cold, than in much hot- 
ter weather in summer, and this is surely from the sume 
cause as the autumnal flowing of the vegetable sap.(5) 

The sap, or lymph, of most plants when collected in 
the spring as above mentioned, appears to the sight and 
taste little else than water, but it soon undergoes fermen- 
tation and putrefaction. Even that of the Vine is 
scarcely acid, though it can hardly be obtained without 

(5) [In addition to the above explanation of the flowing 
of the sap, we may subjoin one which has been suggested, but 
not enlarged on, by Mr. Knight. In the spring of the year the 
sap begins to ascend from the root sometime before the expan- 
sion of the buds. As at this time there are no leaves, flowers, 
Sec. on which the sap may be expended, the trunk becomes 
overcharged with it, and will readily bleed if wounded. After 
the leaves are developed, and the growth of the new layer of 
wood has commenced, all the sap from the trunk is required to 
afford the material for the new growth, and to supply the pro- 
digious expenditure by perspiration from the leaves. At this 
period no sap flows from incisions in the trunk. In autumn after 
a frost has taken place, the functions of the leaves are suddenly 
checked, the sap is again restricted to the trunk, the vessels ^re 
again overcharged with fluid, and will bleed again if divided.} 


some of the secreted juices, which in that plant are ex- 
tremely acid and astringent. The sap of the Sugar 
Maple, Acer saccharinum, has no taste, though according 
to Du Hamel every 2001b. of it will afford 101b. of 
sugar. Probably, as he remarks, it is not collected 
without an admixture of secreted fluids. 

As soon as the leaves expand, insensible perspiration 
takes place very copiously, chiefly from those organs, 
but also in some degree from the bark of the young stem 
or branches. The liquor perspired becomes sensible 
to us by being collected from a branch introduced into 
any sufficiently capacious glass vessel, and proves, for 
the most part, a clear watery liquor like the sap, and 
subject to similar chemical changes. It is observed to 
be uniform in all plants, or nearly so, as well as the sap, 
except where odorous secretions transude along with it. 
Still there must be a very essential difference between 
the original sap of any plant and its perspiration, the lat- 
ter no longer retaining the rudiments of those fine secre- 
tions which are elaborated from the former ; but that 
difference eludes our senses as well as our chemistry. 
The perspiration of some plants is prodigiously great. 
The large Annual Sunflower, Helianthus annum, Ger- 
arde Emac. 751. f. 1, according to Dr. Hales, perspires 
about 17 times as fast as the ordinary insensible perspi- 
ration of the human skin. But of all plants upon record 
I think the Cornelian Cherry, Cornus mascula, is most 
excessive in this respect. The quantity of fluid which 
evaporates from its leaves in the course of 24 hours, is 
said to be nearly equal to twice the weight of the whole 
shrub. Du Hamel Phys. des Arbres,v. 1.145. 

[ 68 ] 



The sap in its passage through the leaves and bark 
becomes quite a new fluid, possessing the peculiar fla- 
vour and qualities of the plant, and not only yielding 
woody matter for the increase of the vegetable body, but 
furnishing various secreted substances, more or less nu- 
merous and different among themselves. These ac- 
cordingly are chiefly found in the bark ; and the vessels 
containing them often prove upon dissection very large 
and conspicuous, as the turpentine-cells of the Fir tribe. 
In herbaceous plants, whose stems are only of annual 
duration, the perennial roots frequently contain these 
fluids in the most perfect state, nor are they, in such, 
confined to the bark, but deposited throughout the sub- 
stance or wood of the root, as in Rhubarb, Rheum pal- 
amatum, Linn. fit. Fasc. t. 4, and Gentian, Gentian 
lutea and purpurea , Ger, emac. 482, f. 1, 2. In the 
wood of the Fir indeed copious depositions of turpen- 
tine are made, and in that of every tree more or less of a 
gummy, resinous, or saccharine matter is found. Such 
must be formed by branches of those returning vessels 
that deposit the new alburnum. These juices appear to 
be matured, or brought to greater perfection, in layers 
of wood or bark that have no longer any principal share 
in the circulation of the sap. 

The most distinct secretions of vegetables require to 
be enumerated under several different heads. 


Gum or mucilage, a viscid substance of little flavour 
or smell, soluble in water, is very general. When su- 
perabundant it exudes from many trees in the form of 
large drops or lumps, as in Plum, Cherry, and Peach- 
trees, and different species of Mimosa or Sensitive plants, 
one of which yields the Gum Arabic, others the Gum 
Senegal, &c.(6) 

Resin is a substance soluble in spirits, and much 
more various in different plants than the preceding, as 
the Turpentine of the Fir and Juniper, the Red Gum of 
New South Wales, produced by one or more species 
of Eucalyptus, Bot. of N. Boll. t. 13, and the fragrant 
Yellow Gum of the same country, see White's Voyage, 
235, which exudes spontaneously from the Xanthorrhoea 
Hasttle. Most vegetable exudations partake of a nature 
between these two, being partly soluble in water, partly 
in spirits, and are therefore called Gum-resins. The 
milky juice of the Fig, Spurge, &c, which Dr. Darwin 
has shown, and which every body may see, to be quite 
distinct from the sap, is, like animal milk, an emulsion, 
or combination of a watery fluid with oil or resin. Ac- 
cordingly, when suffered to evaporate in the air, such 
fluids become resins or gum-resins, as the Gum Eu- 
phorbium. In the Celandine, Chelidonium majus, Engl. 

(6) [Mucilage is found in great quantities in the root of Al- 
thea officinalis, or Marsh Mallow, in the inner bark of Slippery 
Elm (Ulmusfulva), in the pith of Sassafras, in the leaves of 
different Mallows, Violets, 8cc. on the seeds of Quinces and 


Bot. t. 1581, and some plants allied to it, the emulsioa 
is orange-coloured. (7) 

The more refined and volatile secretions of a resinous 
nature are called Essential Oils, and are often highly 
aromatic and odoriferous. One of the most exquisite 
of these is afforded by the Cinnamon bark. They exist 
in the highest perfection in the perfumed effluvia of 
flowers, some of which, capable of combination, with 
spirituous fluids, are obtainable by distillation, as that 
of the Lavender and Rose ; while the essential oil of 
the Jasmine is best procured by immersing the flowers 
in expressed oil which imbibes and retains their fra- 
grance. Such Expressed or Gross Oils, as they are 
called, to distinguish them from essential oils obtained 
by distillation, are chiefly found in the seeds of plants. 
In the pulp of the Oiive indeed they occur in the form 
of an emulsion, mixed with watery and bitter fluids, from 
which the oil easily separates by its superior lightness. 
These expressed oils are not soluble in spirits or water, 

(7) rThe resinous juice, known in the northern states hy the 
name of Fir balsam* is a spontaneous exudation from the Pinus 
Halsamra, retained in little sacs or vesicles upon the bark. 
Turpentine is obtained in great quantities from ihe North 
American Pines, paiticularly Pinus Paluntris, by incisions or 
excavations in the trunk. When Turpentine is distilled, the Oil 
of Turpentine comes over, and Resin remains behind. Tar is 
obtained from the resinous trees by a slow combustion of their 

Wax is a vegetable product. It exists on the surface of 
leaves, and probably in the pollen of flowers. It is obtained in 
large quantities from the berries of Myrica Crrifrra, Bayberry 
bus!), or Wax Myrtle ; by boiling the berries in water until the 
•wax melts and floats upon the surface.] 


though by certain intermediate substances they may be 
render ed capable of uniting with both. 

The Bitter secretion of many plants does not seem 
exactly to accord with any of the foregoing. Some 
facts would seem to prove it of a resinous nature, but it 
is often perfectly soluble in water. Remarkable instan- 
ces of this secretion are in the Cinchona officinalis or 
Peruvian bark, Lambert Cinchona, t. 1, iind every spe- 
cies, more or less, of Gentian. (8) 

Acid secretions are well known to be very general in 
plants. Formerly one uniform vegetable or acetous 
acid was supposed common to all plants ; but the refine- 
ments of modern chemistry have detected in some a 
peculiar kind, as the Oxalic acid, obtained from Oxalis 
or Wood Sorrel, and several others. The astringent 
principle should seem to be a sort of acid, of which 
there are many different forms or kinds, and among 
them the tanning principle of the Oak, Willow, &c.(9) 

(8) [The Gentiana sa/ionaria and Gentiana Crinita are two 
of our most beautiful autumnal plants. The root of the first is 
decidedly bitter. 

The roots of Goldthread (Helleborus trifoliusj, of Hydras* 
Hs Canadensis, and Zanthorhlza Afiiifolia contain the bitter prin- 
ciple in great abundance. See Professor Barton's Materia 
Medica of the United States.^ 

(9) [Among the North-American Oaks, most esteemed for 
tanning, are the Quercus alba, or White Oak, the Quercus vir- 
ens, or Live Oak of the southern states, Quercus tinctoria, or 
Black Oak, Quercus falcata, or Spanish Oak, and Quercus /iri-, 
mus monticola, or Rock Chesnut Oak. For the investigation of 
this important genus, as well as for their other labours, we are 


On the other hand, two kinds of Alkali are furnished 
by vegetables, of which the most general is the Vegeta- 
ble Alkali, properly so called, known by the name of 
Salt of Tartar, or Salt of Wormwood, or more correctly 
by the Arabic term Kali. The Fossil Alkali, or Soda, 
is most remarkable in certain succulent plants that grow 
near the sea, belonging to the genera Chenopodium, Sal- 
sola, &c. When these plants are cultivated in a com- 
mon soil, they secrete Soda as copiously, provided their 
health be good, as in their natural maritime places of 

Sugar, more or less pure, is very generally found in 
plants. It is not only the seasoning of most eatable 
fruits, but abounds in various roots, as the Carrot, Beet 
and Parsnip, and in many plants of the grass or cane 
kind besides the famous Sugar Cane Saccharum offici- 
narum. There is great reason to suppose Sugar 
not so properly an original secretion, as the result of a 
chemical change in secretions already formed, either of 
an acid or mucilaginous nature, or possibly a mixture 
of both. In ripening fruits this change is most striking, 
and takes plaee very speedily, seeming to be greatly 
promoted by heat and light. By the action of frost, as 
Dr. Darwin observes, a different change is wrought in 
the mucilage of the vegetable body, and it becomes 

A fine red liquor is afforded by some plants, as the 
Bloody Dock or Rumex sanguineus, Engl. Bot. t. 1533, 
the Red Cabbage and Red Beet, which appears only to 

deeply indebted to those two distinguished botanists, the elder 
and younger Michaux.] 


mark a variety in all these plants, and not to constitute 
a specific difference. It is however perpetuated by seed 

It is cu.ious to observe, not only the various secre* 
tions of different plants, or families of plants, by whicb 
they differ from each other in taste, smell, qualities and 
medical virtues, but also their great number, and sfrik 
ing difference, frequently in the same plant. Of this 
the Peach-tree offers a familiar example. The gum of 
this tree is mild and muciLgmous. The bark, leaves, 
and flowers abound with a bitter secretion of a purgative 
and rather dangerous quality, than which nothing can be 
more distinct from the gum. The fruit is replete, not 
only with acid, mucilage and sugar, but with its own 
peculiar aromatic and highly volatile secretion, elabo- 
rated within itself, on which its fine flavour depends. 
How far are we still from understanding the whole anat- 
omy of the vegetable body, which can create and keep 
separate such distinct and discordant substances ! 

Nothing is more astonishing than the secretion of 
flinty earth by plants, which, though never suspected till 
within a few years, appears to me well ascertained. A 
substance is found in the hollow stem of the Bamboo, 
(Arundo Bamhos of Linnaeus, Nastos of Theophrastos,) 
called Tabaxir or Tabasheer, which is supposed in the 
East Indies (probably because it is rare and difficult of 
acquisition, like the imaginary stone in the head of a 
toad) to be endowed with extraordinary virtues. Some 
of it, brought to England, underwent a chemical exam- 
ination, and proved, as nearly as possible, pure flint. 
See Dr. Russell's and Mr. Macie's papers on the sub* 



ject in the Phil. Trans, for 1790 and 1791. It is even 
found occasionally in the Bamboo cultivated in our hot- 
houses. Bat we need not search exotic plants for flinty- 
earth. I hive already, in speaking of the Cuticle, chap- 
ter 3d, alluded to the discoveries of Mr. Davy, Professor 
of Chemistry at the Royal Institution, on this subject. 
That able chemist has detected pure flint in the cuticle 
of various plants of the family of Grasses, in the Cane 
(a kind of Palm) and in the Rough Horsetail, Equisetum 
hyemale, Engl. Bot. t. 915. (10) In the latter it is very 
copious, and so disposed as to make a natural file, which 
renders this plant useful in various manufactures, for 
even brass cannot resist its action. Common Wheat 
straw, when burnt, is found to contain a portion of flinty 
earth in the form of a most exquisite powder, and this 
accounts for the utility of burnt straw in giving the last 
polish to marble. How great is the contrast between 
this production, if it be a secretion, of the tender vege- 
table frame, and those exhalations which constitute the 
perfume of flowers ! O ae is among the most permanent 
substances in N iture, an ingredient in the primeval 
mountains of the globe ; the other the invisible un tan- 
gible breath of a moment ! 

The odour of plants is unquestionably of a resinous 
nature, a volatile essential oil and several phenomena 
attending it well deserve our attentive consideration. 
Its general nature is evinced by its ready union with 
spirits or oil, not with water ; yet the moisture of the 
atmosphere seems, in many instances, powerfully to fa- 

(10) fJUsed in this country under the name of Scouring Rush.] 


vour its diffusion. This I apprehend to arise more from 
the favourable action of such moisture upon the health 
and vigour of the plant itself, thus occasionally promot- 
ing its odorous secretions, than from the fitness of the 
atmosphere, so circumstanced, to convey them. Both 
causes however may operate. A number of flowers 
which have no scent in the course of the day, smell pow- 
erfully in an evening, whether the air be moist or dry, or 
whether they happen to be exposed to it or not. This 
is the property of some which Linnaeus has elegantly 
called jlores tristes, melancholy flowers, belonging to 
various tribes as discordant as possible, agreeing only 
in their nocturnal fragrance, which is peculiar, very sim- 
ilar and exquisitely delicious in all of them, and in the 
pale yellowish, greenish, or brownish tint of their flow- 
ers. Among these are Mesembryanthemum nocftjlorum, 
Dill. Elth. t. 206, Pelargonium triste, Cornut. 
Canad. 110, and several species akin to it, Hesperis 
tristis, Curt. Mag. t. 730, Cheiranthus tristis, t. 729, 
Daphne pontwa, Andrews's Repos. t. 73, Crassula 
odoratissima, t. 26, and many others*". A few more, 
greatly resembling these in the green hue of their blos- 
soms, exhale, in the evening chiefly, a most powerful 

* These flowers afford the Poet a new image, which is in- 
troduced into the following imitation of Martial, and offered here 
solely for its novelty : 

Go mingle Arabia's gums 

With the spices all India yields. 
Go crop each young flower as it blooms. 

Go ransack the gardens and fields. 



lemon-like scent, as Epidcndrum ens\fofium, Sm. Spirit. 
$. 24, and Chloranthus inconsp'cmis, Phil. Turns, for 
1787, t. 14, great favourites of the Chinese, who seem 
peculiarly fond of this scent. There arc other instances 
of odorous and aromatic secretions, similar among them- 
selves, produced by very different plants, as Camphor. 
The sweet smell of new hay is found not only in An- 
thoxanthum odoratum, Engl. Bot. t. 647, and some 
other grasses, but in Woodruff or Asperula odorata, t. 
755, Melilot or Trifolium officinale, t. 1340, and all 
the varieties, by some deemed species, of Orchis 
m litaris, t. 16 and t. 1873, plants widely different from 
each other in botanical characters, as well as in colour 
and every particular except smell. Their odour has 
one peculiarity, that it is not at all perceptible while the 
plants are growing, nor till they begin to dry. It pro- 
ceeds from their whole herbage, and should seem to es- 
cape from the orifices of its containing cells, only whec 

Let Paestum's all-flowery groves 

Their roses profusely bestow. 
Go catch the light zephyr that roves 

Where the wild thyme and marjoram grow. 

Let every pale night-scented flower, 

S id emblem of passion forlorn, 
Resign its appropriate hour, 

To enhance the rich breath of the morn. 

All that art or that nature can find, 

Not half so delightful would prove, 
Nor their sweets all together combined, 

Half so sweet as the breath of my love 


the surrounding vessels, by growing less turgid, with- 
draw their pressure from such orifices. When this 
scent of new hay is vehement, it becomes the flavour of 
bitter almonds. The taste of syrup of capillaire, given 
by an infusion of Orange flowers, is found in the her- 
bage of Gaultheria procumbens,{\\) Andr. Repos. t. 116, 
and Spiraa Ulmaria, Engl. Bot. t. 960, two very differ- 
ent plants. 

Some of the above examples show an evident analogy 
between the smell and colours of flowers, nor are they all 
that might be pointed out. A variety of the Chrysan- 
themum indicum with orange-coloured flowers has been 
lately procured from China by Lady Amelia Hume. 
These faintly agree in scent, as they do in colour, with 
the Wall-flower, Cherianthus Cheiri ; whereas the com- 
mon purple variety of the same Chrysanthemum has a 
totally different and much stronger odour. 

There is, of course, still more analogy between the 
smell of plants in general and their impression on the 
palate, insomuch that we are frequently unable to dis- 
criminate between the two. The taste is commonly 
more permanent than the smell, but now and then less 
so. The root of the Arum maculatum, Engl. Bot. t. 
1298, for instance, has, when fresh, a most acrid taste 
and irritating quality, totally lost by drying, when the 
root becomes simply farinaceous,tasteless and inert ;( 12) 
so that well might learned physicians contrive the 

(11) [Partridge berry of the United States.] 

(12^ [The same properties occur in the Arum trifihyllum y or 
Indian Turnip, common throughout the United States.] 


"Compound Powder of Arum," to excuse the continue 
ance of its use in medicine, unless they hud always pre- 
scribed the recent plant. — Many curious remarks are to 
be found in Grew relative to the tastes of plants, and 
their different modes of affecting our organs. Anatomy 
of Plants, p. 279—292. 

To all the foregoing secretions of vegetables may be 
added those on which their various colours depend. 
We can but imperfectly account for the green so uni- 
versal in their herbage, but we may gratefully ack- 
nowledge the beneficence of the Creator in clothing the 
earth with a colour the most pleasing and the least fa- 
tiguing to our eyes. We ma} be dazzled with the 
brilliancy of a flower-garden, but we repose at leisure 
on the verdure of a grove or meadow. Of all greens 
the most delicate and beautiful perhaps is displayed by 
several umbelliferous plants under our hedges in the 

Some of Nature's richest tints and most elegant com- 
binations of colour are reserved for the petals of flowers, 
the most transient of created beings ; and even during 
the short existence of the parts they decorate, the co- 
lours themselves are often undergoing remarkable varia- 
tions. In the pretty little weed called Scorpion- grass, 
Myosotis scorpioides, Engl. Bot. t. 480, and several of 
its natural order, the flower-buds are of the most deli- 
cate rose-colour, which turns to a bright blue as they 
open. Many yellow flowers under the influence of 
light become white. Numbers of red, purple or blue 
ones are liable, from some unknown cause in the plant 
to which they belong, to vary to white. Such varieties 


are sometimes propagated by seed, and are almost inva- 
riably permanent if the plants be propagated by roots, 
cuttings or grafting. Plants of an acid or astringent 
nature often become very red in their foliage by the ac- 
tion of light, as in Rumex, Polygonum, Epilobium and 
Berber is ; and it is remarkable that American plants 
in general, as well as such European ones as are par- 
ticularly related to them, are distinguished for assuming 
various rich tints in their foliage of red, yellow, white 
or even blue, at the decline of the year, witness the 
Guelder-rose, the Cornel, the Vine, the Sumach, the 
Azalea pontica, Curt. Mag. t. 433, and others. Fruits 
for the most part incline to a red colour, apparently 
from the acid they contain. I have been assured by a 
first-rate chemist that the colouring principle of the 
Raspberry is a fine blue, turned red by the acid in the 
fruit. The juices of some Fungi, as Boletus bovinus 
and Agaricus deliciosus, Sowerb. Fungi, t. 202, change 
almost instantaneously on exposure to the air, from yel- 
low to dark blue or green. 

These are a few hints only on a subject which opens 
a wide field of inquiry, and which, in professedly chem- 
ical works, is carried to a greater length than I have 
thought necessary in a physiological one. See Thorn- 
soji^s Chemistry, v. 4, and Wildenoix^s Principles of 
Botany, 229. We must ever keep in mind, as we ex- 
plore it, that our anatomical instruments are not more 
inadequate to dissect the organs of a scarcely distin- 
guishable insect, than our experiments are to investigate 
the fine chemistry of Nature, over which the living prin. 
cjple presides. 


Before we take leave of the secreted fluids of vegeta- 
bles, a few more remarks upon their direct utility to the 
plants themselves may not be superfluous. Malpighi 
first suggested that these secretions might nourish the 
plant, and our latest inquiries confirm the suggestion. 
Du Hamel compares them to the blood of animals, and 
so does Darwin. But the analogy seems more plain 
between the sap, as being nearly uniform in all plants, 
and the animal blood, as in that particular they accord^ 
while the secreted fluids are so very various. Mr. 
Knight's theory confirms this analogy, at the same time 
that it establishes the opinion of Malpighi. The sap 
returning from the leaf, where it has been acted upon by 
the air and light, forming new wood, is clearly the cause 
of the increase of the vegetable body. But it is not so 
clear how the resinous, gummy or other secretions, laid 
aside, as it were, in vessels, out of the great line of cir- 
culation, can directly minister to the growth of the tree. 
I conceive they m ly be in this respect analogous to ani- 
mal fat, a reservoir of nourishment whenever its ordina- 
ry supplies are interrupted, as in the winter, or in seasons 
of great drought, or of unusual cold. In such circum- 
stances the mucilaginous or saccharine secretions espe- 
cially, perhaps the most general of all, may be absorbed 
into the vegetable constitution ; just as fat is into the 
animal one, during the existence of any disease that in- 
terrupts the ordinary supplies of food, or interferes with 
its due appropriation. It is well known that such ani- 
mals as sheep through the winter, grow fat in the autumn 
and awake very lean in the spring. Perhaps the more 
recent layers of wood in a Plum- or Cherry-tree if they 


could be accurately examined, might be found to con- 
tain a greater proportion of mucilage at the end of au- 
tumn than in the early spring < If these substances do 
not nourish the plant, they seem to be of no use to it, 
whatever secondary purposes they may answer in the 
schemes of Providence. The direct end, with respect 
to the plant, of the finer secreted fluids of its fruit can 
very well be perceived, as tempting the appetite of an- 
imals, and occasioning, through their means, the disper- 
sion of the seeds ; and the perfume of flowers may at- 
tract insects, and so promote the fertilization of the seed, 
as will be explained hereafter. 

After what has been said, we need not waste much 
time in considering the hypothesis, advanced by some 
philosophers, that the sap-vessels are veins and the re- 
turning vessels arteries. This is so far correct, that, as 
the chyle prepared by the digestive organs, poured into 
the veins and mixed with the blood, is, through r.he me- 
dium of the heart, sent into the lungs to be acted upon 
by the air ; so the nutrimental juices of plants, taken up 
from the earth, which has been called their stomach, are 
carried by the sap- vessels into the leaves, for similar 
purposes already mentioned. The improved sap, like 
the vivid arterial blood, then proceeds to nourish and 
invigorate the whole frame. I very much doubt, how- 
ever, if those who suggested the above hypothesis 
could have given so satisfactory an explanation of it. 

That the secretions of plants are wonderfully constant 
appears from the operation of grafting. This consists 
in uniting the branches of two or more separate trees, as 

S2 «8 \FTT\G. 

Dr. Hope's Willows, see p. 62, and a whole row of 
Lime-trees in the garden of New College, Oxford, 
whose branches thus make a network. This is called 
grafting by approach. A more common practice, called 
budding, or inoculating, is to insert a bud of one tree, 
accompanied by a portion of its bark, into the bark of 
another, and the tree which is thus engrafted upon is 
calied the stock. By this mode different kinds of fruits, 
as apples, pears, plums, &c, each of which is only a 
variety accidentally raised from seed, but no further 
perpetuated in the same manner, are multiplied, buds 
of the kind wanted to be propagated being engrafted on 
so many stocks of a wild nature. ■ The mechanical part 
of this practice is detailed in Du Hamel, Miller, and 
most gardening books. It is of primary importance 
that the liber, or young bark, of the bud, and that of the 
stock, should be accurately united by their edges. The 
air and wet must of course be excluded. 

It is requisite for the success of this operation that 
the plants should be nearly akin. Thus the Chionan- 
thus virginica, Fringe-tree, succeeds well on the Com- 
mon Ash, Fraxinus excelsior, by which means it is 
propagated in our gardens. Varieties of the same spe- 
cies succeed best of all ; but Apples and Pears, two dif- 
ferent species of the same genus, may be grafted on one 
stock. The story of a Bl ick Rose being produced by 
grafting a common rose, it is not worth inquiring which, 
on a black currant stock, is, as far as I can learn, with- 
out any foundation, and is indeed at the first sight absurd* 
I have known the experiment tried to no purpose. The 
rose vulgarly reported to be so produced is merely a 


dark Double Velvet Rose, a variety, as we presume of 
Rosa centifolia. Another report of the same kind has 
bit. 11 raised concerning the Maltese Oranges, whose red 
juice has been attributed to their being budded on a 
Pomegranate stock, of which I have never been able to 
obtain the smallest confirmation. 

Heat can scarcely be denominated a secretion, and yet 
is undoubtedly a production, of the vegetable as well 
as animal body, though in a much lower degree in the 
former than the latter. The heat of plants is evinced 
by the more speedy melting of snow when in contact 
with their leaves or stems, compared with what is lodg- 
ed upon dead substances, provided the preceding frost 
has been sufficiently permanent to cool those substances 
thoroughly. Mr. Hunter appears to have detected this 
heat by a thermometer applied in frosty weather to the 
internal parts of vegetables newly opened. It is evident 
that a certain appropriate portion of heat is a necessary 
stimulus to the constitution of every plant, without 
which its living principle is destroyed. (13) Most 
tropical plants are as effectually killed by a freezing de- 
gree of cold, as by a boiling heat, and have nearly the 

(13) [The tendency of plants is to preserve an uniform tem- 
perature, and to resist both heat and cold. Fruits and leaves, 
situated in the sun, preserve themselves cool, while surrounding 
objects are heated. Sonnerat discovered in the island of Lucon 
a rivulet, the water of which was so hot, that a thermometer im- 
mersed in it rose to 175° Fahr. Swallows when flying seven 
feet high over it dropped down motionless. Notwithstanding 
the heat, he observed on its banks two species of Asfialathua, 
and the Vitex agnus castus, which with their roots swept the 
water. In the island of Tanna, Messrs. Forsters found the 


same appearance ; which is exemplified every autumn 
in the Garden Nasturtium, Tropcsolum majus. The 
vegetables of cold climates, on the contrary, support a 
much greater degree of cold without injury, at least 
while in a torpid state ; for when their buds begin to 
expand they become vastly more sensible, as is but too 
frequently experienced in the fickle spring of our 
climate. Nor is this owing, as vulgarly supposed, 
merely to the greater power of the cold to penetrate 
through their opening buds. It must penetrate equally 
through them in the course of long and severe winter 
frosts, which are never known to injure them. The 
extremely pernicious effects therefore of cold on open- 
ing buds can only be attributed to the increased suscep- 
tibility of the vital principle, after it has been revived by 
the warmth of spring. 

The vegetation of most plants may be accelerated by 
artificial heat, which is called fore ing them, and others 
may, by the same means, be kept in tolerable health, 

ground near a volcano as hot as 210°, and at the same time cov- 
ered with flowers. See Willdenow's Principles of Botany. 

In a similar manner the plants of high latitudes are capable of 
withstanding intense and long continued cold. Acerbi, in his 
travels in Sweden and Lapland, found Pines, Firs, and Birches 
from Tornea almost to the North Cape. Mackenzie, in latitude 
about 69, near the Frozen ocean, found the ground in July cover- 
ed with short grass and flowers, though the earth was not thaw- 
ed above four inches from the surface, beneath which was a solid 
body of ice. In the island of Spitzbergcn, there grow not less 
than thirty species of plants. In these climates, vegetation is 
exceedingly rapid during the few months which permit it-] 


under a colder sky than is natural to them. But many 
alpine plants, naturally buried for months under a deep 
snow, arc not only extremely impatient of sharp frosts, 
but will not bear the least portion of artificial heat. The 
pretty Primula marginata, Curt. Mag. t. 191, if 
brought into a room with a fire when beginning to blos- 
som, never opens another bud ; while the American 
Cowslip, Dodecatheon Meadia, t. 1 2, one of the most 
hardy of plants with respect to cold, bears forcing ad- 
mirably well. 

Mr. Knight very satisfactorily shows, Phil. Trans. 
for 1801, 343, that plants acquire habits with regard to 
heat which prove their vitality, and that a forced Peach- 
tree will in the following season expand its buds pre- 
maturely in the open air, so as to expose them to inev- 
itable destruction. See p. 65. A thousand parallel 
instances may be observed, by the sagacious gardener, 
of plants retaining the habits of their native climates, 
which very often proves one of the greatest impediments 
to their successful cultivation. 

The most remarkable account that has fallen in my 
way concerning the production of heat in plants, is that 
given by Lamarck in his Flore Franchise, v. 3. 538, of 
the common Arum maculatum, Engl Bot. t. 1298, 
(the white- veined variety,) the flower of which, at a cer- 
tain period of its growth, he asserts to be, for a few hours, 
" so hot as to seem burning." The learned M. Sene- 
bier of Geneva, examining into this fact, discovered 
that the heat began when the sheath was about to open, 
and the cylindrical body within just peeping forth : and 
that it was perceptible from about three or four o'clock 


in the afternoon till eleven or twelve at night. Its great- 
est degree was seven of Reaumur's scale above the heat 
of the air, which at the time of his observation was about 
fourteen or fifteen of that thermometer. Such is the ac- 
count with which I have been favoured by Dr. Bosiock 
of Liverpool, from a letter of M. Stnebiei*, dated Nov. 
28, 1796, to M. De la Rive. J have not hitherto been 
successful in observing the phenomenon in question, 
which however is well worth-) ol attention, and may 
probably not be confined to this species oiArum. 

• It is now published in his Physiologic Vegetale^ v. 3. 314, 
\v ! ere nevertheless this ingenious philosopher has declared his 
op'nion to be rather against the existence of a spontaneous heat 
in vegetables) and he explains even the above striking phaenom- 
enon upon chemical principles, which seem to me very inadequate. 

I 87 } 



When a seed is committed to the ground, it swells by 
the moisture which its vessels soon absorb, and which, 
in conjunction with some degree of heat, stimulates its 
vital principle. Atmospherical air is also necessary to 
incipient vegetation, for seeds in general will not grow 
under water, except those of aquatic plants, nor under 
an exhausted receiver ; and modern chemists have de- 
termined oxygen gas, which is always an ingredient in 
our atmosphere, to be absorbed by seeds in vegetation. 
An experiment is recorded in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, No. 23, of sowing Lettuce-seed in two separ- 
ate pots, one of which was placed in the common air, 
the other in the vacuum of an air-pump. In the form- 
er the young plants rose to the height of two inches, or 
more, in a week's time ; in the other none appeared, 
till after the pot had been removed for a similar period 
into the air again. Seeds buried in the ground to a 
greater depth than is natural to them do not vegetate, 
but they often retain their power of vegetation for an 
unlimited period. Earth taken from a considerable 
depth will, when exposed to the air, be soon covered 
with young plants, especially of Thistles, or of the Cress 
or Mustard kind, though no seeds have been allowed 
to have access to it. If the ground in old established 
botanic gardens be dug much deeper than ordinary, it 
frequently happens that species which have been long 


lost are recovered, from their seeds being latent in the 
3oil, as I have been assured by Mr. Fairbairn of Chelsea 
garden, and others. (14) 

The integuments of the seed, having, fulfilled their 
destined office of protection, burst and decay. The 
young root is the first part of the infant plant that comes 
forth, and by an unerring law of Nature, it is sent down- 
wards, to seek out nourishment as well as to fix the plant 
to the ground. In sea- weeds, Fuci, Ulvce, and Confer- 
vte> it seems merely to answer the latter purpose. In 
the Dodder, Cuscuta, a parasitical plant, the original 
root lasts only till the stems have established themselves 
on some vegetable, on whose juices they feed by means 
of other roots or fibres, and then withers away. 

The descent of the root, and the ascent of the leaf- bud 
in a contrary direction, are ingeniously explained by Dr. 
Darwin, Phyfologia, Sect. 9. 3, on the principle of the 
former being stimulated by moisture, and the latter by 
air, whence each elongates itself where it is most exci- 
ted. This is perhaps more satisfactory than any me- 
chanical hypothesis. In whatever position seeds happen 
to lie in the earth, the root makes more or less of a 
curve in order to shoot downwards. Mr. Hunter sowed 
a number of seeds in a basket of earth placed on an axis, 
by which their position was a little altered every day. 
After the basket had thus made two or three circumvol- 
utions, the young roots were found to have formed as 
many turns in attempting to attain their natural perpen- 

(14) [Exotic plants are often found growing where the ballast 
•f vessels has been thrown, and their seeds exposed to the air.] 


dicular direction. Mr. Knight has ascertained, PliiL 
Trans, for 1806, that a strong centrifugal force applied 
to vegetating seeds will considerably divert the root from 
this direction outwards, while the stem seems to have a 
centripetal inclination. (15) 

The young root, if it grew in a soil which afforded no 
inequality of resistance, would probably in every case be 
perfectly straight, like the radical fibres of bulbous roots 
in water ; but as scarcely any soil is so perfectly homo- 
geneous, the root acquires an uneven or zigzag figure. 
It is elongated chiefly at its extremity*, and has always, 
at that part especially, more or less of a conical or taper- 
ing figure. 

When the young root has made some progress, the 
two lobes, commonly of a hemispherical figure, which 
compose the chief bulk of the seed, swell and expand, 
and are raised out of the ground by the ascending stem. 

(15) [In this experiment a number of seeds of the Garden 
Bean were confined on the surface of a vertical wheel, which 
was made to revolve rapidly by a stream of water that like- 
wise moistened the seeds. When germination took place, the 
radicles tended uniformly toward the circumference and the 
plumules towards the centre. When the wheel was placed hor- 
izontally, the radicles and plumules pursued an oblique direc- 
tion, intermediate between that of the centrifugal and gravitating 
forces. Mr. Knight accounts mechanically for the direction of 
the young plant, upon the principle of gravitation, the radicle 
being elongated by parts successively added to its apex or point, 
the plumule by the extension of parts already formed.] 

* As may be seen by marking the fibres of Hyacinth roots in 
water, or the roots of Peas made to vegetate in wet cotton wool. 


These are called the Cotyledons, f. 4. Between them 
is seated the Embryo or germ of the plant, called by 
Linnaeus Corculum or little heart, in allusion to the heart 
of the walnut. Mr. Knight denominates it the germen, 
but that term is appropriated to a very different part, 
the rudiment of the fruit. The expanding Embryo, re- 
sembling a little feather, has been for that reason named 
by Linnaeus Plumula ; it soon becomes a tuft of young 
leaves, with which the young stem, if theie be any, as- 
cends. Till the leaves unfold, and sometimes after, the 
cotyledons, assuming their green colo ir, perform their 
functions ; then the latter generally wither. This may 
be seen in the Radish, Lupine, Garden Bean, and vari- 
ous umbelliferous plants, in all which the expanded coty- 
ledons are remarkably different from the true leaves. 
Such is the general course of vegetation in plants fur- 
nished with two cotyledons, or dicotyledones ; but I 
have already mentioned a very distinct tribe called mo* 
nocotyledones ; see p. 60. These are the Grass and 
Corn tribe, Palms, the ' eautiful Orchis family, and 
many others. In these the body of the seed does not 
ascend out of the ground, and they are rather to be con- 
sidered as having no cotyledon at all. See Mr. Salis- 
bury's paper in the Transactions of the Linnean Socie- 
ty, v. 7, on the germination of the Orchis tribe. We 
reserve more particular remarks on this subject till we 
examine the structure of seeds. 

Some plants are reckoned by Linnaeus to have many 
cotyledons, as the Fir and Cypress. But the germina- 
tion of these differs in no respect from that of the gene- 
rality of dicotyledones. Mr. Lambert, in his splendid 


history of the genus Pimis, has illustrated this peculiarity 
of structure in the SwibS P. Cembra ; see our tab. 1, 
Jig. 2. In the Dombeya, or Norfolk Island Pine, the co- 
tyledons are very diclinctly four : stcjig. 3. 

The preservation of the vital principle in seeds is 
one of those wonders of Nature which pass unregarded, 
from being every day under our notice. Some lose 
their vegetative power by being kept out of the ground 
ever so little a while after they are ripe, and in order to 
succeed must sow themselves in their own way, and at 
their own time. Others may be sent round the world 
through every vicissitude of climate, or buried for ages 
deep in the ground, till favourable circumstances cause 
them to vegetate. Great degrees of heat, short of boiU 
ing, do not impair the vegetative power of seeds, nor do 
we know any degree of cold that has such an effect. 
Those who convey seeds from distant countries, should 
be instructed to keep them dry ; for if they receive any 
damp sufficient to cause an attempt at vegetation, they 
necessarily die, because the process cannot, as they are 
situated, go on. If, therefore, they are not exposed to 
so great an artificial heat as might change the nature of 
their oily juices, they can scarcely, according to the ex- 
perience of Mr. Salisbury, be kept in too warm a place. 
By the preservation of many seeds so long under ground, 
it seems that long-continued moisture is not in itself fatal 
to their living powers ; neither does it cause their pre- 
mature germination, unless accompanied by some action 
of the air. 

It is usual with gardeners to keep Melon and Cucum- 
ber seeds for a few years, in order that the future plants 


may grow less luxuriantly, and be more abundant in 
blossoms and fruit. Dr. Darwin accounts for this from 
the damage which the cotyledons may receive from 
keeping, by which their power of nourishing the infant 
plant, at its first germination, is lessened, and it be- 
comes stunted and dwarfish through its whole duration. 
Dr. Thomson of Edinburgh, in his System of Chem- 
istry, vol. 4, 374, has published a very satisfactory ex- 
planation of one part of the functions of the cotyledons. 
Several philosophers have discovered that very soon after 
the seed begins to imbibe moisture, it gives out a quan- 
tity of carbonic acid gas, even though no oxygen gas be 
present. In this case the process stops here, and no 
germination takes place. But if oxygen gas be present, 
it is gradually absorbed in the same proportion. At the 
same time the farina of the cotyledons becomes sweet, 
being converted into sugar. " Hence it is evident," 
says this intelligent writer, " that the farina is changed 
into sugar, by diminishing its carbon, and of course by 
augmenting the proportion of its hydrogen and oxygen.* 
This is precisely the process of malting, during which it 
is well known that there is a considerable heat evolved. 
We may conclude from this, that during the germina- 
tion of seeds in the earth, there is also an evolution of 
a considerable portion of heat. This indeed might 
have been expected, as it usually happens when oxygen 
gas is absorbed. So far seems to be the work of che- 
mistry alone ; at least we have no right to conclude that 

* This is also the opinion of M. de Saussure, Recherchr 
Chimiques sur la Vegetation^ p. 1 6. 


any other agent interferes ; since hay, when it happens 
to imbibe moisture, exhibits nearly the same proces- 

I conceive the evolution of this heat may powerfully 
further the progress of vegetation by stimulating the vi- 
tal principle of the embryo, till its leaves unfold and as- 
sume their functions. It is necessary to observe, that 
the above process equally takes place, whether the farin- 
aceous particles be lodged in the bulk of the cotyledons 
themselves, or compose a separate body, called by au- 
thors the albumen, as in grasses and corn; 

t M ] 



We begin the description of the completely formed 
vegetable by its Root, as being the basis of all the rest, 
as well as the first part produced from the seed. Its 
use in general is two-fold ; to fix the plant to a com- 
modious situation, and to derive nourishment for its 
support. This part is therefore commonly plunged 
deeply into the ground, having, as we have already 
shown, a natural tendency to grow downwards. In 
some cases however, when plants grow on the stems or 
biunches of others, as the Dodder or Cuscuta, several 
Ferns, and a portion of the Orchis tribe, the root is 
closely attached to the bark, from which it draws nour- 
ishment, by the under side only, the upper being bare. 

The Root consists of two parts, Caudex the body of 
the Root, and Radicula the fibre. The latter only is es- 
sential, being the part which imbibes nourishment. 

Roots are either of annual, biennial or perennial dura- 
tion. The first belong to plants which live only one 
year, or rather one summer, as Barley ; the second to 
such as are produced one season, and, living through 
the ensuing winter, produce flowers and fruit the follow- 
ing summer, as Wheat ; and the third to those which 
live and blossom through many succeeding seasons to an 
indefinite period, as trees, and many herbaceous plants. 
The term biennial is applied to any plant that is produ- 
ced one year and flowers another, provided it flow 


fcut once, whether that event takes place the second 
year, as usual, or whether, from unfavourable circum- 
stances, it may happen to be deferred to any future 
time. This is often the case with the Lavatera aborea, 
Tree Mallow, Engl. Bot. t. 1841, and some other 
plants, especially when growing out of their natural soil 
or station. Linnaeus justly observes that however har- 
dy with respect to cold such plants may prove before 
they blossom, they perish at the first approach of the 
succeeding winter, nor can any artificial heat preserve 
them. This is, no doubt, to be attributed to the ex- 
haustion of their vital energy by flowering. Several 
plants of hot climates, naturally perennial and even 
shrubby, become annual in our gardens, as the Tropao- 
lum, Garden Nasturtium. 

In the Turnip, and sometimes the Carrot, Parsnep, 
Sec, the Caudcx or body of the root is above-ground 
and bare, becoming as it were a stem. Linnaeus indeed 
calls the stems of trees " roots above-ground ;" but 
this seems paradoxical and scarcely correct. Perhaps it 
would be more ace. irate to say the caudex is a subter- 
raneous stem ; but we rather presume it has functions 
distinct from the stem, analogous, as has been hinted/;. 
75, to digestion, at least in those plants whose stems are 
annual though their roots are perennial. 

The fibres of the root, particularly those extremities of 
them which imbibe nourishment from the earth, are in 
every case strictly annual. During the winter, or torpid 
season of the year, the powers of roots lie dormant, 
which season therefore is proper for their transplanta- 
tion. After they have begun to throw out new fibres.. 


it is more or less dangerous, or even fatal, to remove 
them. Very young annual plants, as they form new 
fibres with great facility, survive transplantation tolera- 
bly well, provided they receive abundant supplies of wa- 
ter by the leaves till the root has recovered itself. 

Botanists distinguish several different kinds of roots, 
which are necessary to be known, not only for botanical 
purposes, but as being of great importance in agricul- 
ture and gardening. The generality of roots may be 
arranged under the following heads. 

1. Radix fibrosa, fig. 5. A Fibrous Root. The most 
simple in its nature of all, consisting only of fibres, 
either branched or undivided, which convey nourish- 
ment direcdy to the basis of the stem or leaves. 
Many grasses, as Poa annua, Engl. Bot. t. 1141, and 
the greater part of annual herbs, have this kind of root. 
The radical fibres of grasses that grow in loose sand 
are remarkably downy, possibly for the purpose of 
fixing them more securely to so slippery a support, or 
to multiply the surface or points of absorption in so 
meagre a source of nutriment. The fibres of some 
parasitical plants already alluded to, particularly of 
the beautiful genus Epidendrum, are peculiarly thick 
and fleshy, not only for the purpose of imbibing the 
more nourishment, but also to bind them so strongly 
to the branches of trees, as to defy the force of winds 
upon their large and rigid leaves. 

2. Radix repens, f. 6. A Creeping Root, as in Mint, 
Mentlia. A kind of subterraneous stem, creeping, 


and branching off horizontally, and throwing out 
fibres as it goes. This kind of root is extremely te- 
nacious of life, for any portion of it will grow. Hence 
weeds furnished with it are among the most trouble- 
some, as the different sorts of Couch-grass, Triticum 
repens, Engl. Bot. t. 909, Hblcus mollis, t. 1170, &c; 
while, on the other hand, many sea-side grasses, hav- 
ing such a root, prove of the most important service 
in binding down loose blowing sand, and so resisting 
the encroachments of the ocean. These are princi- 
pally Carex arenaria, Engl. Bot. t. 928, Arundo are- 
naria, t. 520, and Elymus arenarius, t. 1672. 

3. Radix fusiformis, f. 7. A Spindle-shaped or Ta- 
pering Root. Of this the Carrot, Parsnep and Rad- 
ish are familiar examples. Such a root is formed, on 
the principle of a wedge, for penetrating perpendicu- 
larly into the ground. It is common in biennial 
plants, but not peculiar to them. The caudex, which 
is the spindle shaped part, abounds with the proper 
secreted juices of the plant, and throws out numerous 
fibres or radicles, which are in fact the real roots, as 
they alone imbibe nourishment. 

4. Radix prcemorsa,f. 8. An Abrupt Root, is natu- 
rally inclined to the last- mentioned form, but from 
some decay or interruption in its descending point, it 
becomes abrupt, or as it were bitten off. Scabiosa 
succisa, DevWs-bit, Scabious, Engl. Bot. t. 878, 
Hedypnois hirta, t. 555, and some other Hawkweeds, 
have this kind of root, the old opinion concerning 



which cannot be better described than in Gerarde's 
Herbal, under the plant first named, p. 726.(16) 

" The great part of the root seemeth to be bitten 
away : old fantasticke charmers report, that the divel 
did bite it for envie, because it is an herbe that hath 
so many good vertues, and is so beneficial to man- 
kinde." The malice of the devil has unhap- 
pily been so successful that no virtues can now be 
found in the remainder of the root or herb. ' 

5. Radix tuberosa, f. 9. A Tuberous or Knobbed 

Root, is of many different kinds. The most genuine 
consists of fleshy knobs, various in form, connected 
by common stalks or fibres, as in the Potatoe, Sola- 
num tuberosum, and Jerusalem Artichoke*, Helian- 
thus tuberosus J acq. Hort. Find. t. 161. These knobs 
are reservoirs of nourishment, moisture, and vital en- 
ergy. Several of the Vetch or Pea kind are furnish- 
ed with them on a smaller scale ; see Vicia lathyroi- 
des, Engl. Bot. 1 1. 30, and several species of Tri folium, 
either annuals, as glomeratum, t. 1063, or perennials, 
as fragiferum, t. 1050. — The knobs in these instan- 
ces are only of annual duration ; in the Pceonia, Paso- 
ny, t. 1513, and Spiroza Fihpendula, Dropvvort, t. 

(16) [A striking example of the abrupt root is found in the 
Viola fiedata, a North American blue Violet, with many cleft 
leaves. This root however is not abrupt from any decay of its 
descending- point.} 

* A corruption, as I presume, of the Italian name Girasolr 
Articiocco, sun-flower Artichoke, as the plant was first brought 
from Peru to Italy, and thence propagated throughout Europe. 


284, they are perennial. — In the Orchidete of Europe 
they are mostly biennial. The root in many of the 
latter consists either of a pair of globular or oval bod- 
ies,/ 10, as in Satyrium kircinum, Engl. Bot. t. 34, 
Ophrys aranifera, t. 65, and apifera, t. 383 ; or are 
palmate, that is, shaped somewhat like the human 
hand,/ 11, as in Orchis maculata, t. 632. Of these 
globular or palmate knobs or bulbs one produces the 
herb and flowers of the present year, withering au ay 
towards autumn, and the other is reserved for the fol- 
lowing season, while in the mean time a third is pro- 
duced to succeed the latter. The knobs of Ophrys 
spiralis, t. 541, are formed three or four years before 
they flower, and their flowering appears to be occa- 
sionally deferred to a more distant period. The root 
of Satirium albidum, t. 505, consists of three pairs of 
tapering knobs or bulbs,/ 12, which flower in suc- 
cession. On the contrary, Ophrys monorchism t. 71, 
forms its new bulb so late that it is not perfected till 
the autumn immediately preceding its flowering, and 
the plant seems to have but one bulb. Ophrys Ni- 
dus avis, t. 48, has clusters of cylindrical knobs, 
which are formed, and also wither away, in parcels, 
each parcel being equivalent to one of the above-men- 
tioned bulbs. 

Such of the Orchis tribe as have biennial bulbs are 
supposed to be very difficult of cultivation ; but, ac- 
cording to the experience of my excellent friend the 
late Mr. Crowe, in whose garden I have seen them 
many successive years, they are best removed when 
in full flower, the earth being cleared completely 


away from the roots, which are then to be replanted 
in their natural soil previously dried and sifted. Af- 
terwards they must be well watered. The bulb for 
the following year has not at the flowering period be- 
gun to throw out its fibres, for after that happens it 
will not bear removal. Satyrium albidum having, 
as mentioned above, so many pairs of roots, the 
growth of some of which is always going on, has hith- 
erto not been found to survive transplantation at all. 

Iris tuberosa y Sin. Fl. Grcec. Sibth. t. 41, has a 
root very analogous to these just described, but /. 
jiorentina and /. germanica, t. 39 and 40 of the same 
work, have more properly creeping roots, though so 
thick and fleshy in their substance, and so slow in 
their progress, that they are generally denominated 

6. Radix bulbosa. A Bulbous Root, properly so cal- 
led, is either solid,/! 13, as in Crocus, Ixia, Gladio- 
lus, &c. ; tunicate, f. 14, tunicata, composed of con- 
centric layers enveloping one another as in Allium, 
the Onion tribe ; or scaly, f. 15, consisting of 
fleshy scales connected only at their base, as in Lilium, 
the White or Orange Lily. The two latter kinds 
have the closest analogy with leaf- buds. They are 
reservoirs of the vital powers of the plant during the 
season when those powers are torpid or latent, and in 
order to perform the functions of roots, they first pro- 
duce fibres, which are the actual roots. The strict 
affinity between bulbs and buds appears from the 
scaly buds formed on the stem of the Orange Lily, 
Lilium bulbiferum, which fall to the ground, and, 


throwing out fibres from their base, become bulbous 
roots*. The same thing happens in Dentaria bul- 
bifera, Engl. Bot. t. 309, and Saxifraga cernua, t. 

These two last-mentioned plants however have 
scaly roots, like the Toothwort, Lathrcea Squamaria, 
t. 50, which seem bulbs lengthened out. Whether 
they would, in the torpid season of the year, bear re- 
moval like bulbs, we have no information. If dis- 
turbed at other times they are immediately killed. 
Many plants with solid bulbs are provided by Nature 
to inhabit sandy countries, over the face of which, in 
the dry season succeeding their flowering, they are 
scattered by the winds to a great distance, as happens 
to our own Poa buibosa, Engl. Bot. t. 1071, as well 
as to numerous beautiful productions of the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

7. Radix articulata, or granulata,/. 16. A Jointed or 
Granulated Root agrees very much with those de- 
scribed in the last section. The Oxalis Acetosella, 
Wood Sorrel, Engl. Bot. t. 762, and Saxifraga 
granulata, White Saxifrage, t. 500, are instances of 
it. The former has most affinity with scaly bulbs, 
the latter with solid ones. 
It is evident that fleshy roots, whether of a tuberous 

or bulbous nature, must, at all times, powerfully resist 

* I have had scaly buds form even on the flowerstalk of La- 
chenalia tricolor. Curt. Mag. t. 82, whilst lying for many weeks 
between papers to dry, which, on being put into the ground, 
have become perfect plants, though of slow growth. 


drought. We have already mentioned, p. 48, the ac- 
quisition of a bulb in Phleum pratensc,{l~t) Engl. Bot. t. 
1076, whenever that grass is situated in a fluctuating 
soil, by which its vital powers are supported while the 
fibrous roots are deprived of their usual supplies. In 
this state it becomes the Phleum jwdosum of authors ; 
but on being removed to a thoroughly wet soil, it re- 
sumes the entirely fibrous root, and luxuriant growth, 
of Ph. pratense. I have also found Alopecurus genicula- 
tusy t. 1250, (an aquatic grass, whose root is naturally 
fibrous and creeping,) growing with an ovate juicy bulb 
on the top of a dry wall. This variety has been taken 
for the true A. Bulbosus, t. 1249, which has always 
bulbs even in its native marshes. We see the wisdom 
of this provision of Nature in the grasses above mention- 
ed, nor may the cause be totally inexplicable. When a 
tree happens to grow from seed on a wall, it has been 
observed, on arriving at a certain size, to stop for a 
while, and send down a root to the ground. As soon 
as this root was established in the soil, the tree continu- 
ed increasing to a large magnitude.* Here the vital 
powers of the tree not being adequate, from scanty nou- 
rishment, to the usual annual degree of increase in the 
branches, were accumulated in the root, which therefore 
was excited to an extraordinary exertion, in its own nat- 
ural direction, downward. There is no occasion then to 

(17) [Common Herds grass with us, or Timothy grass. "j 

* A particular fact of this kind concerning an ash was coin 
municated to me by the late Rev. Dr. Walker of Edinburgh- 
See also Trans, of Linn. Soc. v. 2. 268. 


suppose, as some have done, that the tree had any in- 
formation of the store of food at the foundation of the 
wall, and voluntarily sent down its root to obtain it ; nor 
is it wonderful that the Author of life should provide 
for it as effectually as it could' for itself, had it really 
been a reflecting being.(18) So in the case of the 
grasses in question, I presume the herb being in the 
first instance starved, by a failure of the nutrimental flu- 
ids hitherto conveyed by the water of the soil, its growth 
would be checked, and when checked, the same growth 
could not, as we know by observation on vegetation in 
general, be instantaneously renewed. A sudden fresh 
supply of food would therefore cause an accumulation 

(18) [" A tree growing upon a wall and unconnected with 
the earth, will almost of necessity grow slowly ; and as it must 
he scantily supplied with moisture during the summer, it will 
rarely produce any other leaves than those which the buds con- 
tained, which were formed in the preceding year. Some of the 
roots of a tree thus circumstanced, will be less well supplied 
with moisture than others, and these will be first affected by 
drought : their points will in consequence become rigid and in- 
expansible, and they will thence generally cease to elongate at 
an early period in the summer. The descending current of sap, 
will then be employed in promoting the growth and elongation 
of those roots only which are more favourably situated, and 
those, comparatively with other parts of the tree, will grow 
rapidly. Gravitation will direct these roots perpendicularly 
downward, and the tree will appear to have adopted the wisest 
and best plan of connecting itself with the ground ; and it wilt 
really have employed the readiest means of doing so, as effec- 
tually as it could have done if it had possessed all the feelings 
and instinctive passions and powers of animal life. The subse- 


of vital energy in the root, which would consequently 
assume a degree of vigour and a luxuriant mode of 
growth not natural to it, and become bulbous. Thus 
it acquires a resource against such checks in future, 
and the herb is preserved alive, though in a very far less 
luxuriant state than when regularly and uniformly sup- 
plied with its requisite nourishment. These are not 
solitary instances. It is well worthy the attention of an 
intelligent cultivator to seek them out, and turn them to 
his advantage. 

quent vigorous growth of such a tree, is the natural consequence 
of an improved and more extensive pasture." T. A. Knight. 

The same ingenious author has adduced other facts and ex- 
periments to disprove the existence of instinct or perception in 
the roots of plants. He considers that where roots are found 
tending toward water or a rich soil, it is not because the piant 
originally sent most of its roots in that direction ; but because 
the roots which accidentally tended that way, met with a larger 
supply of nourishment, and increased rapidly in size and length ; 
while those which were in contact with dry and barren soil were 
stunted and increased but little — See his paper in the Phil. 
Trans, for 1811] 

[ 105 } 



Linnaeus enumerates seven kinds of Trunks, Sterns^ 
or Stalks of Vegetables. These are necessary to be 
known, for botanical distinctions, though some are more 
important than others, both in that respect and in a 
physiological point of view. 

1. Caulis. A Stem properly so called, which bears 
or elevates from the root, the leaves as well as flowers. 
The trunks and branches of all trees and shrubs come 
under this denomination, as well as of a great pro- 
portion of herbaceous plants, especially annuals. 

The Stem is either simple, as in the White Lily, or 
branched, as in most instances. When it is regular- 
ly and repeatedly divided, and a flower springs from 
each division, it is called caulis dichotomus, f. 17, a 
forked stem, as in Chlora perfoliata, Bot. t. 60, as 
well as the common Mouse-ear Chickweeds, (18) Ce- 
rastium vulgatum, t. 789, and viscosum, t. 790. 

Though generally leafy, a stem may be partially- 
naked, or even entirely so in plants destitute of leaves 
altogether as the Creeping Cereus, Cactus flagellifor- 
mis, Curt. Mag. t. 17, various exotic species of 
Euphorbia or Spurge, and the whole genus of Stapelia, 
In Orobanche, it is scaly,/ 18, squamosus. 

(18) [Native.] 


With respect to mode of growth, the Stem is 

Erectus, upright, as in Yellow Loosestrife, Lysimachia 
vulgaris. Ejigl. Bot. t. 761. 

ProcumbenSy procumbent, Wood Loosestrife, L. nem- 
orum, t. 527. (19) 

Repens, creeping, Creeping Loosestrife, L. Nummula- 
ria, t. 528, and Creeping Crowfoot, Ranunculus rep- 
ens, t. 516. (20) 

Adscendens, ascending obliquely without support, as 
Panicum sanguinale, t. 849. (21) 

Prostratus, prostrate, or Depressus, depressed, when it 
lies remarkably flat, spreading horizontally over the 
ground, as in Coldenia procumbens ; also Coronopus 
Ruellii, Swine's-cress, Engl. Bot. t. 1660. 

Reclinatus, reclining, curved towards the ground, as in 
Ficus, the Fig, Rubus, the Bramble, he. 

Radicans,/. 19, clinging to any other body for support, 
by means of fibres, which do not imbibe nourishment, 
as Hedera Helix, Engl. Bot. t. 1267, Vitis quinquefo- 
lia, Sm. Insects of Georgia, t. 30. Bignonia radi- 
cans, Curt. Mag. t. 485.(22) — Linnaeus, Philosoph- 
ia Botannica 39, has expressed this by the term re- 
pens, but has corrected it in his own copy. Still he 
does not distinguish between these plants, and those 

(19) [Lying along the ground, as in Knot grass, Polygonum 
aviculare, and Purslane, Portulacca oleracea.l 

(20) [Native.] 

(21) [The Panicum sanguinale, or fingered grass, with us 
usually sends forth roots from the lower joints, and is not strict- 
ly without support.] 

(22) [The two last are American plants.] 


whose stems throw out real roots, which last only are 
justly called creeping, whether they grow on the 
ground like those above mentioned, or on other 
plants, like Cuscuta, Dodder, Engl. Bot. t. 55 and 
378. See/>. 84. 

Scandens, climbing ; either with spiral tendrils for its 
support, as the Vine, Vitis\ the various species of 
Passion-flower, Passijlora, caerulea, Curt. Mag. t. 28 
alata, t. 66, &.C. and Bryonia dioica, Red-berried Bry- 
ony, Engl. Bot. t. 439 ; or by adhesive fibres, as in 
the preceding parapraph. 

Volubilis, twining round other plants by its own spiral 
form, either from left to right, f. 20, supposing the 
observer in the centre, (or in other words, according 
to the apparent motion of the sun,) as the Black Bry- 
ony, Tamus communis, Engl. Bot. t. 91, the Honey- 
suckles, Lonicera Caprifolium, t. 799, and Pericly- 
menum, t. 800, and Polygolum Convolvulus, (23) t. 
941 ; or from right toleft,y^ 21, contrary to the sun, 
as theGreat Bindweed, Convolvulus sepium,(24) t. 313, 
the French Bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, Ger. em. 1212, 
Jig. 1, &c. — Figures of plants being sometimes re- 
versed by the engraver, in that case give a wrong rep- 
resentation of the circumstance in question, witness 
Lonicera Pericly menum in Curtis's Flora Londinen- 
sis, fasc. 1. t. 15, and many instances might be 
pointed out of its not being attended to at all. 

Flagellijormis, long and pliant, like the Common Jas- 
mine, Jasminum officinale, Curt. Mag. t. 31, or 
$lue Box-thorn, Lycium barbarum. 

(23) [Native.] (24) [Native.] 


Sarmentosus, trailing. A creeping stem, barren of 
flowers, thrown out from the root for the purpose of 
increase, is called sarmentum or flagellum, a runner, 
f. 22, as in the Strawberry, Fragaria vesca, Engl. 
Bot. t. 1524. When leafy it is generally denomin- 
ated stolo, a sucker or scyon, as in Bugle, Ajuga rep- 
tans, t. 489, and Viola odorata, the Sweet Violet, t. 
619. When the stolo has taken root, it sometimes 
flowers the first year, see Curt. Lond. fasc. 1. t. 63, 
but generally not till the following season. 

Rectus, straight, as in Lilium, the different species of 
garden Lily. 

Strictus, expreses only a more absolute degree of 

Laxus or Diffusus, loosely spreading, has a contrary 
meaning, as in Bunias Cakile, Sea Rocket, Engl. 
Bot. t. 231, and Sedum acre y Biting Stone- crop, t, 

Flexuosus, zigzag, forming angles alternately from right 
to left and from left to right, as in Smilax aspera, 
Ger. em. 859, and many of that genus, also Staticc 
reticulata, Matted Sea Lavender, Engl. Bot. t. 328. 
In a less degree it is not imfrequent. See Atriplcx 
pedunculata, t. 232. 

Alterne ramosus, alternately branched, as Polygonum 
minus, t. 1043, Dianthus deltoides, t. 61, &c. 

Distichus, two-ianked, when the branches spread in two 
horizontal directions, as in the Silver Fir, Pinus picea, 
Duhamel, Arb. v. 1. t. 1. (25) 

(25) [Also in the Hemlock tree, Pinus Canadensis.~\ 


Brachiatus, brachiate, or four-ranked, when they spread 
in four directions, crossing each other alternately in 
pairs ; a very common mode of growth in shrubs that 
have opposite leaves, as the Common Lilac, Syringa 

Eamosissimus, much branched, is applied to a stem re- 
peatedly subdivided into a great many branches with- 
out order, as that of an Apple- or Pear-tree, or Goose - 

Prolifer, proliferous, shooting out new branches from 
the summits of the former ones*, as in the Scotch 
Fir, Pinus sylvestris, Lambert's Pinus, t. 1. and Ly- 
copodium annotinum, Engl. Bot. t- 1727. This is 
obsolete, and seldom used. 

Determinate ramosus, f. 23, abruptly branched, when 
each branch, after terminating in flowers, produces a 
number of fresh shoots in a circular order from just 
below the origin of those flowers. This term occurs 
frequently in the later publications of Linnaeus, par- 
ticularly the second Mantissa, but I know not that he 
has any where explained its meaning. It is exempli- 
fied in Azalea nudi flora, (26) Curt. Mag. t. 180, Erica 
Tetralix, Engl. Bot. t. 1014, many Cape Heaths, 
and other shrubs of the same Natural Order. (27) 

* Linn. Phil. Bot. sect. 82. 28. 

(26) [Native] 

(27) \Verticillatus, a verticillate stem gives off its branches at 
regular intervals in whorls, like rays from a centre, as in the 
White Pine, Pinus strobus. 

Divaricatus, a divaricate stem, sends its branches obliquely 
downward, so as to form an obtuse angle with the stem above, 
and an acute angle below.] 


Articulatus, jointed, as in Samphire, Sallcornia annua, 
Engl. Bot. t. 415, and more remarkably in the In- 
dian Figs, Cactus Tuna, &c. 

In shape the stem is 

Teres,/. 32, round, as in Trollius europaeus, Engl. Bot. 
t. 28, and Hydrangea Hortensis, Sm. Ic. Pict. t. 12. 

Anceps, two-edged, as Sisyrinchium striatum, Sm. Ic. 
Pict. t. 9. S. gramineum, (28) Curt. Mag. t. 464, 
and some of the genus Lathyrus. 

Trigonus, or Triangularis, triangular or three-edged, as 
Cactus triangularis, Plukenet, t. 29. f. 3. 

Triqueter, three-sided, is applied to a stem with 3 flat 

Tetragonus, or Quadrangularis, square, as Lamium al- 
bum, White Dead-nettle, Engl. Bot. t. 768, and a 
multitude of other plants. 

Pentagonus, or Quinquangularis, fivesided, as Aspara- 
gus horridus, Cavanilles Ic. t. 136, where however 
the character is not well expressed. 

When the number of angles is either variable, or 
more than five, it is usual merely to describe the stem 
as angulosus, angular, except where the precise num- 
ber makes a specific difference, as in the genus Cac- 

Alatus, f. 36, winged, when the angles are extended 
into flat leafy borders, as Passifiora alata, Curt. Mag. 
t. 66, Lathyrus latifolius, Engl. Bot. #.'1108, and 
many others of the Pea kind, besides several Thistles, 

("28) [Native.] 


as Carduus acanthoides, t. 973, palustris, t. 974, and 
Centaur ea solstitialis, t. 243.(29) 

The Surface of the Stem is 
Glaber, smooth, opposed to all kinds of hairiness or 

pubescence, as in Petty Spurge, Euphorbia Peplus, 

Engl. Bot. t. 959, and numerous plants besides. 
Lcevis> smooth and even, opposed to all roughness and 

inequality whatever, as in the last example, and also 

Euonymus europceus, t. 362. 
Nitidus, polished, smooth and shining, as Chcerophyllum 

sylvestre, t. 752. 
Viscidus, viscid, covered with a clammy juice, as Lych- 
nis Viscaria, t. 788. 
Verrucosus, warty, like Euonymus verrucosus, Jacq. Fl. 

Austriaca, t. 49, and Malpighia volubilis, Curt. Mag. 

t. 809. 
Papillosus, papillose, covered with soft tubercles, as the 

Ice plant, Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Dill. 

Elth. t. 180. 
Scaber, rough to the touch from any little rigid inequal- 
ities, opposed to Icevis, as Caucalis Anthriscus, Engl. 

Bot. t. 987, Centaur ea nigra, t. 278, and Stellaria 

holostea, t. 511. 
Hispidus, bristly, as Borage, Borago officinalis, t. 36, 

and Chara hispida, t. 463. 
Hirtus, or Pilosus, hairy, as Salvia pratensis, t. 153, and 

Cerastium alpinum, t. 472. 

(29) [Also the Spear Thistle, Carduus orCnicus lanceolatus, and 
Cotton Thistle, Ono/iordon .dca?itluum.~\ 


Tomcntosus, downy, as Geranium rotundifolium , t. 157, 

very soft to the touch. 
Villosus, shaggy, as Cineraria integri folia, t. 1 52. 
Lanatus, woolly, as Verbascum pulverulentum, t. 487, 

V. Thapsus, (30) t. 549, and Santolina maritima, t. 

Incanus, hoary, as Wormwood, Artemisia Absinthium, t. 

1230, and A triplex portulacoides, t. 261, in the for- 
mer case from close silky hairs, in the latter from a 

kind of scaly mealiness. 
Glaucus, clothed with fine sea-green mealiness which 

easily rubs off, as Chlora perforata, t. 60, and Pit! 

monaria maritima, t. 368.(31) 
Striatus, striated, marked with fine parallel lines, as 

Ocnanthe jistulosa, t. 363. 
Sulcatus, furrowed, with deeper lines, as Smyrnium 

Olusatrum, t. 230. 
Maculatus, spotted, as Hemlock, Conium maculatum, t. 

1191. (32) 

The spines and prickles of the stem will be explained 

Internally the stem is either solidus, solid, as that of 
Inula crithmoides, t. 68, and numerous others ; or ca- 
vus, hollow, as in Cineraria palustris, t. 151, as well as 
Hemlock, and many umbelliferous plants besides. (33) 

(30) [Common Mullein.] 

(31) [Likewise Rubus occidentalis, the common Black 

(32) [Native.] . 

(33) [Some botanists use the terms solidus, solid; z'/zam's, pithy j 
dLtidJistiilosus, fistulous or hollow.] 

OF STEMS. lit) 

Plants destitute of a stem are called acaules, stemless, 
as Neottia acaulis, Exot. Bot. t. 105, and Carduus 
acaulis, Engl. Bot. t. 161. Sueh plants, when they be- 
long to a genus or family generally furnished with 
stems, as in these instances and Carlina acaulis, Camer. 
Epit. 428, are liable from occasional luxuriance to ac- 
quire some degree of stem, but seldom otherwise. Pin- 
guicula, Engl. Bot. t. 70 and 145, is a genus invariably 
stemless, while Primula, t. 4, 5, 6 and 513, is much less 
truly so. The term acaulis however must never be too 
rigidly understood, for logical precision is rarely appli- 
cable to natural productions. 

Caulis fascicidatus, a clustered stem, is a disease or 
accident, in which several branches or stems are 
united longitudinally into a flat broad figure, 
crowded with leaves or flowers at the extremity. 
It occurs in the Ash, several species of Daphne, 
Ranunculus, Antirrhinum, &c. In a kind oiPisum, 
called the Top-knot Pea, it is a permanent variety 
propagated by seed. 
2. Culmus. A Straw or Culm, is the peculiar Stem 
of the Grasses, Rushes, and plants nearly allied to 
them. It bears both leaves and flowers, and its na- 
ture is more easily understood than defined. Many 
botanists have thought this term superfluous. 
The Culm is occasionally 

Enodis, without joints, as in our common Rushes, 
Juncus conglomeratus, Engl. Bot. t. 835, and effu- 
sus, t. 836 ; (34) 

(34) [Bulrush in the New England states. This name is al- 
so applied to Scirfiics iacustris, a much larger plant.] 


Articulatu s, jointed, as in Agrostis alba, t. 1189, Aira 
canescens, t. 1190, Avena strigosa, t. 1266, and 
most other grasses ; 
Geniculates, bent like the knee, as Alopecurus genicu- 

latus, t. 1250. 
It is either solid or hollow, round or triangular, 
rough or smooth, sometimes hairy or downy, scarcely 
woolly. I know of no instance of such a scaly culm as 
Linnaeus has figured in his Philosophia Botanica, t. At. J*. 
Ill, nor can I conceive what he had in view. 

3. Scapus. A Stalk, springs from the Root, and 
bears the flowers and fruit, but not the leaves. Pri- 
mula vulgaris, the Primrose, Engl, Pot. t. 4, and P. 
veris, the Cowslip, t. 5, are examples of it. In the 
former the stalk is simple and single-flowered ; in the 
latter subdivided and many flowered. It is either 
naked, as in Narcissus, Engl. Pot. t. 1 7, or scaly, as 
in Tussilago Farfara, t. 429. In others of this last 
genus, t. 430 and 431, the scales become leafy, and 
render the Scapus a proper Caulis.(35) 
The Stalk is spiral in Cyclamen, Engl. Pot. t. 548> 

and Valisneria spiralis, a wonderful plant, whose history 

will be detailed hereafter. 

Linnaeus believed* that a plant could not be increased 

by its Scapus, which in general is correct, but we have 

(35) [Plants furnished with the stalk, or, as it is more fre- 
quently rendered, sca/ie ; come under the head of Acaules, or 
stemless plants, p. 112. Thus the Daffodil, Dandelion, and many 
of the Violets are stemless plants.] 

* MS8. in Phil. Bot. 40. 


already recorded an exception,/?. 101, in Lachenalia tri- 
color. The same great author has observed* that " a 
Scapus is only a species of Pedanculus." The term 
might therefore be spared, were it not found very com- 
modious in constructing neat specific definitions of 
plants. If abolished, Pedunculus radicalism a radical 
flower-stalk, should be substituted in its room. 

4. Pendunculus, the Flower-stalk, springs from the 
stem, and bears the flowers and fruit, not the leaves. 
Pedicellus, a partial flower-stalk, is the ultimate subdi- 
vision of a general one, as in the Cowslip, and Sax- 
ifraga umbrosa, Engl. Bot. t. 663. 

The Flower- stalk is 

Qaulinus, cauline, when it grows immediately out of 
the main stem, especially of a tree, as in Averrhoa 
Billimbi, Rumph Amboin, v, 1. t. 36, the Indian 
substitute for our green gooseberries. 

Rameus, growing out of a main branch, as in Averr- 
hoa Carambola, ibid. t. 35, and Eugenia malaccen- 
sis, Exot. Bot. t. 61. 

Axillaris, axillary, growing either from the bosom of 
a leaf, that is, between it and the stem, as Anchusa 
sempervirens, Engl. Bot. t. 45, and Campanula 
Trachelium, t. 12 ; or between a branch and the 
stem, as Ruppia maritima, t. 136.(36) 

Oppositifolius, opposite to a leaf, as Geranium pijreniac- 
um, t. 405, G. molle, t. 778, and Sium angustifolium, 
t. 139. 

* MSS. in Phil. Bot. 40. C 36 ) [Native.] 


Internodis, proceeding from the intermediate part of a 
branch between two leaves, as in Ehretia internodis, 
ISHeritier Stirp. t. 24, Solatium carolinensc, Dill. 
Hort. Elth. t. 259, and indicum, t. 260 ; but this 
mode of insertion is rare. 

Gemmaceus, growing out of a leaf-bud, as the Barber- 
ry, Berberis vulgaris, Engl. Bot. t. 49.(37) 

Terminalis, terminal, when it terminates a stem or 
branch, as Tuhpa sylvestris, t 63, and Centaurea Sca- 
hiosa, t. 56. 

Lateralis, lateral, when situated on the side of a stem 
or branch, as Erica vagans, t. 3. 

Solitarius, solitary, either single on a plant, as in Rubus 
Chamamorus, t. 716, or only one in the same place, 
as in Antirrhinum spurium, t. 691, and many com- 
mon plants. 

Jggregati PeduncuU, clustered flower-stalks, when sev- 
eral grow together, as in Verbascum nigrum, t. 59. 

Sparsi, scattered, dispersed irregularly over the plant 
or branches, as Linum perenne, t. 40, and Ranuncu- 
lus sceleratus, t. 681,(38) 

Unijlori, bijlori, trijiori, &c. bearing one, two, three, or 
more flowers, of which examples are needless. 

Multijlori, many-flowered, as Daphne Laureola, t. 119. 

When there is no Flower-stalk, the flowers are said 
to be Sessiles, sessile, as in Centaurea Calcitrapa, 
t. 125, and the Dodders, t. 55 and 378. 
The subject of inflorescence, or particular modes of 

flowering, will be explained in a future chapter. 

(37) [Native.] (38) [Native.] 


5. Petiolus. The Footstalk, or Leafstalk. This 
term is applied exclusively to the stalk of a leaf, which 
is either simple, as in Ranunculus parviflorus, Engl. 
Bot. t. 120, Slum angustifolium, t. 139, and all sim- 
ple leaves ; or compound, as Coriandrnm sativum, t. 
67, and Fumaria claviculata, t. 103. In the latter 
the footstalks end in tendrils, and are called Petioli 

This part is commonly channelled on the upper side. 
Sometimes it is greatly dilated and concave at the base, 
as in Angelica sylvestris, t. 1128. 

The Footstalk bears the Flower-stalk in Turnera 
ulmifolia, Linn. Hort. Cliff, t. 10. Menyanthes indica, 
Curt. Mag. t. 658, and perhaps Epimedium alpinum, 
Engl. Bot. t. 438. 

6. Frons. A frond. In this the stem, leaf and 
fructification are united, or, in other words, the flow- 
ers and fruit are produced from the leaf itself, as 
in the Fern tribe, Scolopendrium vulgare, Engl. Bot. 
t. 1150, Poly podium vulgare, t. 1149, Aspidium, t. 

(39) [The Petiole or leaf stalk may be 

Teres, round, as in the common Hollyhock. 

Semiteres, half round, as in the yellow Water Lily, Nym- 
ph&a advena. 

Comfiressus, flattened, as in the Lombardy Poplar, Pojiulus 
dilatata, also P. grandidentata, and others. 

Alatus, winged, or furnished on each side with a leafy appen- 
dage, as in the Orange tree, also in Rhus Co/iallinum, called 
Copal, Dwarf, or White Sumach. 

Cirrhifer, bearing tendrils, as in the Fumaria above, and the 
common Pea. 

Scandens, climbing, performing the office of a tendril, as in the 
Clematis Virgiraana.^ 


1458—1461, Osmuncla regalis, t. 209, &c.(40) It 

is also applied to the Lichin tribe, and others, in which 
the whole plant is either a crustaceous or a leafy sub- 
stance, from which the fructification immediately pro- 
ceeds. Linnaeus considered Palm-trees as fronds, so 
far correctly as that they have not the proper stem of 
a tree, see/?. 59; but they are rather perhaps herbs 
whose stalks bear the fructification. It must however 
be observed that the deposition of wood in ferns, 
takes place exactly as in palms. 

The term frond is now used in the class Crypto- 
gamia only. 

7. Stipes, Stipe*, is the stem of a frond, which in 
ferns is commonly scaly. See the plates cited in 
the last section. The term is likewise applied to the 
stalk of a Fungus, as the Common Mushroom, Aga- 
ricus cainpestriSy Sowerby^s Fungi, t. 305. 

(40) [Many Ferns, of the three last mentioned genera, are 
found in the United States.] 

* Martyn, Language of Botany. 

i 119 3 



Gemma, a Bud, contains the rudiments of a plant, or 
of part of a plant, for a while in a latent state, till the time 
of the year and other circumstances favour their evolu- 
tion. In the bud therefore the vital principle is dor- 
mant, and its excitability is accumulated. The closest 
analogy exists between buds and bulbs ; and indeed the 
Dentaria bu/bifera, Engl. Bot. t 309, Lilium bulbifer- 
um, Jacq. Fl. Austr. t. 226, and Gerarde emac. 193, 
with other similar plants, as mentioned p. 100, almost 
prove their identity. 

Buds of trees or shrubs, destined for cold countries, 
are formed in the course of the summer in the bosoms 
of their leaves, and are generally solitary ; but in the 
Blue-berried Honeysuckle, Lonicera ccerulea, Jacq. FL 
Austr. append, t. 17, they grow one under another for 
three successive seasons, f. 24. The buds of the Plane- 
tree, Platanus, Du Hamel Arb. v. 2. 171, are concealed 
in the footstalk, which must be removed before they 
can be seen, and which they force oifby their increase ; 
so that no plant can have more truly and necessarily de- 
ciduous leaves than the Plane. Shrubs in general have 
no buds, neither have the trees of hot climates. Lin- 
naeus once thought the presence of buds might distin- 
guish a tree from a shrub, but he was soon convinced of 
there being no real limits between them. 

120 OF THE BID. 

of the 

The situation of buds is necessarily like that 
leaves, alternate, opposite, &c. Trees with opposite 
leaves have three buds, those with alternate ones a sol- 
itary bud, at the top of each branch. Du Iiamel. 

Buds are various in their forms, but very uniform in 
the same species or even genus. They consist of scales 
closely enveloping each other, and enfolding the embryo 
plant or branch. Externally they have often an addi- 
tional guard, of gum, resin or woolliness, against wet 
and cold. The Horse Chesnut, JEsculus Hippocastanum, 
now so common with us, though, as I have learnt from 
Mr. Hawkins*, a native of Mount Pindus in Arcadia, 
is a fine example of large and wellformed buds,/! 25 ; 
and some of the American Walnuts are still more re- 

It has been already remarked, p. 84, that buds resist 
cold only till they begin to grow : hence, according to 
the nature and earliness of their buds, plants differ in 
their powers of bearing a severe or variable climate. 

Grew is elaborate on the forms of buds, and the ar- 
rangement of the spots apparent within them when cut 
transversely, which indicate the number and situation of 
their vessels. It was the character of this excellent 
man to observe every thing, without reference to any 
theory, and his book is a storehouse of facts relating to 
vegetation. Loefling, a favourite pupil of Linnaeus, 
wrote, under the eye of his great teacher, an essay on 
this subject, published in the Amxnitates Academics, v. 

* Sec a note on this subject, which Mr. R. P. Knight has 
honoured with a pla&e in the second edition of his poem on 

OF BUDS. 121 

2, in which the various forms of buds, and the different 
disposition of the leaves within them, are illustrated by 
numerous examples. The Abbe de Ramatuelle had 
taken up this subject with great zeal at Paris, about 
twenty years ago, but the result of his inquiries has not 
reached me. 

Dr. Darwin, Phytologia, sect. 9, has many acute ob- 
servations on the physiology of buds, but he appears to 
draw the analogy too closely between them and the em- 
bryo of a seed, or the chick in the e^g. By buds indeed, 
as we well know, plants are propagated, and in that 
sense each bud is a separate being, or a young plant in 
itself ; but such propagation is only the extension of 
an individual, and not a reproduction of the species as 
by seed. Accordingly, all plants increased by buds, 
cuttings, layers or roots, retain precisely the peculiar 
qualities of the individual to which they owe their origin. 
If those qualities differ from what are common to the 
species, sufficiently to constitute what is called a varie- 
ty, that variety is perpetuated through all the progeny 
thus obtained. This fact is exemplified in a thousand 
instances, none more notorious than the different kinds 
of Apples, all which are varieties of the common Crab, 
Pyrus Malus, Engl. Bot. t. 179 ; and I cannot but as- 
sent to Mr. Knight's opinion, that each individual thus 
propagated has only a determinate existence, in some 
cases longer, in others shorter ; from which cause many 
valuable varieties of apples and pears, known in former 
times, are now worn out, and others are dwindling away 
before our eyes. New varieties of Cape Geraniums, 

132 01' BUDS. 

raised from seed in our greenhouses, are of still shorter 
duration, and can be preserved by cuttings for a few 
successive seasons only ; yet several of these stand inr 
our botanic works, with all the importance of real spe- 
cies. Gardeners know how many of the most hardy 
perennial herbs require to be frequently renewed from 
seed to exist in full vigour ; and though others appear, 
to our confined experience, unlimited in that respect, 
we have many reasons to believe they are not so. Pro- 
pagation by seeds is therefore the only true reproduc- 
tion of plants, by which each species remains distinct, 
and all variations are effaced ; for though new varieties 
may arise among a great number of seedling plants, it 
does not appear that such varieties owe .their peculiari- 
ties to any that may have existed in the parent plants. 
How propagation by seed is accomplished will be ex- 
plained in a future chapter, as well as the causes of some 
varieties produced by that means. 

Mr. Knight,- in the Philosophical Transactions for 
1805, has shown that buds originate from the alburnum, 
as might indeed be expected. The trunks and branch- 
es of trees, and the knobs of genuine tuberous roots, like 
the potatoe, are studded with them ; in which respect, 
as Professor Willdenow judiciously observes, Princi- 
ples of Botany, p. 15, such roots essentially differ from 
bulbous ones, which last are themselves simple buds, 
and produce their shoots, as well as their offsets, either 
from the centre or from the base. 

The contents of buds are different, even in different 
species of the same genus, as Willows. The buds of 
some produce leaves only, others flowers ; while in oth- 

Ol- BUDS. 125 

er species the same bud bears both leaves and flowers. 
Different causes, depending on the soil or situation, 
seem in one case to generate leaf-buds, in another flower- 
buds. Thus the Solandra grandijlora, Tr. of Linn. 
Soc. v. 6. 99. t. 6, a Jamaica shrub, was for a number 
of years cultivated in the English stoves, and propaga- 
ted extensively by cuttings, each plant growing many 
feet in length every season, from abundance of moisture 
and nourishment, without showing any signs of fructifi- 
cation. At length a pot of the Solandra was accidentally 
left without water in the dry stove at Kevv ; and in con- 
sequence of this unintentional neglect, the luxuriant 
growth of its branches was greatly checked, and a flower 
came forth at the extremity of each. By a similar mode 
of treatment the same effect has since frequently been 
produced. Several plants, especially with bulbous roots, 
which blossom abundantly in their native soils, have 
hitherto defied all the art of our gardeners to produce 
this desirable effect ; yet future experience may possibly 
place it within our reach by some very simple means. 
In general, whatever checks the luxuriant production of 
leaf-buds, favours the formation of flowers and seeds. 
That variety, or perhaps species, of the Orange Lily, 
Lilium bulbifcmm, which is most prolific in buds, sel- 
dom forms seeds, or even those organs of the flower 
necessary to their perfection. So likewise the seeds of 
Mints, a tribe of plants which increase excessively by 
roots, have hardly been detected by any botanist ; and 
it is asserted by Doody in Ray's Synopsis, that when 
the elegant little Ornithopus perpusillus, Engl. Bot. t. 
:>69, does not produce pods, it propagates itself by the 
grains or tubercles of its root, though in general the 
root is annual. 

[ 12* J 



Folium, the Leaf, is a very general, but not universal, 
organ of vegetables, of an expanded form, presenting a 
much greater surface to the atmosphere than all the 
other parts of the plant together. Its colour is almost 
universally green, its internal substance pulpy and vas- 
cular, sometimes very succulent, and its upper and un- 
der surfaces commonly differ in hue, as well as in kind 
or degree of roughness. 

Leaves are eminently ornamental to plants from their 
pleasing colour, and the infinite variety as well as ele- 
gance of their forms. Their many (economical uses to 
mankind, and the importance they hold in the scale of 
nature as furnishing food to the brute creation, are sub- 
jects foreign to our present purpose, and need not here 
be insisted upon. Their essential importance to the 
plant which bears them, and the curious functions by 
which they contribute to its health and increase, will 
presently be detailed at length. We shall first explain 
their different situations, insertions, forms, and surfaces, 
which are of the greatest possible use in systematical 

The leaves are wanting in many plants, called for 
that reason plants aphylla, as Salicomia, (41) Engl. 
Bot. t. 415, and 1691, Stapelia variegata, Curt. Mag. 

(41) [Samphire or Glasswort.] 


t. 26, glanduh flora, Exot. Bot. t. 71, and all the species 
of that genus. In such cases the surface of the stem 
must perform all their necessary functions. 

1. With respect to Situation and Position, 

Folia radicalia, radical leaves, are such as spring from 

the root, like those of the Cowslip, Engl. Bot. t. 5, 

and Anemone Pulsatilla, t. 51. 
Caulina, stem-leaves, grow on the stem as in Paris 

quadrifolia, t. 7, Polemonium cceruleum, t. 14, 8tc. 
Ramea, branch-leaves, sometimes differ from those of 

the main stem, and then require to be distinguished 

from them, as Melampyrum arvense, t. 53. 
Alterna, f. 21, alternate leaves, stand solitarily on the 

stem or branches, spreading in different directions, 

as those of Borage, t. 36, and innumerable other 

Sparsa,f. 19, scattered irregularly, as in Genista tincto- 

ria, t. 44, Lilium chalcedonicum> Curt. Mag. t. 30, 

and bulbiferum, t. 36. 
Opposita, opposite to each other, as Saxifraga oppositi- 

folia, Engl. Bot. t. 9, Ballota nigra, t. 46, &c. 
Conferta, clustered, or crowded together, as those of 

Trientalis europcea, t. 15.(42) 
Bina, only two upon a plant or stem, as in the Snow- 
drop, Galanthus nivalis, t. 19, Scilla bifolia, t. 24, 

and Convallaria majalis, t. 1035.(43) 
Terna, three together, as Verbena triphylla. Curt. Mag. 

(42) [Chickweed wintergreen.l 

(43) [Lily of the valley. 1 


t. 367. The plants of Chili and Peru seem particu- 
larly disposed to this arrangement of their leaves. 

Quaterna, quina, &c. when 4, 5, or more are so situat- 
ed, as in various species of Heath, Erica. 

Verticillata, vvhorled, is used to express several leaves 
growing in a circle round the stem, without a refer- 
ence to their precise number, as in Asperula cynan- 
chica, Engl. Bot. t. 33, and odorata, t. 755, which 
with the genus Galium, and some others, are for this 
reason called stellate, star-leaved plants. Whorled 
leaves are also found in Hippuris vulgaris, t. 763, and 
many besides. (44) 

Fasciculata,/. 26, tufted, as in the Larch, Pinus, Larix, 
Lamb, Pin. t. 35, the Cedar, and some others of that 

Imbricata, f. 27, imbricated, like tiles upon a house, as 
in the common Ling, Erica vulgaris, Engl. Bot. t. 
1013, and Euphorbia par alia, t. 195. 

Decussata,/. 28, decussated, in pairs alternately crossing 
each other, as Veronica decussata, Curt. Mag. t. 242, 
and Melaleuca thymifolia, Exot. Bot. t. 36. 

Disticha,f. 29, two-ranked, "spreading in two directions, 
and yet not regularly opposite at their insertion, as 
Pinus canadensis, Lamb. Pin. t. 32, and the Ye\v,Tax- 
us baccata, Engl. Bot. t. 746, 

Secunda, f. 30, unilateral, or leaning all towards one 
side, as Convallaria multijiora, t. 279.(45) 

(44) [Examples of whorled leaves are found in the Lilies 
Lilium Canadense and Philadel/i/ucum.^ 

(45) [Many flowered Solomon's seal.] 


Adpressa, close-pressed to the stem, as Xeranthemum 
sesamoides, Curt. Mag. t. 425. 

Verticalia, perpendicular, both sides at right angles 
with the horizon, as Lactuca Scariola, Engl. Bot. 
t. 268. 

Erecta, upright, forming a very acute angle with the 
stem, as Juncus articulatus, t. 238. 

Patentia, spreading, forming a moderately acute an- 
gle with the stem or branch, as Atriplex portulaco- 
ides, t. 261. 

Horizontalia, horizontal, or patentissima, spreading in 
the greatest possible degree, as Gentiana campestris, 
t. 237. 

Reclinata, inclining downward, as Leonurus Cardiaca, 
t. 286.(46) 

Recurva, or rejlexa, curved backward, as Erica retor* 
ta, Curt. Mag. t. 362. 

Incurva, or injlexa, curved inward, as Erica empetri- 
folia, t. 447. 

OMiquay twisted, so that one part of each leaf is verti- 
cal, the other horizontal, as Fritillaria obliqiia t t. 
857, and some of the large Protece. 

Resupinata, reversed, when the upper surface is turn- 
ed downward, as Pharus latifolius, Browne'' s Jamai- 
ca, t. 38. Linn. Mss., and Alstrcemeria pelegrina. 
Curt. Mag. t. 139. 

Depressa, radical leaves pressed close to the ground, 
as Plantago media, Engl. Bot. t. 1559, and P. 
Coronopus, t. 892. The same term applied to 

(46) [Common Motherwert.,^ 


stem-leaves, expresses their shape only, as being 
vertically flattened, in opposition to comprcssa. 

Natantia, floating, on the surface of the water, as 
Nymphaea lutea, t. 159, and alba, t. 160, (47) and 
Potamogeton natans, (48) and many water plants. 

Demersa, immersa, or submersa, plunged under wa- 
ter, as Potamogeton perfoliatum, t. 168, Hottonia 
palustris, (49) t. 364, Lobelia Dort manna, t. 140, 
and the lower leaves of Ranunculus aquatilis, t. 101, 
while its upper are folia natantia. 

Emersa y raised above the water, as the upper leaves, 
accompanying the flowers, of Myriophyllum verti- 
cilatum, t. 218, (50) while its lower ones are de- 

2. By Insertion is meant the mode in which one part 
of a plant is connected with another. 
Folia petiolata, leaves on footstalks, are such as are 
furnished with that organ, whether long or short, 
simple or compound, as Verbascum nigrum, Engl. 
Bot. t. 59, Thalictrum minus, t. 11, alpinum, t. 
262, &c. 
Peltata, f. 31, peltate, when the footstalk is inserted 
into the middle of the leaf, like the arm of a man 
holding a shield, as in the Common Nasturtium, 
Tropceolum ?najus, Curt. Mag. t. 23, Drosera pel- 

(47) [So the American Water Lilies, JVy?nfih<ea advena and od- 
orata.~] (48) [Pondweed.] 

(49) [Water Feather, or Water Violet. Native, as also the 

(50) [Whorled Water Milfoil.] 


tata, Exot. Bot. £. 41, Cotyledon Umbilicus, Engl. 

Bot. t. 325, Hydrocotyle vulgaris, (51) t. 751, 

and the noble Cyamus Nelumbo, Exot. Bot. t. 31, 

Sessilia, sessile, are such as spring immediately from 

the stem, branch or root, without any footstalk, as in 

Anchusa sempervirens, Engl. Bot. t. 45, and Pingui- 

cula vulgaris, t. 70. (52) 
Amplexicaulia, f. 32, clasping the stem with their base, 

as the upper leaves of Glaucium luteum, t. 8, Gentia- 

na campestris, t. 237, and Humea elegans, Exot. Bot. 

t, 1. (53) 
Connata,/. 17, connate, united at their base, as Chlora 

perfoliata, Engl. Bot. t. 60, whose leaves are conna- 

Perfoliata,/. 33, perfoliate, when the stem runs through 

the leaf, as Bupleurum rotundifolium, t. 99, and the 

Uvularice, Exot. Bot. t. 49, 50, 51.(54) 
Vaginantia, f. 34, sheathing the stem or each other, as 

in most grasses ; see Phleum Alpinum, Engl. Bot. t. 

(51) [Penny wort.] 

(52) [Sessile leaves are very common, as in many of the ge- 
nus Solidago, Golden Rod ; &c] 

(53) [Clasping leaves are exemplified in many of the Star- 
worts or Asters, as in Aster Nova Anglice and amfilexicaulis.'J 

(54) [The veins or nerves of a leaf will generally determine 
whether it be a single, perfoliate leaf, as in Uvularia fierfoliata g 
or double and connate, as OGcurs in different degrees in the up- 
per leaves of the Trumpet Honeysuckle, Lonicera semfiervivens y 
In Fever Wort, Trios teura fierfoliatum, and in Rudbeckia Amfilex- 
ifolia, where the connexion is slight.] 



519, and Arundo arenaria, t. 520. The same char- 
acter is found in many of the Orchis tribe, as Satyri- 
um albidum, t, 505. 

Equitantia, f. 35, equitant, disposed in two opposite 
rows and clasping each other by their compressed 
base, as in Narthecium ossi/ragmn, t. 535, and the 
genus Iris ; also Witsenia corymbosa, Exot. Bot. t- 
68, and Dilatris corymbosa, t. 16. 

Dccurrentia,f. 36, decurrent, running down the stem or 
branch in a leafy border or wing, as Onopordum Acan- 
thium, (55) Engl. Bot. t. 977, Carduus tenuijlorus, t. 
412, and many other Thistles, also the Great Mullein, 
Verbascum T/iapsus, t. 549, and Comfrey, Symphy- 
tum officinale, t. 817. 

Florifera, f. 37, flower-bearing, when flowers grow out 
of the dibk or margin of any leaf, as in Ruscus aculea- 
tus, I. 560, Xylophylla latifolia, and X.Jalcata, Andr. 
Repos. t. 331. This is equivalent to a frond in the 
class Cryptogamia ; see jfr. 117. 

3. With regard to form, Leaves are either simplicia> 
simple, like those of Grasses, Orchises, Lilies, and 
many other plants, as Ballota nigra, Engl. Bot. t. 46, 
and Berberis vulgaris, t. 49 ; or composita, com- 
pound, as in most Umbelliferous plants, Parsley, 
Hemlock, &c. ; also Roses, Engl. Bot. t. 990 — 992. 

In compound leaves, the footstalk is either simple, as in 
the instances last quoted, and Sium angustijblium, t. 
139 ; or compound, as those of Selinum palustre, t. 
229, and Thalictrum majus> t. 611. — In simple 

(55) [Cotton Thistle.] 


leaves the footstalk, if present, must of course be 
simple, while in compound ones it must always be 
present, though not always subdivided. 

Simple Leaves are either Integra, undivided, as those of 
Grasses and Orchises ; or lobata, lobed, like the 
Vine, the Thistle, most kinds of Cranesbill, as Gera- 
nium pratense, Engl. Bot. t. 404, &c. 

Leaves are frequently undivided and lobed on the same 
plant, as the Hop, Engl. Bot. t. 427.(55.) 

4. The following are the most remarkable forms of 
Simple Leaves, considering their outline only. 

Orbiculatum, f. 38, a circular or orbicular leaf, whose 
length and breadth are equal, and the circumference 
an even circular line. Precise examples of this are 
scarcely to be found. Some species of Piper ap- 
proach it, and the leaf of Hedysarum styracifolium is 
perfectly orbicular, except a notch at the base. 

Subrotundum, f. 39, roundish, as Pyrola, (56) EngL 
Bot. t. 146, 158 and 213, and many other plants. 

Ovatum,/. 40, ovate, of the shape of an egg cut length- 
wise, the base being rounded and broader than the 
extremity, a very common form of leaves, as Urtica 
pilulifera, t. 148, and Vinca major, t. 514. 

Obovatum, f. 41, obovate, of the same figure with the 
broader end uppermost, as those of the Primrose, t. 
4, and the Daisy, t. 424.(57) Linnaeus at first used 
the words obverse ovatum. 

(55) [This is the case in the Sassafras tree, Laurus sassafras.'] 

(56) [The Pyrala rotundifolia, or Winter green, is very com 
,i)on in the United States.] 

(57) [And the leaves of Clethra AbiisoliaJ] 


Ellipticum,/. 42, or ovale, elliptical or oval, of a similar 
form to the foregoing, but of equal breadth at each 
end, as in the Lily of the Valley, and other Convalla. 
rice, t. 1035, 279 and 280. 

Oblongum, oblong, three or four times longer than 
broad. This term is used with great latitude, and 
serves chiefly in a specific character to contrast a leaf 
which has a variable, or not very decided, form, with 
others that are precisely round, ovate, linear, &c. 

Spatulatum,/. 43, spatulate, of a roundish figure taper- 
ing into an oblong base, as in Silene Otites, FL Brit, 
Engl. Bot. t. 85. 

Cuneiforme,f. 44, wedge-shaped, broad and abrupt at 
the summit, and tapering down to the base, as in 
Saxifraga cuneifolia. (58) 

I^anceolatum,/. 45, lanceolate, of a narrow oblong form, 
tapering towards each end, very comon, as Tulipa 
sylvestris, Engl. Bot. t. 63, Lithospermum purpuro- 
caeruleum, t. J. 17, Plantago lanceolata, (59) t. 507, 
many Willows, &c. 

Lineare,f. 46, linear, narrow with parallel sides, as those 
of most Grasses ; also Gentiana Pneumonanthe, t. 
20, and Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, t. 17. 

Acerosum, Jl 47, needle-shaped, linear and evergreen, 
generally acute and rigid, as in the Fir, Pinus, Juni- 
per, Juniperus communis, t. 1100, and Yew, Taxus 
baccata, t. 746. Linnaeus observes, Phil. Bot. 219, 
that this kind of leaf has, for the most part, a joint at 
Its union with the branch, 

(58) [Also in Purslane, Portulacca olcracea.'. 

(59) [Ribwort, or Field Plantain! 


Triangulares f. 48, triangular, having three prominent 
aiio-ics, without any reference to their measurement 
or direction, as in the genus Chenopodium, (60) 
Cochlearia danica, t. 696, and some leaves of the Ivy. 

Quadrangukre,/. 49, with four angles, as the Tulip-tree, 
Liriodendrum tuUpifera, (61) Sm. Jhs. of Georgia, 
t. L02. Curt. Mag. t. 275. 

Quinquangulare, f. 19, with five angles, as some Ivy 
leaves, &c. 

Deltoides,/. 50, trowel-shaped or deltoid, having three 
angles, of which the terminal one is much further 
from the base than the lateral ones, as Chenopodium 
Bonus-Henricus, Engl. Bot. t. 1033, and some leaves 
of Cochlearia danica. A wrong figure is quoted for 
this in Philosophia Botanica, which has caused much 

Rhombeum, f. 51, rhomboid, or diamond-shaped, ap- 
proaching to a square, as Chenopodium olidum, t. 
1034, Trapa natans, Camer. Epit. 715, and Trillium 
erectum, Curt. Mag. t. 470.(62) 

Remforme,/. 52, kidney-shaped, a short, broad, round- 
ish leaf, whose base is hollowed out, as Asarum euro- 
pawn, Engl. Bot. t. 1083, and Sibthorpia europxa, t. 

Cordatum,/. 53, heart-shaped, according to the vulgar 
idea of a heart ; that is, ovate hollowed out at the 
base, as Tamus communis, t. 91.(64) 

(60) [Goosefoot or Hogweed.] 

(61) [One of the most elegant of North American trees.] 

(62) [Native.] 

6 3) [Likewise Glecoma hederacea, Ground Ivy.] 
(64) [Also, the common annual Sunflower, many Violets, As- 
ters, &c] 


Lumdatum, f. 54, crescent-shaped, like a half-moon, 
whether the points are directed towards the stalk, or 
from it, as Passijiora, lunata, Sm. Ic. Pict. t. 1. 

Sagittaium, f. 55, arrow-shaped, triangular, hollowed 
out very much at the base, as Sagittaria sagittifolia, 
(64) Engl. Bot. t. 84, and Rumex Acetosa, t. 127. 

Sometimes the posterior angles are cut off, as in Con- 
volvulus sepium, t. 313.(65) 

Hastatum, f. 56, halberd-shaped, triangular, hollowed 
out at the base and sides, but with spreading lobes, 
as Rumex Acetosella, (66) t. 1674, Antirrhinum Ela- 
tine, t. 692, and the upper leaves of Solanum Dulca- 
mara, (67) t. 565. 

Panduriforme,/. 57, fiddle- shaped, oblong, broad at the 
two extremities and contracted in the middle, as the 
Fiddle Dock, Rumex pulcher, t. 1576. 

Runcinatum, f. 58, runcinate, or lion-toothed, cut into 
several transverse,acute segments,pointing backwards, 
as the Dandelion, Leontodon Taraxacum, t. 510. 

Lyratum,/. 59, lyrate, or lyre-shaped, cut into several 
transverse segments, gradually larger towards the ex- 
tremity of the leaf, which is rounded, as Erysimum 
Barbarea, t. 443. 

Fissum,/. 60, cloven, when the margins of the fissures 
and segments are straight, as in the Gingko-tree, 
Salisburia adiantifolia. Bijidum, trifidum, multijidum, 
&x. express the number of the segments. 

Lobatum, f. 61, lobed, when the margins of the seg- 

(64) [Arrow head.] (65) [Bindweed.] 

(66) [Sheep sorely (67) [Bitter swcct-1 


ments are rounded, as in Anemone flepatica, Curt. 
Mag. t. 10. (68) 

Bilobum, trilobum, Sec, according to the number of 
the lobes. 

Sinuatum,/. 62, sinuated, cut into rounded or wide 
openings, as Statice sinuata, t. 71, and Virgilia heli- 
oides, Exot. Bot. t. 37. 

Partitum, f. 63, deeply divided, nearly to the base, as 
Helleborus viridis, Engl. Bot. t. 200. 
Bipartitum, tripartitum, multipartitwn, according to 
the number of the divisions. 

Laciniatum, f. 64, laciniated, cut into numerous irreg- 
ular portions, as Ranunculus parviflorus. t. 120, and 
Geranium columbinum, t. 259. 

Incisum, and Dissectum, cut, are nearly synonymous 
with the last. 

It is remarked by Linnaeus that aquatic plants have 
their lower, and mountainous ones their upper, leaves 
most divided, by which they better resist the action 
of the stream in one case, and of wind in the other. 
Probably these actions are in some measure the caus- 
es of such configurations. 

Palmatum,f. 65, palmate, cut into several oblong, near- 
ly equal segments, about half way, or rather more, 
towards the base, leaving an entire space like the 
palm of the hand, as Passiflora ccerulea, Curt. Mag. 
t. 28. 

Pinnatifidum, f. 66, pinnatifid, cut transversely into sev- 
eral oblong parallel segments, as in Ipomopsis, Exot. 

(68) f Early Anemone or Liverwort. Native." 


Bot. t. 13, U, Bunias Cakile. Engl. Bot. t. 231, Le- 
pidium didymum, t. 248, petr^um, t. Ill, and Myri- 
ophyllum verticillatum, t. 218. 

Bipinnatifidum, f. 67, doubly pinnatifid, as Papaver 
Argemone, t. 643, and Eriocalia major \ Exot. Bot t. 
78. (69) 

Pectinatum, f. 68, pectinate, is a pinnatifid leaf, whose 
segments are remarkably narrow and parallel, like the 
teeth of a comb, as the lower leaves of Myriophijllum 
verticillatum, and those of Hottonia palustris, Engl. 
Bot. t. 364. 

Iticequale, f. 69, unequal, sometimes called oblique, 
when the two halves of the leaf are unequal in dimen- 
sions, and their bases not parallel, as in Eucalyptus 
resinifera, Exot. Bot. t. 84, and most of that genus, 
as well as of Begonia. 

5. The Terminations of leaves are various. 

Eolium truncatum,/. 49, an abrupt leaf, has the extrem- 
ity cut off, as it were, by a transverse line, as Lirio- 
dendrum tulipifera, Curt. Mag. t. 275. 

Prxmorsum, f. 70, jagged-pointed, very blunt, with 
various irregular notches, as in Dr. Swartz's genus. 

Aerides, comprehended under the Epidendrum of Lin- 
naeus. See E. tessellatum, Roxb. PI. of Coromandel, 
t. 42, and prxmorsum, t.4,3. 

Retusum,/. 71, retuse, ending in a broad shallow notch, 
as Rumex digynus, Engl. Bot. t. 910. 

(69) Leaves singly and doubly pinnatifid, are found in the 
weeds called Roman Wormwood or Hogweed, Ambrosia, elatior. 
fianiculata, &c. 


Emarginatum, f. 72, emarginate, or nicked, having a 
small acute notch at the summit, as the Bladder Sen- 
na, Colutea arbor -escens, Curt. Mag. £. 81. 

Obtusum,/. 39, blunt, terminating in a segment of a 
circle, as the Primrose, Engl. Bot. t. 4, Snowdrop, t. 
19, Hypericum quadrangulum, t. 370, and Linum 
catharticum, t. 382. 

Acutum,/. 51, sharp, ending in an acute angle, which 
is common to a great variety of plants, as Ladies' 
Slipper, t. 1, Campanula Trachelium t. 12, and Lin- 
um angustifolium, t. 381. 

Acuminatum,/. 73, pointed, having a taper or awishap- 
ed point, as Arundo Phragmites, t. 401, and Scirpus 
maritimus, t. 542.(70) 

Obtusum cum acumine,/. 74, blunt with a small point, 
as Statice Limonium, t. 102.(71) 

Mucronatum or Cuspidatum,/. 75, sharppointed, tipped 
with a rigid spine, as in the Thistles, t. 107, #.386, 
&c, Ruscus aculeatus, t. 560, and Melaleuca nodosa, 
Exot. Bot. t. 35. 

Cirrosum, f. 76, cirrose, tipped with a tendril, as in 
Gloriosa superba, Andr. Repos. t. 129. 

6. The different Margins of Leaves are characterized 
as follows. 

Folium integerrimum,/. 39, an entire leaf, as in the Or- 
chis and Lily tribe, as well as Polygala vulgaris, 
Engl. Bot. t. 76, Daphne Laureola, t. 119, &c. 

(70) [Common Reed, and Sea Club Rush ; both natives.] 
[71] Marsh Rosemavy. 


This term is opposed to all kinds of teeth, notches, 
or incisions. It regards solely the margin of a leaf >, 
whereas integrum, p. 131, respects its whole shape, 
and has nothing to do with the margin. English 
writers who translate the one entire, and the other 
very entire, are therefore incorrect. 

Spinosum,/. 77, spinous, beset with prickles, as Car- 
duus lanceolatus, t. 107, and Eryngium campestre, t. 
57. The veins are spinous in Solanum Pyracantha % 
Exot. Bot. t. 64, &c. 

Inerme.f. 71, unarmed, is opposed to spinous. 

dliatum, f. 78, fringed, bordered with soft parallel 
hairs, as Qalium cruciatum, Engl. Bot. t. 143. 

Cartilagineum, cartilaginous, hard and horny, as Saxu 
fraga callosa, Dicks. Dr. PI. n. 63. 

Dentatum, f. 79, toothed, beset with projecting, hori- 
zontal, rather distant teeth of its own substance, as 
Atriplex laciniata, Engl. Bot. t. 165, Hypochxris 
maculata, t. 225, and the lower leaves of Centaurea 
Cyanus, t. 277 ,• also Nymphcea Lotus, Curt. Mag. 
t. 797.(71) 

Serratum.f. 80, serrated, when the teeth are sharp, and 
resemble those of a saw, pointing towards the extrem- 
ity of the leaf. Examples of this are frequent, as 

Urtica, (72) M8 and 1236, Rosa, t. 992, &c, Coma- 
rum pa lustre, {7 3) t.\72, and Seneciopaludosus, t.65Q- t 
also Dillenia indica, Exot. Bot. t. 2. Some leaves 
are doubly serrated, duplicato-scrrata, having a se- 
ries of smaller serratures intermixed with the larger, 


(71) [And Arrow wood, Viburnum dentatum.'] 

(72) [Nettle.] f73) [Marsh Cinquefoil, native.] 


m Mespilns grandi flora, t. 18, and Campanula Tra~ 
chelium, Engl. Bot. t. 12. 

Serrulatum, f. 63, minutely serrated, is Used when the 
teeth are very fine, as in Polygonum amphibium, f. 
436, and Empleurum serrulatum, Exot. Bot. t. 63. 

Crenatum, f. 81, notched, or crenate, when the teeth 
are rounded, and not directed towards either end of 
the leaf, as in Ground- Ivy, Glechoma hederacea, t. 
853, Chrysosplenium, t. 54 and -90, and Sibthorpia 
curopoza, t. 649. In Saxifraga Geurn, t. 1561, the 
leaves are sharply crenate. In the two British spe- 
cies of Salvia, t. 153 and 154, the radical leaves are 
doubly crenate, f. 82. 

Erosum, f. 83, jagged, irregularly Cut or notched, es- 
pecially when otherwise divided besides, as in Sehe- 
cio squalidus, t. 600. 

Repandum, f. 84, wavy, bordered with numerous miw 
nute angles, and small segments of circles alternatelv, 
as Menyanthesnymphceoides, t. 217, and Imda dysen- 
t erica, t. 1 1 15. 

Glandulosum, glandular, as Hypericum montanum, t 
371 and the Bay-leaved Willow, Salix pentandra. 

Revolutvm, revolute, when the margin is turned or rol- 
led backwards, as Andromeda polifolia, t. 713, and 
Tetratheca glandulosa, Exot. Bot. t. 21. 

Linnaeus seems originally to have applied this term 
to the rolling of the whole leaf backwards, as in Soli- 
dago Virgaurea, Engl. Bot. t. 301, meaning to use 
the expression margme rcvohitum when the margin- 
was intended ; but this latter case being extremelv 
frequent and the other very rare, he fell into the prac-* 
"^ce of using revolutum simply for the margin. 


Involutum, involute, the reverse of the preceding, as iu. 

Pinguecula, t. 70 and 145. 
Conduplicatum, folded, when the margins are brought 

together in a parallel direction, as in Roscoea purpurea, 

Exot. Bot. t. 108. 

7. Terms expressive of different kinds of surface, apply- 
ing equally to the leaf and to the stem, have been al- 
ready explained, p. 1 1 1 . To these may be added the 
following, chiefly appropriated to leaves. 
Punctatum, dotted ; either superficially as in Rhododen- 
dnun punctatum, Andr. Repos. t. 36, and Melaleuca 
linarifolia, Exot. Bot. t. 56 ; or through the sub- 
stance, as in Hypericum perforatum, (74) Engl. Bot. 
t. 295, and the whole natural order to which the Or- 
ange and Lemon belong. 
Rugosum, rugged, when the veins are tighter than the 
surface between them, causing the latter to swell in- 
to little inequalities, as in various species of Sage, 
Salvia. See Flora Graca ; also Teucrium Scorodo- 
nia, Engl. Bot. t. 1543. 
Bullatum, blistery, is only a greater degree of the last, 

as in the Garden Cabbage, Brassica oleracea. 
Plicatum,/. 85, plaited, when the disk of the leaf, es- 
pecially towards the margin, is acutely folded up and 
down, as in Mallows, and Alchemilla vulgaris, Engl. 
Bot. t. 597, where, however, the character is but ob- 
scurely expressed. 
Undulatum,f. 86, undulated, when the disk near the 
margin is waved obtusely up and down, as Reseda 

(74) ["Common St. John's wort.] 


iutea, t. 321, and Ixia crispa (more properly undu- 
lata*) Curt. Mag. t. 599. 

Crispum, f. 87, curled, when the border of the leal be- 
comes more expanded than the disk, so as to grow 
elegantly curled and twisted, which Linnaeus consid- 
ers as a disease. Malva crispa, Ger. em. 931, is an 
example of it, and may probably be a variety of M. 
verticillata, Jacq. Hart. Find. v. 1. t. 40. 

Concavum, hollow, depressed in the middle, owing to a 
tightness in the border, as Cyamus Nelumbo, Exot. 
Bot. t. 32. 

Venosum, f. 88, veiny, when the vessels by which the 
leaf is nourished are branched, subdivided, and more 
or less prominent, forming a network over either or 
both its surfaces, as Crataegus, or rather Pyrus, tor- 
minalls, Engl. Bot. t. 298, and Verbascum Lychnitis, 
t. 58. 

Nervosum,/. 89, or costatum, ribbed, when they extend 
in simple lines from the base to the point, as in Cyp- 
ripedium Calceolus, t. 1, the Convallarite , t. 279 and 
280, Stratiotes alismoides, Exot. Bot. t. 15, and 
.Roxburghia viridiflora, t. 57. The greater clusters 
(if vessels are generally called nervi or costce, nerves 
or ribs, and the smaller vence, veins, whether they are 
branched and reticulated, or simple and parallel. 

Avenium, veinless, and enerve, ribless, are opposed to 
the former. 

Trinerve, f. 90, three-ribbed, is applied to a leaf that 
has three ribs all distinct from the very base, as well 
as unconnected with the margin, in the manner of 

* Saliib. H'yr:. 37. 


those many-ribbed leaves just cited, as Blakea tr'iner. 
vis*, Curt. Mag. t. 451. 

Basi trinerve, f. 91, three-ribbed at the base, is when 
the base is cut away close to the lateral ribs, as in 
Burdock, Arctium Lappa. Engl. Bot. t. 1228, Tussi- 
lago, t. 430 and 431, and the Great Annual Sunflow- 

Triplinerve, f. 92, triply-ribbed, when a pair of large 
ribs branch off from the main one above the base, 
which is the case in many species of Sunflower or 
Helianthus, Laurus Cinnamomum and Camphora, as 
well as Blakea triplinervis, Aublet Guian. t. 210. 

Coloratum, coloured, expresses any colour in a leaf be- 
sides green,, as in Arum bicolor, Curt. Mag. t. 820^ 
Amaranfhus tricolor, and others of that genus, Jus- 
ticia picta, Hedysarum pictum, Jacq. le. Bar. t. 567, 
Tradescantia discolor, Sm. Ic. Pict. t. 10, Pulmonu- 
ria officinalis, Engl. Bot. t, 118. 

Variegatwn, variegated, is applied to a sort of variety or 
disease, by which leaves become irregularly blotched 
with white or yellow, like those of Striped Grass, 
Arundo colorata, Fl. Brit. ; as also the Elder, the 
Mentha rotundifolia, Engl. Bot. t. 446, and the Au- 
euba japonica, which last is not known in our gardens 
in its natural green state. 

Nudum, naked, implies that a leaf is destitute of all kinds 
of clothing or hairiness, as in the genus Orchis. Nu- 
dus applied to a stem means that it bears no leaves, 
and to a flower that it has no calyx. 

* Authors incessantly use the termination trincrvius, triner- 
via, &c. for the more classical trinervis, trincrvc, cner-vic- 


3. The following terms express the substance, peculiar 

configuration, or any other remaining circumstances 

of leaves, not already explained. 
Teres, f. 93, cylindrical, as those of Conchium gibbosum, 

White's Voyage, t. 22. f. 2 ; see Cavanilles Icones, 

t. 533, and 534. 
Semicylindraceum, f. 94, semicylindrical, flat on one 

side, as Salsola fruticosa, Engl. Bot. t. 635, and 

Chenopodium maritimum, t. 633. 
Subulatum,/. 95, avvlshaped, tapering from a thickish 

base to a point, as Salsola Kali, t. 634. (75) 
Tuhulosum, tubular, hollow within, as Allium Cepa, the 

Common Onion. The leaf of Lobelia Dortmanna, 

Engl. Bot. t. 140, is very peculiar in consisting of a 

double tube,/! 96. 
Carnosum,f.98, fleshy, of a thick pulpy substance, as in 

all those called succulent plants, Crassula lactea, Exo. 

Bot. t. 33, Aloe, Sedum, Mesembryanthernum, &c. 

See, Sempervivum teetotum, Engl. Bot. t. 1320. 
Gibbum, gibbous, swelling on one side or both, from 

excessive abundance of pulp, as Aloe retusa, Curt, 

Mag. t. 455. 
Compressum, f. 98, compressed, flattened laterally, as 

Mesembryanthernum uncinatum, DHL Elth. t. 198, 

and acinaciforme, t, 211, 
Depressum, depressed, flattened vertically, as M. lingui- 

forme, t. 183—185. See/>. 127. 
Canaliculatum, f. 97, channelled, having a longitudinal 

furrow, as M. pugioniforme, t. 210, Plantago man- 

(75) [Saltwort.] 


tima, (76) Engl. Bot. t. 175, and Narcissus poettcus, 
t. 275. 
Carinatum, keeled, when the back is longitudinally 

prominent, as Narcissus bijlorus, t. 276. 
Ensiforme, sword-shaped, is a two-edged leaf, tapering 
to a point, slightly convex on both surfaces, neither of 
which can properly be called upper or under, as in 
most of the genus Iris. (77) See Curt. Mag. t. 671, 
t. 9, &c, and Fl. Grcec. f. 39 and 40. 
Anceps, two-edged, is much the same as the last. 
Acinaciforme, scimitar- shaped, compressed, with one 
thick and straight edge, the other thin and curved, as 
Mesembryanthemum acinaciforme above mentioned. 
Dolabriforme, f. 98, hatchet- shaped, compressed, with 
a very prominent dilated keel, and a cylindrical base, 
as M. dolabriforme, Dill. Elth. t. 191, Curt. Mag. t. 

These two last terms might well be spared, as they 
seem contrived only for the plants in question, and in- 
deed are not essentially distinct from each other. 
Trigonum y f. 99, three-edged, having three longitudinal 
sides and as many angles, like M. deltoides, Dill. 
Elth. t. 195, Linn. Phil. Bot. t. \.f. 58. Linnaeus 
has erroneously referred to this figure to illustrate his 
term deltoides ; misled, as it should seem, by the 
name of the plant to which it belongs ; but his defi- 
nition is foreign to the purpose, see/;. 133, and alludes 
to the outline of a flat leaf. 
Triquetrum differs from trigonum only in being used 
by Linnaeus for a three-sided awl-shaped leaf, as M. 

(76) [Sea Plantain, native.] (77) [Flag-, or Flo\vc;-\le luce.1 


^marginatum, Dill. Elth. t. 197, f. 250, and bicolor- 
um, t. 202, also Saxif?'aga burseriana. 
Tetragonum, f. 100, four-edged, having four prominent 

angles, as Iris tuberosa, Fl. Grcec. t. 41. 
Ijingiilatum, tongue-shaped, of a thick, oblong, blunt 
figure, generally cartilaginous at the edges, as Mesem- 
bryanthemum linguiforme ■, Dendrobium linguiforme, 
Exot. Bot. t. 11, and several species of Saxifraga, as 
S. mutata, Curt. Mag. t. 351, *S*. Cotyledon, &.c. 
Membranaceum, membranous, of a thin and pliable tex- 
ture, as in Aristolochia Sipho, t. 534, Rubus odoratus, 
(78) t. 323, Magnolia purpurea, t. 390, &c. 
Coriaceum, leathery, thick, tough and somewhat rigid, 
as Magnolia grandiflora, [7 9) and Hydrangea hortensis, 
Sm. Ic. Pict. t. 12, Curt. Mag. t. 438. 
Sempervirens, evergreen, permanent through one, two, 
or more winters, so that the branches are never strip- 
ped, as the Ivy, the Fir, the Cherry Laurel, the Bay,&c. 
Deciduum, deciduous, falling off at the approach of win- 
ter, as in most European trees and shrubs. 
Alienatum, f. 101, alienated, when the first leaves of a 
plant give place to others totally different from them 
and from the natural habit of the genus, as in many 
Mimosa of New Holland; see M. verticillata, Curt. 
Mag. t. 1 10, and myrtifolia, t. 302 ,• also LathyruS 
JYissolia, Engl. Bot. t. 1 12. The germination of this 
last plant requires investigation for if its first leaves 
be pinnated; it is exactly a parallel case with the NeW 
Holland Mimosa. 

(78) [Flowering Raspberry, native, as also the preceding;.] 

(79) [Big Laurel of the Southern states.] 


Cucullatum,f. 102, hooded, when the edges meet in 
the lower part, and expand in the upper, as those of 
the curious genus Sarracenia. Curt. Mag. t. 780 
and 849, and S. adunca, Exot. Bot. t. 53.(78) 
Appendiculatum, f. 103, furnished with an additional 
organ for some particular purpose not essential to a 
leaf, as Dioncea muscipula, Curt. Mag. t. 785, cul- 
tivated very successfully by Mr. Salisbury, at Bromp- 
ton, whose leaves each terminate in a pair of toothed 
irritable lobes, that close over and imprison insects ; 
or Nepenthes distillatoria, Humph. Amboin. v. 5. t. 
59,/ 2, the leaf of which bears a covered pitcher, 
full of water. Aldrovanda vesiculosa, and our Utricu- 
larice, EmL Bot. t 253, 254, have numerous blad- 
ders attached to the leaves, which seem to secrete air, 
and float the plants. 

Many of the preceding terms applied to leaves are 
occasionally combined to express a form between the 
two, as ovato-lanceolatum, lanceolate inclining to ovate, 
or elliptico-lanceolatum, as in the Privet, Engl. Bot. t. 
764. When shape, or any other character, cannot be 
precisely defined, sub is prefixed to the term used, as 
subrotundum, roundish, subsessile, not quite destitute of 
a footstalk, to which is equivalent subpetiolatum, ob- 
scurely stalked. By the judicious use of such means, 
all necessary precision is attained. It is to be wished 
that authors were always- uniform and consistent, at least 

(7S) [A leaf is said to be hooded, whether the edges unite so 
as to form a perfect cavity, as in Saracennia, or Fivesaddle flow- 
er ; or whether they simply meet without cohering, as in Viola 


with themselves, in the application of terms ; but as 
Linnaeus, the father of accurate botanical phraseology, 
very frequently misapplies his own terms, it is perhaps 
scarcely to be avoided. I have observed botanists most 
critical in theory, to be altogether deficient in that char- 
acteristic phraseology, that power of defining, which 
bears the stamp of true genius, and which renders the 
works of Linnaeus so luminous in despite of incidental 
errors. Perhaps no mind, though ever so intent on the 
subject, can retain all the possible terms of description 
and their various combinations, for ready use at any giv- 
en moment. There are few natural objects to which a varie- 
ty of terms are not equally applicable in description, so 
that no two writers would exactly agree in their use. 
Neither is Nature herself so constant as not perpetually to 
elude our most accurate research. Happy is that natur- 
alist who can seize at a glance what is most characteris- 
tic and permanent, and define all that is essential, with- 
out trusting to fallacious, though ever so specious, dis- 
tinctions ! 

9. Folia composita, compound leaves, consist of two or 
any greater number ol Ifoliola, leaflets, connected by a 
common footstalk. 

Folium articulatum.f. 104, a jointed leaf, is when one 
leaflet, or pair of leaflets, grows out of the summit of 
another, with a sort of joint, as in Fagara tragodes, 
Jacq. Amer. t. 14. 

Digitatum, f. 22, digitate or fingered, when several 
leaflets proceed from the summit of a common foot 


stalk, as Potentilla verna, Engl. Bot. t. 37, reptans, 

(79) t. 862, and Alchemilla alpina, t. 244. 
Bmatum, f. 105, binate, is a fingered leaf consisting o* 

only two leaflets, as in Zygophyllum, Curt. Mag. t. 

Ternatum,/. 106, ternale, consists of three leaflets, as 

Fagonia cretica, t. 211, and the genus Trifolium 

Trefoil. See Engl. Bot. t. 190, &c. 
Quinatum, quinate, of five leaflets, as Potentilla alba, t. 

1384, reptans, t. 862, &c. 
Pinnatum, pinnate, when several leaflets proceed laterally 

from one footstalk, and imitate a pinnatifid leaf, />. 

135. This is of several kinds. 
cum imparuf. 116, with an odd, or terminal, leaflet, as 

in Roses, and Elder, also Polemonium cceruleum, 

Engl. Bot. t. 14, and ffedysarum Onobrychis, t. 96. 
cirrosum,/. }15, with a tendril, when furnished with a 

tendril jn place of the odd leaflet, as the Pea and Vetch 

tribe ; Pisum maritimum, t. 1046, Lathy r us palustris, 

(80) t. 169, Vicia sativa, t. 334. 

abrupt^/. 101, abruptly, without either a terminal leaf- 
let or a tendril, as Cassia Chamxcnsta, (80) Curt. 
Mag. t. 107, and the genus Mimosa. See M. pudica, 
the Common Sensitive-plant. This form of leaf is 
much more uncommon than the imparipinnatum, and 
we have no perfect example of it among British plants. 
The nearest approach to it is the genus Orobus, 
whose leaves have only the rudiments of a tendril. 
A truly wonderful variety of the Qrobus sylvatkusu 

(79) {Cinquefoil) or Fiyefingcr.T- 

(80) [Both native.] 


Engl. Bot. t. 518, with large simple leaves, has been 
found in Wales. 

opposite Oppositely, when the leaflets are opposite, or in 
pairs, as Saint-foin, t. 96, Roses, Slum angustifolium, 
t. 139, &c. 

alternatim, alternately, when they are alternate, as Vicia 
dumetorum (Cracca sylvaticaj Riv. Pent. Irr. t. 51, 
and occasionally in our V. Sativa lutea, &c. 

interrupt}, f. 107, interruptedly, when the principal leaf- 
lets are ranged alternately with an intermediate series 
of smaller ones, as Spiraea Filipendula, Engl. Bot. t. 
284, S. Ulmaria, t. 960, and Potentilla anserina, t. 
861. (81) 

articulate jointedly, with apparent joints in the common 
footstalk, as Weinmannia pinnata. 

decursive, decurrently, when the leaflets are decurrent, 
as Eryngium compestre, Engl. Bot. t, 57, and Poten- 
tilla Jruticosa, t. 88. 

lyrato,f. 108, in a lyrate manner, having the terminal 
leaflet largest, and the rest gradually smaller, as they 
approach the base, as Erysimum prcecox, t. 1129, 
and, with intermediate smaller leaflets, Geum rivale, 
(82) t. 106 ; also the Common Turnip. Such 
leaves are usually denominated lyrate in common with 
those properly so called (whose shape is simple, and 
not formed of separate leaflets) ; nor is this from inac- 
curacy in botanical writers. The reason is, that 
these two kinds of leaves, however distinct in theory, 
are of all leaves most liable to run into each other, 
even on the same plant, examples of which are fre- 
quent in the class Tetradynamia. 

(81) [Native.] (82) [Native.] 


verticillato,/. 109, in a whorled manner, the leaflets cut 
into fine divaricated segments, embracing the foot- 
stalk, as Slum verticillatum, Fl.Brit. Eng.Bot. t.395. 

Auriculatum,f. 110, an auricled leaf, is furnished at its 
base with a pair of leaflets, properly distinct, but oc- 
casionally liable to be joined with it, as Salvia triloba, 
Fl. Grcec. t. 17, and Dipsacus pilosus, Engl. Bot. t. 
877. Linnaeus in the last example uses the term 
appendiculatum, which is correct, but superfluous, and 
I have therefore ventured to apply it somewhat differ- 
ently, p. 146. 

Conjugation, f. 105, conjugate, or yoked, consists of 
only a pair of pinna or leaflets, and is much the same 
as binatum. Instances of it are in the genus Zygo- 
phyllum, whose name, equivalent to Yokeleaf, ex- 
pressed this very character ; also in Lathyrus sylves- 
tris, Engl. Bot. t. 805, and latifolius, t. 1108. Biju- 
gum, trijugum, quadrijugum, multrijugum, &c, ex- 
press particular numbers of pairs of leaflets, and are 
used for that purpose where such discrimination is 
requisite for specific characters, as in Mimosa. 

The different degrees in which leaves are compounded 
are thus distinguished, without any reference to the 

Compositum,/. Ill, simply compound, as in the above 

Decomposition, f. 112*, doubly compound, as Atha- 
manta, Lihanotis, Engl. Bot. t. 138, *<Egopodium, Po- 

* Linnaeus, in Phil. Bot. 47, gives an erroneous definition of 
this term, which does not accord with his own use of it. Pro- 
fessor Martyn has rightly defined it. 


dagraria, t. 940, and Fumaria claviculata, t. 

Supradecompositum,/. 113, thrice compound, or more, 
as Caucalis Anthriscus, t. 987, C. daucoides t. 197, 
and Bunium flexuosum, t. 988. But 

Bigeminatum, twice paired, as Mimosa Unguis cati, 
Plum. Ic. t. 4 ; and tergeminatum, thrice paired, as 
.M. tergemina ; also 

Biternatum,/. 1 12, twice ternate, as Mgopodium, Engl. 
Bot. t. 940 ; triternatum, thrice ternate, as Fumaria 
lutea, t. 588 ; and 

Bipinnatum, doubly pinnate, tripinnatum, triply pinnate, 
of which examples have just been given : all apply 
to the mode, as well as the degree, in which leaves 
are compounded. 

Pedatum,f. 114, pedate, is a peculiar kind of leaf, be- 
ing ternate, with its lateral leaflets compounded in 
their fore part, as Helkborus fatidus, Engl. Bot. t. 
613, and H. niger, Curt. Mag. t. 8. (83) There is 
an affinity between a pedate leaf and those simple 
ones which are three-ribbed at the base, p. 142. See 
also the disposition of the lateral veins in Aristolochia 
C/ematitis, Engl. Bot. t. 398. 

In compounding the foregoing terms we must take 
care not to express a contradiction. Thus the leaves of 
many Mimosce, as the purpurea, Andr. Repos. t. 372, 
and sensitiva, are conjugata pinnata, conjugate in the 
first instance, pinnate in the next, not covjugato -pinnata > 
of an intermediate nature between conjugate and pin- 

(8 J) [Also Viola tiedata.~] 


nate, which is impossible. Neither are the leaves of 
Mimosa pudica digitato-pinnata, for there is no medium 
between the two terms ; but they are digitate, or com- 
posed of leaflets proceeding from the top of a common 
foot-stalk, and those leaflets are pinnate. On the other 
hand ovato-lanceolatum y lanceolate approaching to ovate, 
or elliptico-lanceolatum, approaching to elliptic, as in 
the Privet, Engl. Bot. t. 764, already mentioned, whose 
leaves often assume that shape, are easily understood. 

[ 153 .] 



The knowledge of the functions of leaves, and their 
real use with regard to the .plant, is a curious branch of 
vegetable physiology, which made but a slow progress 
long after the nature of many other parts had been deep- 
ly scrutinized and thoroughly explained. 

Caesalpinus (De Plantis, p. 6.) thought leaves merely 
a clothing, or a protection against cold and heat. He 
conceived that the rays of the sun, being moderated in 
passing through them, were prevented from acting too 
violently on the fruit and young buds. rt Accordingly,' 7 
says he, " many trees lose their leaves in autumn, when 
their fruits are perfected, and their buds hardened, while 
such as retain the fruit long, keep also their leaves ; even 
till a new crop is produced, and longer, as in the Fir, 
the Arbutus, and the Bay. It is reported that in hot 
climates, where there is almost perpetually a burning 
sun, scarcely any trees lose their leaves, because they 
require them for shade." Caesalpinus goes on to show 
that leaves proceed from the bark, with some remarks 
on the pith, (in which we may trace the origin of the 
Linnean hypothesis of vegetation,) but which are now 
superseded by more accurate inquiries. 

The above is certainly a very small part of the use of 
leaves. Yet the observations of this writer, the father of 
botanical philosophy among the moderns, are so far c©r* 


rect, that if the leaves of a tree be stripped off, the fruit 
comes to nothing, which is exemplified every year in 
Gooseberry bushes devoured by caterpillars ; and 
though the fruit-trees of warm climates, partly natural- 
ized with us, Grapes and Peaches for instance, ripen 
their fruit sooner perhaps if partially deprived of their 
leaves, yet if that practice be carried too far, the fruit 
perishes, as gardeners who tried it soon discovered. The 
White Mulberry indeed, cultivated in the south of Eu- 
rope for the food of silkworms only, bears wonderfully 
the loss of its foliage three or four times a year. How 
far the fruit is injured nobody thinks it worth while to 
inquire, as it is never eaten, but it certainly does not 
fall off prematurely. 

That Leaves imbibe and give out moisture has been 
long known, this being one of the most obvious facts 
belonging to them. Dr. Hales thought they might 
probably imbibe air ; but since his time more certain 
discoveries have been made concerning this point, as 
well as the effect of light upon leaves, which also did 
not escape the consideration of that great philosopher™ 
All these subjects we shall mention in their turn. 

That Leaves give out moisture, or are organs of in- 
sensible perspiration, is proved by the simple experi- 
ment of gathering the leafy branch of a tree, and imme- 
diately stopping the wound at its base with mastick, wax, 
or any other fit substance, to prevent the effusion of 
moisture in that direction. In a very short time the 
leaves droop, wither and are dried up. If the same 
branch, partly faded, though not dead, be placed in a 
very damp cellar, or immersed in water, the leaves re 


vive, by which their power of absorption is also proved. 
Hence the use of a tin box to travelling botanists, for 
the purpose of restraining the evaporation of plants, and 
so preserving them fresh for some days till they can be 
examined, as well as of reviving faded plants, if the in- 
side of the box be moistened before they are shut up 
in it. 

Dr. Hales found that a plant of the Great Annual Sun- 
flower, Helianthus apnunsi lost 1 lb. 14 oz. weight in 
the course of twelve hours in a hot dry day. In a dry 
night it lost about 3 oz.; in a moist night scarcely any 
alteration was observable, but in a rainy night it gained 
2 or 3 oz. The surface of the plant compared with 
that of its roots was, as nearly as could be calculated, in 
the proportion of five to two ; therefore the roots must 
have imbibed moisture from the earth of the pot in which 
the plant grew, and which was all previously weighed, 
in the same proportion of five to two, otherwise the 
leaves would have faded. The same experiment was 
made on the Vine, the Cabbage, &c, with various re- 
sults as to the exact degree of perspiration, but all prov- 
ing it to be considerable. Evergreens are found to 
perspire much less than other shrubs. 

The state of the atmosphere has a great effect on the 
rapidity of this perspiration. Practical botanists know 
how much sooner plants fade, and haymakers experi- 
ence how much faster their work is done, some days 
than others, and those days are by no means always the 
most sunny. In a hot dry day plants are often exhaust- 
ed, so as to droop very much towards evening, especial- 
ly in the dry unsheltered bed of a garden. Such as have 


fleshy roots, indeed have a singular power of resisting 
drought, which has already been explained p. 101. Suc- 
culent plants, destined to inhabit sunny rocks, or sandy 
deserts, imbibe with the greatest facility, and perspire 
very sparingly. Evergreens are not generally very suc- 
culent, but their cuticle appears to be constructed like 
that of succulent plants, so as to allow of little evapora. 
tion. The Cornelian Cherry, whose immense perspi- 
ration we have recorded, p. 67, has a thin dry leaf, ca- 
pable of holding very little moisture. 

The nature of the liquor perspired has been already 
noticed, p. 67. In hot weather it has been observed by 
Hales, Du Hamel and Guettard to partake occasionally 
of the peculiar scent of the plant that yields it, but in 
general the odorous matter is of too oily a nature to be 
combined with it. 

The sensible perspiration of plants is of various kinds. 
When watery, it can be considered only as a condensa- 
tion of their insensible evaporation, perhaps from some 
sudden change in the atmosphere. Groves of Poplar 
or Willow exhibit this phenomenon, even in England, 
in hot calm weather, when drops of clear water trickle 
from their leaves like a slight shower of rain. Some- 
times it is of a saccharine nature,, as De la Hire observ- 
ed in Orange trees ; Du Hamel Arb. v. 1. 150. It is 
more glutinous in the TUia or Lime-tree, more resin- 
ous in Poplars, as well as in Cistus creticus, from which 
last the resin called Labdanum is collected, by beating 
the shrub with leather thongs. See Tournefort's Voyage^ 
29. In the Fraxinella, Dictamus albus, it is a highly 
inflammable vapour. Ovid has made an elegant use of 


the resinous exudation of Lombardy Poplars, Populns 
dilatata, Jit. Hort. Kexv. v. 3. 406, which he supposes 
to be the tears of Phaeton's sisters, who were transform- 
ed into those trees. Such exudations must be consid- 
ered as effusions of the peculiar secretions ; for it has 
been observed that Manna may be scraped from the 
leaves of Fraxinus Ornus, Fl. Grac. t. 4, as well as 
procured by incision from its stem. They are often 
perhaps a sign of unhealthiness in the plant ; at least 
such appears to be the nature of one kind of honey -dew, 
to which the Beech in particular is subject, and which, 
in consequence of an unfavourable wind, covers its 
leaves in the form of a sweet exudation, similar in fla- 
vour to the liquor obtained from its trunk. So likewise 
the Hop, according to Linnaeus, Faun. Suec. 305, is af- 
fected with the honey-dew, and its flowers rendered 
abortive, in consequence of the attacks of the caterpillar 
of the Ghost Moth, Phalaena Humuli, upon its roots. In 
such case the saccharine exudation must decidedly be 
of a morbid nature*. That wax is also an exudation 
from the leaves of plants, appears from the experiments 
recorded by Dr. Thomson in his Chemistry, v. 4. 298, 
and it has been long ago asserted that wax may easily 
be gathered from the leaves of Rosemary. On this sub- 
ject I have not made any experiments to satisfy myself. 
With respect to the absorbing power of leaves, the 
best observations that have been made are those of Bon- 

* I do not mean to dispute the accuracy of Mr. Curtis's excel- 
lent paper, Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 6, written to prove honey-dew 
to be the dung of J/ihides. I only contend that there are more 
than one kind of honey-dew. 


net, recorded in the beginning of his Recherches sur 
VUsagedes Feuilles. His aim was, by laying leaves of 
various plants upon the top of a jar of water, some with 
their upper, and others of the same species with their 
under, surfaces applied to the water, to discover in 
which situation leaves of each plant continued longest 
in health and vigour, and also how far different species 
differed from each other in this respect. The results 
were in many instances highly curious. 

Of fourteen herbaceous plants tried by this philoso- 
pher, six lived nearly as long with one surface applied to 
the water as with the other ; these were the common 
Arum maculatum, the French Bean, the Sun-flower, 
Cabbage, Spinach and the Small Mallow. By the last 1 
presume is meant Malva rotwidifolia, Engl. Bot. t. 
1092. Six others, Plantain, White Mullein, the Great 
Mallow (probably M. sylvestris, t. 671), the Nettle, 
Cock's-comb, and Purple leaved Amaranth (probably 
Amaranthus hypocfiondriacus), lived longest with their 
upper surface laid upon the water. The Nettle lived 
but three weeks with its under surface on the water, and 
about two months in a contrary position. The Mullein 
scarcely survived five or six days, and the Amaranth 
not a week, in the first- mentioned posture, while the 
leaves of the former remained in vigour about five 
weeks, and of the latter three months, when their upper 
surfaces imbibed the water. Marvel of Peru and Balm, 
the two remaining plants of the fourteen on which the 
experiment was made, had also an evident advantage in 
receiving that fluid by their upper surfaces. The leaves 
of some of the above species were found to thrive bet- 


tcr when their stalks only were immersed in water, than 
when either of their sides was supplied with it, and the 
reverse was observable in several others ; but the White 
Mullein, the Plantain and the Amaranth survived lon- 
ger when they received the water by their stalk than by 
their under surface, though not so long as when it was 
applied to their upper sides. 

Of sixteen trees tried by Bonnet, the Lilac and the 
Aspen, Populus tremula, were the only leaves that 
seemed to imbibe water equally well by either surface, 
whilst all the others evidently succeeded best with their 
under sides laid upon the water being in that respect 
the reverse of herbaceous plants. Of these the White 
Mulberry leaf was the most remarkable, not living more 
than five days when supplied by the upper surface, 
while such as floated on their backs continued in per- 
fection near six months. The Vine, the Poplar (prob- 
ably Populus nigra), and the Walnut, were no less re- 
markable, for fading almost as soon, when fed by their 
upper surface, as when left without any water at all. 
Many of the other trees imbibed water as well, or. bet- 
ter, by their foot-stalks as by their upper surfaces. Ha- 
zel-nut and Rose leaves, when had with their backs up- 
on the water, imbibe sufficiently to nourish oiher leaves 
on the same branch ; so will one leaflet of a French bean 
supply its neighbour that does not touch the water. 

Those who wish to repeat these experiments should 
be careful to choose full-grown healthy leaves, all as 
nearly as possible of the same age and vigour. It is 
also desirable that the precise species of plant should be 
recorded by its scientific name. For want of this,Bonnet, 
who despised method and nomenclature, has left us in 


uncertainty concerning several of the plants he examin- 
ed. We ought to have been accurately informed what 
species of Poplar differed so remarkably in its power of 
absorption from the Aspen, another of the same genus. 
We ought likewise to have been told what Sun-flower, 
what Nettle, Amaranth and Mallows were examined ; 
for want of which information the authority of such ex- 
periments is much impaired. 

From the foregoing observations we learn the impor- 
tance of shading and watering plants newly removed, 
cuttings, grafts, &c. and on the other hand the benefit 
of heat and air to promote due perspiration and evapora- 

The perspiration of aquatic plants seems to be re- 
markably copious. Of these some grow constantly im- 
mersed in the water, as most species of Potamogeton, 
Pond-weed, Engl. Bot. t. 168, 297, 376, &c. Their 
leaves are peculiarly vascular, and dry very quickly in 
the air, withering in a very few minutes after exposure 
to it. Their absorbing power seems equally great, so 
that they appear to be continually, in their natural situa- 
tion, imbibing and giving out a quantity of water much 
greater than has been observed in land plants. Other 
aquatics, as the Nympheece, Engl. Bot. t. 159, 160, 
float with only the upper surface of their leaves exposed 
to the air, which surface is so contrived that water will 
scarcely remain upon it. These leaves, though extreme- 
ly juicy, dry with great rapidity, as does every part of 
the plants when gathered. It is probable that they im- 
bibe copiously by their under sides, and perspire by the 


The oeconomy of the Sarracenia, an American ge- 
iius of which we now know four species, and of the East 
Indian Nepenthes distillatoria, deserve particular men- 
tion. Both grow in bogs, though not absolutely in the 
water. The former genus has tubular leaves which 
catch the rain like a funnel and retain it ; at least such is 
the nature of S. purpurea, Curt. Mag. t. 849, whose 
margin seems dilated expressly for this purpose, while 
the orifice of the tubular part just below is contracted to 
restrain evaporation. Linnaeus conceived this plant to 
be allied in constitution to Nymphcza, and consequently 
to require a more than ordinary supply of water, which 
its leaves were calculated to catch and to retain, so as to 
enable it to live without being immersed in a river or 
pond. But the consideration of some other species ren- 
ders this hypothesis very doubtful. S.flava, £.780, and 
more especially S. adunca, Exot. Bot. t. 53, are so con- 
structed that rain is nearly excluded from the hollow of 
their leaves, and yet that part contains water, which 
seems to be secreted by the base of each leaf. What 
then is the purpose of the unusual contrivance ? An 
observation communicated to me two years ago, in the 
botanic garden at Liverpool, seems to unravel the mys- 
tery. An insect of the Sphex or Ichneumon kind, as for 
as I could learn from description, was seen by one of 
the gardeners to drag several large flies to the Sarracenia 
adunca, and, with some difficulty forcing them under the- 
lid or cover of its leaf, to deposit them in the tubular 
part, which was half filled with water. All the leaves, 
on being examined, were found crammed with dead or 
drowning flies. The S. purpurea is usually observed 


to be stored with putrefying insects, whose scent is 
perceptible as we pass the plant in a garden ; for the 
margin of its leaves is beset with inverted hairs, which, 
like the wires of a mousetrap, render it very difficult for 
any unfortunate fly, that has fallen into the watery tube, 
to crawl out again. Probably the air evolved by these 
dead flies may be beneficial to vegetation, and, as far as 
the plant is concerned, its curious construction may be 
designed to entrap them, while the water is provided to 
tempt as well as to retain them. The Sphex or Ichneu- 
mon, an insect of prey, stores them up unquestionably for 
the food of itself or its progeny, probably depositing its 
eggs in their carcases, as others of the same tribe lay their 
eggs in various caterpillars, which they sometimes bury 
afterwards in the ground. Thus a double purpose is 
answered ; nor is it the least curious circumstance of the 
whole, that an European insect should find out an Amer- 
ican plant in a hot-house, in order to fulfil that purpose. 
If the above explanation of the Sarracenia be admit- 
ted, that of the Nepenthes will not be difficult. Each 
leaf of this plant terminates in a sort of close-shut tube, 
like a tankard, holding an ounce or two of water, cer- 
tainly secreted through the footstalk of the leaf, whose 
spiral-coated vessels are uncommonly large and nume- 
rous. The lid of this tube either opens spontaneously, or 
is easily lifted up by insects and small worms, who are 
supposed to resort to these leaves in search of a purer 
beverage than the surrounding swamps afford. Rum- 
phius, who has described and figured the plant, says 
" various little worms and insects crawl into the orifice, 
and die in the tube, except a certain small squilla or 


shrimp, with a protuberant back, sometimes met with, 
which lives there." — I have no doubt that this shrimp 
feeds on the other insects and worms, and that the same 
purposes are answered in this instance as in the Sarrace- 
nice. Probably the leaves of Dionaa muscipula, as well 
as of the Droserx, Engl. Bot. t. 867—869, catch in- 
sects for a similar reason. 

I proceed to consider the effects of Air and Light up- 
on vegetables. 

Dr. Grew, by the assistance of the microscope, de- 
tected a quantity of vesicles full of air in the leaves of 
plants, as also the spiral-coated vessels of their stems, 
which last he and all other physiologists, till very lately, 
considered as air-vessels likewise. Malpighi made the 
same observations about the same time ; and as these 
two acute and laborious philosophers pursued their in- 
quiries without any mutual communication, their discov- 
eries strengthen and confirm each other. Their books 
have long served as magazines of facts for less original 
writers to work with. From their remarks physiolo- 
gists have theoretically supposed that leaves imbibed 
air, whiph the spiral vessels were believed to convey all 
through the plant, in order that it might act on the sap 
as it does on the animal blood. The analogy thus un- 
derstood was not correct, because air is conveyed no 
further than the lungs of animals ; but without this hy- 
pothesis no use could be found for the supposed longi- 
tudinal air-vessels. 

The observations of Dr. Hales come next in order to 
those of Grew and Malpighi. By means of the air-pump, 
■m instrument much in use in his time, Hales obtained 


abundance of air from every part of the vegetable 
body, as well as from recently extracted sap. Plants 
were found to perish very soon in an exhausted receiv- 
er. Some of this great man's experiments, however, 
require to be received with caution. He rightly re- 
marked that air was not only taken in by plants very 
copiously along with their food, but also imbibed by 
their bark ; see Veg. Staticks, chap. 5. But when, 
from observing that it would freely from the bark per- 
vade the longitudinal vessels of a branch, he concluded 
that Malpighi and Grew were right in their ideas of 
longitudinal air-vessels, he was misled by appearances. 
We cannot but be aware that, when a branch is gather- 
ed, the sap must soon flow out of those spiral-coated 
tubes, which are large, elastic, and, no doubt, irritable. 
After they are emptied, air may unquestionably pass 
through them, especially when the whole weight of the 
atmosphere is acting, as in Dr. Hales' experiments with 
the air-pump, upon so delicate a fabric as the internal 
vascular structure of a plant, forcing its way through 
pores or membranes not naturally designed to admit it. 
We must also recollect that a plant, cut even for a short 
time, begins to lose its vital principle, after which no 
just judgment can be formed, by any experiments, con- 
cerning the movements of its fluids in life and vigour. 
See Chapter 1. These experiments of Dr. Hales there- 
fore prove no more than that the vegetable body is per- 
vious in various directions ; and perhaps the only point 
they correctly establish is, that air is imbibed through 
the bark, a part known to be full of air-vessels. But 
the seventh chapter of the Vegetable staticks contains 


some remarks much more to our purpose. Dr. Hales 
there clearly anticipates by conjecture, what succeeding 
philosophers, more enlightened chemists, have ascer- 
tained. His words are remarkable : 

" We may therefore reasonably conclude, that one 
great use of leaves is what has been long suspected by 
many, viz. to perform in some measure the same office 
for the support of the vegetable life, that the lungs of 
animals do, for the support of the animal life ; plants 
very probably drawing through their leaves some part of 
their nourishment from the air." p. 326. A little further 
on he adds, " And may not light also, by freely entering 
the expanded surfaces of leaves and flowers, contribute 
much to the ennobling the principles of vegetables V 
p. 328. (84) 

(84) [The surfaces of most leaves contain a large number of 
small whitish points, scarcely apparent to the naked eye, but ea- 
sily distinguished with a glass. These points were called cor- 
tical glands, by Saussure,and evaporating fwres, by Hedwig. On 
examination, they are found to consist of small fissures, sur- 
rounded by areas. According to M. Jurine, a microscopic anat- 
omist of Geneva, almost all leaves are penetrated with a great 
number of these apertures. Their size varies in different plants. 
Thus in the Orchis and Lily kind, they are very large ; in the 
Jessamine and Oak, they are very small. Leaves are unequally 
provided with them ; some having pores on both surfaces, others 
only on one, while some are even destitute of them. These 
pores which contain air only, are surrounded by a pair of cells, 
which Jurine denominates conjugate utricles, and which contain 
a greenish fluid, in common with the other cells of the leaf. 
Through these pores and utricles, the communication appears to 
be kept up between the external air and the juices of the leaf.] 


Next in order of time to those of Hales follow the ex- 
periments of Bonnet. We have already detailed his ob- 
servations on the power of leaves to imbibe moisture ; 
whence it is ascertained that plants are furnished with a 
system of cuticular absorbents, which carry fluids into 
their sap- vessels, so as to enable them in some degree to 
dispense with supplies from the root. With respect to 
the effects of air upon leaves, this ingenious philosopher 
has not been equally successful. He is recorded as the 
discoverer of the. expiration of plants, but it appears from 
his work that he merely observed the bubbles of air 
which cling to leaves, dead as well as living, and indeed 
to any other body, when immersed in water and exposed 
to the light of the sun. He found these bubbles disap- 
peared in the evening, and returned again when the sun 
shone, and he faithfully reports that by their attachment 
to the surfaces of leaves, the latter were rendered more 
buoyant, and rose in the water ; a sure proof that the 
air had not previously existed, in the same volume at 
least, in the substance of those leaves. Accordingly, 
Bonnet concluded that the latter, in imbibing the sur- 
rounding water, left the air which had been contained in 
the water, and that this liberated air became visible from 
being warmed and rarefied by the sun. This was as 
near the truth as Bonnet could come, it not being then 
known that light has a power of separating air of a pecu- 
liar kind, carbonic acid gas, from water. 1 find no indi- 
cations in his work of his having had any idea of leaves 
absorbing air and giving it out again ; still less of their 
affecting any change in its properties. 

BY LEAVES. lfi£ 

Dr. Priestley was the first who suggested this last- 
mentioned quality in vegetables. He ascertained their 
power of absorbing carbonic acid gas, denominated by 
him fixed air, and giving out oxygen gas, or pure re- 
spirable air. It was also his opinion that leaves imbib- 
ed the former by their upper, and gave out the latter 
by their under surface. He found some aquatic or 
marsh plants extremely powerful in this respect, es- 
pecially the Willow-herb or Epilobium, and the Confer- 
va, a minute branching cotton-like vegetable which 
grows in putrid water, and the production of which, in 
water become foul from long keeping on ship-board, 
Dr. Priestley judged to operate principally in restoring 
that fluid to a state fit for use. 

Dr. Ingenhousz, pursuing Dr. Priestley's inquiries, 
found light to be necessary to .these functions, and that, 
in the dark, leaves gave out a bad air. He observed 
moreover that fruits and flowers almost invariably gave 
out a bad, or carbonic, air, but more especially in the 
dark. He probably carries his ideas of the deleterious 
effects of this air on animal life, too far ; for no mischief 
has ever happened, as far as common experience goes, 
to persons sleeping in apple or olive chambers, neither do 
the inhabitants of the confined huts inCovent-garden mar- 
ket apparently suffer, from living day and night among 
heaps of drying herbs. Mischiefs have unquestionably 
arisen from flowers in a bed-room, or any other confined 
apartment, but that is to be attributed to their perfumed 
effluvia. So the bad effects, observed by Jacquin,of Lobe- 
lia longifiora on the air of a hot-house, the danger incur* 
red by those who sleep under the Manchineel-tree, Hip- 


pomane Mancinel/a, or, as it is commonly believed, under 
a Walnut-tree, are probably to be attributed as much to 
poisonous secretions as to the air those plants evolve. 

Dr. Ingenhousz introduced leaves into glass jars filled 
with water, which he inverted in a tub of the same water, 
and placed the whole together in the sun-shine. From 
their under sides came streams or bubbles of air, which 
collected in the inverted bottom of each jar. The air 
thus procured proved oxygen gas, more or less pure. 
The Nymphaa alba, Engl. Bot. t. 160, affords an ex- 
traordinary abundance of it. Dr. Ingenhousz observed 
plants to be very various in their mode of emitting these 
bubbles, but it was always uniform in the same species. 
Air collected from water placed in similar circumstances 
without plants, proved not oxygen, but much worse 
than common air, viz. carbonic acid gas, which follow- 
ing chemists have confirmed, and which we have already 
mentioned. Ingenhousz also found the air collected 
from plants under water in the dark worse than common 
air, especially that from walnut-leaves ; which confirms 
the common opinion, above alluded to, respecting this 

Plants purify air very quickly. A vine-leaf in an 
ounce phial of carbonic acid gas, that immediately extin- 
guished a candle, placed in the sun, without water, 
changed it to pure respirable air in an hour and half. 
Dr. Priestley found plants to alter even unmixed inflam- 
mable air, or hydrogen, especially the Epilobium hirsu- 
tum, if I mistake not, and Polygonum Hydropiper. 

Succulent plants are found to afford most air, in con- 
sequence of the abundance of their Cellular Integument, 


or Parenchyma, in which, as I have hinted in the fourth 
chapter, the chemical operations of the leaves are per- 

That Light has a very powerful effect upon plants, 
has long been known, independent of the remarks of 
Hales or Jngenhousz. The green colour of the leaves is 
owing to it, insomuch that plants raised in darkness arc 
of a sickly white. It has even been observed that when 
light is admitted to the leaves through different glasses, 
each tinged of a different prismatic colour, the plant is 
paler in proportion as the glass approaches nearer to vio- 
let. The common practice of blanching Celery in gar- 
dens, by covering it up from the light, is an experiment 
under the eyes of every one. This blanching of plants 
is called by the French etiolation, and our chemists 
have adopted the term, though I think they err in de- 
riving it from etode, a star. When blanched plants are 
brought into the light, they soon acquire their natural 
green colour, and even in the dark they are green, if 
exposed to the action of hydrogen gas. Tulip and 
Crocus flowers have long ago been observed by Senne- 
bier to be coloured even in the dark, apparently be- 
cause their colour depends on a different principle from 
the green of leaves. 

Light acts beneficially upon the upper surface of 
leaves, and hurtfully upon the under side ; hence the 
former is always turned towards the light, in whatever 
situation the plant may happen to be placed. Trees 
nailed against a north wall turn their leaves from the 
wall, though it be towards the north, and in direct oppo- 


sition to those on a southern wall over against them. 
Plants in a hot-house all present the fronts of iheir leaves, 
and this influences even the posture of the branches to 
the side where there is most light, but neither to the 
quarter where most air is admitted, nor to the flue in 
search of heat. If the branches of a trained fruit-tree 
in full leaf be disturbed in their position, the leaves re- 
sume their original direction in the course of a day or 
two. The brighter the day, the more quickly is this 
accomplished. If the experiment be often repeated, 
they continue to turn, but more weakly, and are much 
injured by the exertion. Black spots appear about the 
veins on their under sides, and the cuticle scales off. 
Succulent leaves, though so thick and firm as many of 
them are, have been observed to be peculiarly sensible 
to light, while other plants, as Mallows, according to 
Bonnet, arc much less so. The Miseltoe, Viscum al- 
bum, Engl. Bot. t. 1470, the two sides of whose leaves 
are alike in appearance, and both equally, in general, 
presented to the light, are not found to turn upon any 
change in the posture of the branch. Neither do up- 
right sword-shaped leaves alter tht-ir position, because in 
them both sides must be presumed to perform the same 
functions with respect to light as well as air. 

Mr. Calandrini found vine-leaves turned to the light 
when separated from the stem and suspended by a 
thread. Of this any one may be easily satisfied, provid- 
ed the experiment be made with sufficient care and del- 
icacy. It is important, as demonstrating the turning to 
be accomplished by an impression made on the leaf it- 
self, and not upon its footstalk. 


Nor is this effect of light peculiar to leaves alone. 
Many flowers are equally sensible to it, especially the 
compound radiated ones, as the Daisy, Sun-flower, Mar- 
igold, &c. In their forms Nature seems to have de- 
lighted to imitate the radiant luminary to which they are 
apparently dedicated, and in the absence of whose beams 
many of them do not expand their blossoms at all. The 
stately Annual Sun-flower, Helianthus annum, displays 
this phenomenon more conspicuously on account of its 
size, but many of the tribe have greater sensibility to 
light. Its stem is compressed in some degree, to facili- 
tate the movement of the flower, which, after following 
the sun all day, returns after sun-set to the east, by its 
natural elasticity, to meet his beams in the morning. 
Dr. Hales thought the heat of the sun, by contracting the 
stem on one side, occasioned the flower to incline that 
way ; but if so, it would scarcely return completely at 
night. There can be no doubt, from the observation of 
other similar flowers, that the impression is made on 
their radiated florets, which act as wings, and seem con- 
trived chiefly for that purpose, being frequently destitute 
of any other use. A great number of leaves likewise 
follow the sun in its course ; a clover-field is a familiar 
instance of this. 

Of all leaves those of pinnated leguminous plants are 
found most affected by light, insomuch that it appears, 
in several cases, the sole cause of their expansion, for 
when it is withdrawn they fold over each other, or 
droop, as if dying ; and this is called by Linnasus the 
Sleep of Plants, who has a dissertation on the subject in 
his Amoenitates Academics. The term Sleep may not 


really be so hyperbolical as at first sight it seems, for the 
cessation of the stimulus of light, and of the consequent 
restrained position of the leaves, may be useful to the 
vegetable constitution, as real sleep is to the animal. 
Another purpose is answered by the nocturnal folding 
of some leaves, that they shelter their flowers from the 
dew, the advantage of which we shall explain hereafter. 
Some pinnated leaves display a more extraordinary 
sensibility, not merely to light, but to the touch of any 
extraneous body, or to any sudden concussion, as those 
of Mimosa sensitiva, and pudica ; Oxalis sensitiva, and 
Smithia sensitiva, Ait. Hort. Kew. v. 3, t. 13. An im- 
pression made even in the most gentle manner, upon one 
of their leaflets, is communicated in succession to all of 
them, evincing an exquisite irritability, for it is in vain 
to attempt any mechanical solution of this phenomenon. 
One of this tribe, Hedysarum gyrans, has a spontaneous 
motion in its leaves, independent of any external stimu- 
lus, even of light, and only requiring a very warm still 
atmosphere to be performed in perfection. Each leaf is 
ternate, and the small lateral leaflets are frequently mov- 
ing up and down, either equably or by jerks, without 
any uniformity or cooperation among themselves. It is 
difficult to guess at the purpose which this singular ac- 
tion is designed to answer to the plant itself ; its effect 
on a rational beholder cannot be indifferent. 

The chemical actions of light, heat, and the compo- 
nent parts of the atmospheric air, upon leaves, and, 
where the latter are wanting, on the green stems of 
plan's, are now, as far as concerns all plants in common, 
toleiably well understood, The observations and ex 


periments of Priestley and Ingenhousz have been con- 
firmed, extended in a variety of ways, or explained on 
the principles of improved chemistry, by Dr. Percival 
and Mr. Henry in England, Dr. Woodhouse in Ameri- 
ca, and M. Sennebier and M. Theodore de Saussure, as 
well as various other philosophers, on the continent of 
Europe. It is agreed that in the day-time plants imbibe 
from the atmosphere carbonic acid gas, (which was for- 
merly called fixed air, and is an union of oxygen and 
carbon), that they decompose it, absorb the carbon as 
matter of nourishment which is added to the sap, and 
emit the oxygen. So they absorb the same gas from 
water, when it is separated from that fluid by the action 
of light. The burning of a candle, or the breathing of 
animals, in confined air, produces so much of this gas, 
that neither of these operations can go on beyond a cer- 
tain time, but the air so contaminated, serves as food for 
vegetables, whose leaves, assisted by light, soon restore 
the oxygen, or, in other words, purify the air again. 
This beautiful discovery, for the main principles of 
which we are indebted to the celebrated Dr. Priestley, 
shows a mutual dependance of the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms on each other, which had never been suspected 
before his time. Comparative experiments upon the 
lower tribes of these kingdoms have not yet been made, 
but they would probably afford us a new test for distin- 
guishing them. The air so copiously purified by a Con- 
Jerva, one of the most inferior in the scale of plants, 
may be very extensively useful to the innumerable tribes 
of animated beings which inhabit the same waters. The 
abundant air-bubbles which have long ago given even a 


botanical name to one supposed species, Conferva bullo- 
sa, are probably a source of life and health to whole na- 
tions of aquatic insects, worms and polypes, whenever 
the sun shines. 

In the dark, plants give out carbon and absorb oxy- 
gen : but the proportion of the latter is small, compared 
to what they exhale by day, as must likewise be the pro- 
portion of carbon given out ; else the quantity of the lat- 
ter added to their substance would be but trifling, es- 
pecially in those climates where the proportion of day to 
night is nearly equal, and which, notwithstanding, we 
know to be excessively luxuriant in vegetation. Plants 
also give out azotic gas : but M. de Saussure is of 
opinion that this proceeds from their internal substance ; 
and it appears by his experiments to be rather a sign of 
disease or approaching decay, than a regular chemical 
production of their constitution when in health ; for 
Sennebier found the quantity of oxygen emitted was in 
proportion to the thickness of the leaf, or quantity of 
parenchyma. Yet the parenchyma must be in its orig- 
inal organized state, for when bruised its functions are 

Possibly such an alternation in the functions of vege- 
tables between day and night may afford a necessary 
repose to their vital principle, whose share in them we 
know to be of primary importance. Whatever may 
happen to plants in the dark, there can be no doubt of 
their principal business in the ceconomy of nature being 
what we have described. The most luminous and com- 
pendious view of the whole subject is given by Dr, 
Thomson of Edinburgh in the fourth vol. of his Cliem- 


istry y which is well worth the attention of those who 
wish to enter more deeply into all the various chemical 
examinations respecting it than suits our purpose. It is 
only necessary to add a short view of Dr. Darwin's hy- 
pothesis which Dr. Thomson has not mentioned, proba- 
bly on account of its insufficiency. That lively writer 
thought the watery perspiration of leaves, acted upon by 
light, gave out oxygen for the use of the plant itself, 
such oxygen being immediately absorbed by the air- 
vessels. This is by no means adequate to explainany of 
the phcenomena, but rather contradictory to most of 
them, and is totally superseded by the observations and 
experiments of other writers. (85) 

(85) [Some late inquiries, by Mr. Ellis of Edinburgh, go to 
prove that vegetating plants at all times, both by day and 
night consume oxygen from the atmosphere, and produce car- 
bonic acid in its stead. This carbonic acid appears to be the 
product of carbon, afforded by the vegetable, and oxygen, con- 
tributed by the air. Oxygen is also given out in considerable 
quantities, by plants vegetating in the sunshine ; but this pro- 
duction, Mr. Ellis considers to be not the result of any vegeta- 
tive function, but only a subordinate operation accomplished by 
the direct agency of the sun's rays. The disengagement of ox- 
ygen by the solar sight, is attended with the production of the 
green colour in plants. It takes place only from leaves, and 
other parts, which acquire this colour. Flowers, fruits, roots, 
See. whether in the sunshine or in the shade, afford nothing but 
carbonic acid. 

Mr. Ellis believes that the production of oxygen from plants, 
is more than balanced by its consumption, and the formation of 
carbonic acid ; and thus that growing vegetables deteriorate the 
atmosphere, in a degree which greatly surpasses their power to 
ameliorate and improve it.] 


There can be no question of the general purpose an- 
swered to the vegetable constitution by these functions 
of leaves. They confirm Mr. Knight's theory of vege- 
tation, who has proved that very little alburnum or new 
wood is secreted when light is kept from the leaves. 
They also help us to understand how essential oils may 
be produced, which are known, as well as sugar, to be 
composed of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon in different 
proportions. We can now have a general idea how 
the nutritious sap, acted upon by all the agents above 
mentioned during its stay in the cellular substance of the 
leaf, and returned from thence impregnated with them 
into the bark, may prove the source of increase, and of 
peculiar secretions, in the vegetable frame. That por- 
tion of sap sent to the flower and fruit undergoes no less 
remarkable changes, for purposes to which those curi- 
ous organs are devoted ; nor is it returned from thence, 
as from the leaves, to answer any further end. The 
existence of those organs is still more temporary, and 
more absolutely limited to their own purposes, than 
even that of the leaves, from whose secretions theirs are 
very distinct. 

But when we attempt to consider how the particular 
secretions of different species and tribes of plants are 
formed ; how the same soil, the same atmosphere, 
should in a leaf of the vine or sorrel produce a whole- 
some acid, and in that of a spurge or machined a most 
virulent poison ; how sweet and nutritious herbage 
should grow among the acrid crowfoot and aconite, we 
find ourselves totally unable to comprehend the exist- 
ence of such wonderful powers in so small and seeming- 


ly simple an organ as the leaf of a plant. The agency 
of the vital principle alone can account for these won- 
ders, though it cannot, to our understanding, explain 
them. " The thickest veil," says Dr. Thomson at the 
end of his chapter on vegetation, " covers the whole of 
these processes ; and so far have philosophers hitherto 
been from removing this veil, that they have not even 
been able to approach it. All these operations indeed, 
are evidently chemical decompositions and combina- 
tions ; but we neither know what these decompositions 
and combinations are, nor the instruments in which they 
take place, nor the agents by which they are regulated.'' 
The vain Buffon caused his own statue to be inscrib- 
ed " a genius equal to the majesty of nature," but a 
blade of grass was sufficient to confound his pretensions. 

[ 178 ) 




The word Fulcrum, whose proper meaning is a prop 
or support, has been applied by Linnaeus not only to 
those organs of vegetables correctly so denominated, 
such as tendrils, but also to various other appendages 
to the herbage of a plant, none of which are universal, or 
essential, nor is there any one plant furnished with them all. 
I prefer the English term Appendages for these organs in 
general, to Props, because the latter applies only to one 
of them. Seven kinds of these are distinguished by 
Linnaeus, nor do I find it necessary to enlarge that num- 

1. Stipula. The Stipula, a leafy appendage to the 
proper leaves or to their footstalks. It is commonly 
situated at the base of the latter, in pairs, and is ex- 
tremely different in shape in different plants. 

The most natural and usual situation of the Stipu- 
las is in pairs, one stipula on each side of the base of 
the footstalk, as in Lathyrus latifolius, Engl. Bot. t. 
1108, whose stipulas are half arrow-shaped, f. 115 ; 
also in Willows, as Sahx stipularis, t. 1214, and S. 
aurita, t. 1487. In Rosa Potentilla, and many gene- 
ra allied to them, the stipulas are united laterally to 
the footstalk, / 116. See Potentilla alba, t. 1384. 
In all these cases they are extrafoliacea, external with 
respect to the leaf or footstalk ; in others they are in- 


trafolicea, internal, and are then generally simple, as 
those of Polygonum, t. 1382, 756, &c. In a large 
natural order, called Rubiacece, these internal stipulas 
in some cases embrace the stem in an undivided tube 
above the insertion of the footstalks, like those of Po- 
lygonum just mentioned : in others, as the Coffee, 
Coffea arabica, and the Hamellia patens., Engl. Bot. t. 
2 !, they are separate leaves between the footstalks, 
but meeting just above their insertion. The Euro- 
pean Rubiacece have whorled leaves, asAsperula Ga- 
lium, Rubia, &c. ; but Asperula cynanchica, Engl. 
Bot. t. 33, has sometimes two of its four leaves so 
small as to look like stipulas, seeming to form an in- 
termediate link between such as have whorled leases 
and such as have opposite ones with stipulas. The 
next step from Asperula is Diodia, and then Sperma- 
coce. In the two last the bases of the stipulas and 
footstalks are united into a common tube. 

Some stipulas fall off almost as soon as the leaves 
are expanded, which is the case with the Tulip-tree, 
Liriondendron tulipifera ; in general they last as long 
as the leaves. 

The absence or presence of these organs, though 
generally an indication that plants belong to the same 
natural order and even genus, is not invariably so. 
Some species of Cistus have stipulas, others none, 
which is nearly the same with grasses. The stipula 
in this, one of the most distinct of all natural orders, 
is peculiar, consisting of an internal white membrane 
crowning the sheath of their leaf, and clasping the 
culm. See Phalaris canariensis, Engl. Bot. t. 1310, 


and Lagurus ovatus, t. 1334. In Aria carulea, t. 
750, a tew minute hairs supply its place, while Sesle- 
riaazrulea, t. 1613, and some maritime grasses, have 
scarcely more than the rudiment of a stipula. Old 
writers call this organ in grasses by a peculiar name 
ligula, and others denominate it membrana foliorum, 
but both terms are superfluous. A curious instance 
of stipulas supplying the place of leaves is observable 
in Lathyrus Aphaca, t. 1167, which has only one or 
two pair of real leaves on the seedling plants, and 
those soon disappear, serving chiefly to prove, if any 
proof were wanted, that the rest are true stipulas. 

Remarkably scariose or dry membraneous stipulas 
are seen in lllecebrum Paronychia, Fl. Grac. t. 246, 
and in the genus Pinus. 

2. Bractea. The floral leaf, a leaf)' appendage to the 
flower or its stalk. It is of a variety of forms, and 
sometimes green, sometimes coloured. The Lime- 
trees, Tilia europaea, f. 117, t. 610, and parvifo- 
lia, t. 1705,havea very peculiar oblong pale floral leaf, 
attached to the flower-stalk. (86) The Lavenders, ./^ 
118, see Curt. Mag, t. 400 and 401, have coloured 
bracteas, and the Purple-topped Clary, Salvia Hor- 
minum, Fl. Grac. t. 20, exhibits a gradation from 
the proper leaves to green bracteas, and from them to 
coloured ones, which last are barren, or unaccompa- 
nied by flowers. Hence I am induced to believe this 

(86) r Not less remarkable in the Tilia rfmericana, Lime tree, 
or Basswood.] 


plant a mere variety of S. viridis, t. 19, all whose 
bracteas are green, and fertile. Bartsia, alpina, Engl. 
Bot. t. 361, and Melampyrum arvense, t. 53, display 
an elegant transition from leaves to coloured bracteas. 
The Orchis tribe have green leafy bracteas, different 
in size in different species. A most beautiful large 
and coloured bractea is produced in Mussaenda fron- 
dosa, Hort. Mai. v. % t. 18, from one of the teeth of 
the calyx, also in M. glabra of Willdenow, and two 
new species brought from America by Mr. John Fra- 
ser. Spinous bracteas of a curious construction guard 
the calyx in Atractylis cancellata, f 119. Linnaeus 
observes that nc* bracteas are to be found in the class 

The ochrea of Rottboll, WilldenovS's Principles of 
Botany, 50, which enfolds the flower-stalks in Cype- 
rus, see Engl. Bot. t. 1309, seems to me a species of 

3. Spina,/. 120. A Thorn. This proceeds from the 
wood itself, and is either terminal like Hippophae 
rhamnoideSy Engl. Bot. t. 425, Rhamnus catharticus, 
t. 1629 t or lateral as Crataegus (or Mespilus) Cms- 
galli, (87) tomentosa, parvifolia, &c. 

Linnaeus observes that this sometimes disappears 
by culture, as in the Pear-tree, Pyrus sativus. which 
when wild has strong thorns ; hence he denominates 
such cultivated plants tamed, or deprived of their nat- 
ural ferocity. Professor Willdenow, Principles of 

T87) fA very common species of thorn.] 


Rot. t. 270, considers thorns as abortive buds, and 
thence very ingeniously and satisfactorily accounts for 
their disappearance whenever the tree receives more 

The permanent footstalks of the Gum Tragacanth 
shrub, Astragalus Tragacantha, are hardened into 
real spines, as are the flower-stalks in Pisonia, as well 
as the stipulas of Xanthium spinosum and the Mimosce. 
— Linn. Mss. 

4. Aculeus,/, 121, a Prickle, arises from the bark only, 
and comes off with it, having no connection with the 
wood, as in Rosa, Rubus (the Bramble Raspberry, 
&c), and Zizyphus y Willd. Sp. PL v. 1, 1102. 

This is not liable to disappear by culture, being 
very distinct in nature from the last. 

5. Cirrus, t. 9,/ 122. A Tendril. This is indeed 
properly called a fulcrum or support, being intended 
solely to sustain weak and climbing stems upon more 
firm and sturdy ones. By its means such climbers 
often reach, in tropical forests, to the summits of lofty 
trees, which they crown with adventitious blossoms. 
Tendrils or claspers when young are usually put forth 
in a straight direction ; but they presently become 
spiral, making several circumvolutions, by which 
they take hold of any thing in their way, and then as- 
sume a firmer texture. After accomplishing a cer- 
tain number of turns in one direction, some tendrils 
have a power of twining subsequently the contrary 
way ; many of them moreover are branched or com- 


pound, so that the chances of their meeting with a 
support are multiplied. (88) The Vine, Vitis vinifera y 
the various species of Passion-flower, and the Pea or 
Vetch tribe afford good examples of spiral tendrils- 
The Virginian Creeper Hedera, or, as it ought to be 
called, Vitis quinquefolia, has branched tendrils, whose 
extremities adhere to the smoothest flint, like the 
fibres of Ivy. Gloriosa superba,/. 76, Andr. Repos. 
t. 129, and Flagellaria indica, have a simple spiral 
tendril at the end of each leaf ; for they belong to the 
Monocotyledones, the structure of whose whole her- 
bage is generally of the most simple and compendious 

(88) [This is commonly the case with such tendrils as fasten 
their extremities, and then contract themselves into a spiral 
Goil, thus drawing the plant nearer to the supporting object. 
The circumstance of the turns being made in opposite direc- 
tions, is clearly a provision to obviate the twisting of the tendrils 
which would otherwise take place. 

Mr. Knight has published, in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1812, some experiments, which go to illustrate the laws of 
the motions of tendrils. A number of trials, made with tendrils 
of the Vine, Ivy, Sec. shewed that these organs recede from the 
light, and tend toward shady or opake bodies in their neigh- 
bourhood. A plant of the Amfielofiais quinquefolia which was pla-? 
eed in the middle of a greenhouse, pointed its tendrils toward 
the north or back wall. Another plant of the same species be- 
ing placed at the east end of the house, presented its tendrils to- 
ward the west or centre of the house. Being transferred to the 
west end and exposed to the evening sun, the tendrils turned 
vound, and pointed again to the centre of the house. In another 
case the tendrils were sensibly attracted by a piece of dark col- 
oure<l paper placed near them, while a pane of glass did not pro- 
duce on them the least effect.] 


kind. (89) The flower-stalks of Cardiospermam Halica- 
cabum bear tendrils ; but a most singular kind of ten- 
dril, if it may so be called, which certainly has a right 
to the name of fulcrum, is found in the Annona hex- 
apetala, Linn. Suppl. 270. The flower-stalk of this 
tree forms a hook, and grasps the neighbouring branch, 
serving to suspend the fruit, which is very heavy, re- 
sembling a bunch of grapes, and indicates the plant in 
question to be either a Michelia or an Uvaria. 

6. Glandula, a Gland, is defined by Linneus as a little 
tumour discharging a fluid. Such are abundant on 
the stalk and calyx of a Moss Rose,y^ 123, Curt. 
Mag. t. 69, and between the serratures of the leaf of 
Salix pentandra, Bay -leaved Willow ; also on the 
footstalks of Viburnum Opulus, (90) Engl. Bqt. t. 
332, and various species of Passion-flower. The 
liquor discharged is in the first-mentioned instances 
resinous and fragrant, in the latter a sort of honey. 

7. PiluSyf. 124. A Hair. This, according to the Lin- 
nean definition, is an excretory duct of a bristle-like 
form. Such it undoubtedly is in the Nettle, Urtica, 
Engl. Bot. t. 148, and t. 1236, whose bristles are tu- 
bular and pervious, having each a bag of poison at its 
base, like the fang of a serpent ; as well as in numerous 

(89) [The Clematis Virginiana, Virgin's Bower, or Trav- 
eller's Joy, climbs by means of its leaf stalks, which twine like 
tendrils round their supporters.] 

(90) [Guelder Rose, or Snow ball. Several species of 
Cassia have large glands on the leaf stalks. Ribes Floridum has 
both surfaces of the leaf covered with them.] 


plants whose hairy coats exude a viscid moisture. 
But the hairs which clothe many plants are merely a 
protection against cold, heat, or insects. Sometimes 
they are hooked, sometimes branched and entangled, 
as in Mullein, Verbascum, t. 549, &c. In Croton, So- 
latium, and Lavatera, they have often a starry figure. 
Very generally they are found, under a microscope, to 
be curiously jointed. Some Begonia bear on their 
leaves flat little straps called by their authors ramenta 
shavings, instead of cylindrical hairs ; but I know not 
that they at all differ in nature from the usual pubes- 
cence, nor do they merit to be particularly distinguish- 
ed. Some of the natural order of asperifolics, as 
Echium, I. 181, and Lycopsis, t. 938, especially 
some exotic species of this order, are clothed with 
curious hard tubercles from which their bristles pro- 
ceed. Echium pyrenacium, Desfont. Atlant. v. 1. 
164, is an instance of this,yi 125. 

The pubescence of plants varies greatly in degree 
according to differences of soil or exposure ; several 
kinds, as Mentha hirsuta, t. 447, 448, naturally hairy, 
being occasionally found smooth, but if transplanted 
they soon resume their proper habit. Yet the direc 
tion of the hairs or bristles proves a very sure means 
of distinguishing species, especially in the genus 
Merit ea, the hairs about whose calyx and flower- stalk 
point differently in different species, and I have found 
it the only infallible distinction between one Mint and 
another. See Trans, of Linn. Soc. v. 5. 171. The 
accurate Dr, Roth has lately applied the same test t© 


the species of Myosotis, which all botanists before him 
had either confounded under M. scorpioides, Engl. 
Bot. t. 480, or else separated upon vague principles. 
Some species of Galium are admirably characterized 
by the bristles of their leaves, or of parts of their 
leaves, being hooked backward or forward. We 
therefore accept the 272d maxim of Linnaeus's Piulo- 
sophia Botanica with that limitation which he himself 
has allowed in his commentary upon it. " The Pu- 
bescence," says he, " is a ridiculous distinction, be- 
ing for the most part effaced by culture." After quo- 
ting examples, he concludes : " We are therefore not 
to have recourse to the hairiness or spines of plants 
but in case of absolute necessity." Such necessity 
every botanist will allow to have existed in the Men- 
tha and in Myosotis scorpioides ; and though the de- 
gree of pubescence varies from culture, and even its 
structure be changeable, as in Hedypnois hispida, 
Engl. Bot. t. 554, and hirta, t. 555, its direction is I 
believe as little liable to exception as any character 
that vegetables present. 

[ 187 ] 



Inflorescence, injlorescentia, is used by Linnaeus 
to express the particular manner in which flowers are sit- 
uated upon a plant, denominated by preceding writers 
the modus Jiorendi, or manner of flowering. Of this the 
several kinds are distinguished as follows. 

Verticulus,/ 126. A Whorl. In this the flowers 
surround the stem in a sort of ring ; though they 
may not perhaps be inserted on all sides of it, but 
merely on two opposite ones, as in Dead Nettle, La- 
mum, Engl. Bot. t. 768- — 770, Mentha Rubra, t. 
1413, and Clinopodiicm vulgare, t. 1401 ; or even on 
one side only, as Rumex maritimus, t. 725.(91) The 
flowers of Hippuris vulgaris, t. 763, are truly inserted 
in a ring round the stem, Jl 127 ; but they are not 
whorled independent of the leaves, and are therefore 
more properly, with a reference to the leaves, denomi- 
nated axillary and solitary. 

Racemus,,/! 128, a Cluster, or Raceme, consists of 
numerous rather distant flowers, each on its own prop- 
er stalk, and all connected by one common stalk, as a 
bunch of Currants, Ribes ruhrum, E?igl. Bot. t. 
J289, nigrum t. 1291, and Orobus sylvaticus, t. 518. 

(9 1) [And many other species of Rumcx or^ock.] 


A cluster is most generally drooping or pendulous, 
and the flowers are all expanded nearly at the same 

A compound racemus occurs in Solatium Dulca- 
mara, t. 565, and an aggregate one, several being 
gathered together, in Actcca racemosa, (92) Dill. Elth. 
t. 67 ; but the example of a bunch of Grapes, quoted 
by Linnaeus for a racemus, appears to me a true 
thyrsus ; see below. 

Spica,^ 129, a Spike, bears numerous flowers ranged 
along one common stalk, without any partial stalks, 
as in Satyrium hircinum, Engl. Bot. t. 34, Orchis hi- 
folia, t. 22, Plantago major \ (93) t. J 558, and media } 
t. 1559, Potamogeton heterophyllum, t. 1285, and^/fo- 
itans, t. 1286 ; but this is so seldom the case, that a 
little latitude is allowed. Veronica spicata, t. 2, 
therefore,^ 130, and Ribes Spicatum, t. 1290, as well 
as the Common Lavender, Lavandula Spica, are suffi- 
ciently good examples of a spike, though none of 
them has entirely sessile flowers ; and Linnaeus uses 
the term in numerous instances where it is still less 
correctly applicable. A spike generally grows erect. 
Its mode of expansion is much more progressive than 
that of the raceme, so that a long period elapses be- 
tween the fading of the lowest flowers and the open- 
ing of the upper ones. The flowers are commonly 
all crowded close together, or if otherwise, they form 
separate groups, perhaps whorls, when the spike is 

(92) [Called in the United States, Black Snake Root."! 

(93) [Greater Plantain,] 


said to be either interrupted, or vvhorled ; as in some 
Mints. In Sanguisorba officinalis the spike begins 
flowering at tlie top. See Capitulum below. 

A compound spike is seen in Lavandula vinnata, 
Curt. Mag. t. 401, and L. abrotanoides of Willdenow. 

Spica secunda, a spike whose flowers lean all to one 
side, occurs in Nardus stricta, Engl. Bot. t. 290. 

Spicula, f. 131, a Spikelet, is applied exclusively 
to grasses that have many florets in one calyx, such 
florets, ranged on a little stalk, constituting the spike- 
let, which is therefore a part of the flower itself, and 
not of the inflorescence; see Poa aquatica, t. 1315, 
Jluitans, t. 1520, Briza minor, t. 1316, &c. 

Corymbus,/^ 132, a Corymb, is a spike whose partial 
flower, stalks are gradually longer as they stand lower 
on the common stalk, so that all the flowers are nearly 
on a level, of which Spiraa opulifolia, a common 
shrub in gardens, is an excellent specimen. The Lin- 
nasan class Tetradynamia exemplifies this less perfect- 
ly, as Cardamine pratensis, Engl. Bot. t. 776, Cheiran- 
thus sinuatus, t. 462, and the common Cabbage, Bras- 
sica oleracea, t. 637, in which the corymbus of flowers 
becomes a racemus of fruit, as happens also in that sec- 
tion of the Veronica, entitled by Linnaeus corymboso- 
racemosce. The flowers of Yarrow,yi 133, Achillea, t. 
757, and 758, and several others of the compound class, 
as well as the Mountain-Ash, t. 337, grow in a corym- 
bose manner, though their inflorescence may not conic 
exactly under the above definition. It is worthy of re^ 
mark that Linnaeus in that definition uses the word spica, 
not racemus, nor has he corrected it in his own copy 


of Phil. Bot.p. 41, though he has properly altered a 
slip of the pen in the same line, pel 'iolis, to pedunculis.* 
This shows he did not restrain his idea of a spike 
absolutely to sessile flowers, but admitted that ex- 
tended signification which nature justifies. Many 
plants acquire partial stalks as the fruit advances to- 
wards maturity. 

Fasciculus, f. 134, a Fascicle, is applied to flowers 
on little stalks, variously inserted and subdivided, 
collected into a close bundle, level at the top, as the 
Sweet William, Dianthus barbatus, Cart. Mag. t. 
207, and D. Armeria, Engl. Bot. t. 317.(94) 

Capitulum, j£ 135, a Head or Tuft, bears the flowers 
sessile in a globular form, as Statice Armeria, t. 226, 
Adoxa Moschatellina, t. 453, and Gomphrena globosa, 
the Globe Amaranthus of the gardens. 

Perhaps the inflorescence of Sanguisorba officina- 
lis, t. 1312, might be esteemed a capitulum, because 
its upper flowers come first to perfection, as in 
Adoxa, which seems contrary to the nature of a spike ; 
but it does not appear that all capitate flowers expand 
in the same way, and Sanguisorba canadensis has a 
real spike, flowering in the usual manner, from the 
bottom upwards. So Allium desccndens, Curt. Mag. 
t. 251, opens its upper, or central, flowers first, con- 

* It might be expected from the numerous learned editors 
and copiers of this and other works of Linnaeus, that they should 
correct such manifest errors as the above, which any tyro might 

(94) [The Dianthus Armeria is a native."] 


trary to the usual order in its genus ; both which in- 
stances prove such a diversity to be of small moment. 

Um b e ll a, an Umbel, for which some authors retain the 
obsolete old English name of Rundle. In this seve- 
ral flower-stalks, or rays, nearly equal in length, 
spread from one common centre, their summits form- 
ing a level, convex, or even globose surface, more 
rarely a concave one. When each ray is simple and 
single-flowered, it is called a simple umbel,/! 136, as 
those of Allium ursinum, Engl. Bot. t. 122, Ivy, t. 
1267, Primula veris, t. 5, farinosa, t. 6, elatior, t. 
513, and Eucalyptus r&sinij era, Exot. Bot. t. 84.(95) 
In a compound umbel each ray or stalk mostly bears 
an umbellula, or partial umbel, as Athamanta Libano- 
tis, Engl. Bot. t. 138. This is usually the case in 
the very natural order of plants called unbelliferous, 
f. 138, to which the last-mentioned, as well as the 
common Carrot, Parsnep, Parsley, Hemlock, Sec. be- 

A few only of this order have simple umbels, as 
Hydrocotyle vulgaris, t. 751, and the curious Astran- 
tits, f. 137, and Enocalcc, Exot. Bot. t. 76 — 79. In 
Euphorbia the umbel is differently compounded, con- 
sisting of 3, 4, 5 or numerous rays, each of which is 
repeatedly subdivided, either in a threefold or forked 
manner. See Engl. Bot. t. 883, 959, &c.(96) 

(95) [Fine examples of the Simple Umbel occur in the Silk- 
weeds, dsclefiias Syriaca, Juir/mrasccns, tuberosa, Sec] 

(96) [An Umbel is said to be radiate, when the outer petals 
of the external flowers are larger and longer than the rest ; it is 


Cyma,/ 139, a Cyme, has the general appearance of aa 
umbel, and agrees with it so far that its common 
stalks all spring from one centre, but differs in having 
those stalks variously and alternately subdivided. 
Examples are found in Viburnum, Engl. Bot. t. 331, 
332, and the common Laurustinus, as also in Sam- 
bucus, Elder, t. 475, 476. This mode of inflores- 
cence agrees with a corymbus also in general aspect, 
but in the latter the primary stalks have no common 
centre, though the partial ones may sometimes be um- 
bellate, which last case is precisely the reverse of a 

Panicula,/! 140, a Panicle, bears the flowers in a sort 
of loose subdivided bunch or cluster, without any or- 
der. When the stalks are distant, it is called diffusa, 
a lax or spreading panicle, as in Saxifraga umbrosa, 
t. 663, so frequent in gardens under the name of Lon- 
don Pride, and S. Geum, t. 1561, but particularly in 
many grasses, as the common cultivated Oat, and 
Avena strigosa > t. 1266 ; in this tribe the branches of 
the panicle are mostly semiverticillate ; see Aira 
aquatica, t. 1557. A divaricated panicle is still 
more spreading, like those of Prenanthcs muralis, t. 
457, and Spergula arvensis, t. 1535 ; the last being 
dichotomous or forked. A dense or crowded panicle, 
coarctata, is observable in Milium lendigerum, t. 1107, 
and Agrostis stolonifera, t. 1532, but still more re- 
markably in Phelum paniculatum, t. 1077, whose in- 

Jloscular, when the flowers are alike in size. See Aggregai* 


florescence looks, at first sight, like a cylindrical spike, 
but when bent to either side, it separates into branch^ 
ed lobes, constituting a real panicle. (97) 

Thyrsus,/! 141, a Bunch, is a dense or close panicle, 
more or less of an ovate figure, of which the Lilac, 
Syringia vulgaris, Curt. Mag. t. 183, Tussilago hyb- 
rida and Petasites, Engl. Bot. t. 430, 431, are exam- 
ples cited by Linnaeus. I presume likewise to con- 
sider a bunch of grapes, Vitis vinifera, as a true thyr- 
sus, to the characters and appearance of which it cor- 
rectly answers. Its ultimate terminations are some- 
times obscurely umbellate, especially while in blos- 
som, which is no objection here, but can never be the 
case in a racemus, whether simple or compound. See 

Of simple flower-stalks, whether solitary or cluster- 
ed, radical or cauline, axillary, lateral or terminal, we 
have already spoken. 

Linnaeus remarks that the most elegant specific 
characters are taken from the inflorescence. Thus 
the Apple, Engl. Bot. t. 179, and the Pear, form two 
species of Pyrus, so far at least a most natural genus, 
the former of which bears an umbel, the latter a co- 
rymb. Pyrola uniflora, t. 146, secunda, t. 517, and 
umbellata, Curt. Mag. t. 778, are admirably distin- 
guished by their several forms of inflorescence. 

(97) [A Panicle leaning one way, Panicula secunda, i% foun^ 
in Dactylis glomcrata, or Orchard Grass.] 
A A 

t 19* 3 


Having examined the general structure and external 
form of plants, we now come to more important and 
even essential, though more transitory organs — the flow- 
er and fruit, or parts of fructification. By these each spe- 
cies is perpetually renewed without limits, so far at least 
as the observation of mankind has reached ; while, as 
we have already mentioned, all other modes of propaga- 
tion are but the extension of an individual, and sooner or 
later terminate in its total extinction. 

Nothing can be more happy than the Linnsean defini- 
tion of these organs ; Phil. Bot.52. " The fructifica- 
tion is a temporary part of vegetables, destined for the 
reproduction of the species, terminating the old individ- 
ual and beginning the new. 1 ' 

Pliny had long ago beautifully said, that " blossoms 
are the joy of trees, in bearing which they assume a new 
aspect, vieing with each other in the luxuriance and va- 
riety of their colours." Linnasus has justly applied this 
to plants in general, and, improving upon the idea, he 
considers their herbage as only a mask or clothing, by no 
means indicative of their true nature or character, which 
can be learned from the flower and fruit alone. 

Mr. Knight has traced his central vessels, by which 
the sap is conveyed from the root, in the flower and 
fruit. On the returning sap into the bark of these parts 
he has not been able to make any distinct observation ; 


but he has determined that no matter of increase is fur- 
nished from the flowers or their stalks, as from leaves, to 
the part of the branch below them, nor indeed to any 
other part, Phil Trans, for 1801, p. 340. There can 
be no doubt that certain parts of the flower, which we 
shall presently describe, perform functions respecting 
air and light analogous to those of leaves, but entirely 
subservient to the benefit of the flower and fruit. Their 
secretions, formed from the returning sap, are confined 
to their own purposes. As soon as these are accomplish- 
ed, a decided separation of vessels takes place, and the 
ripe fruit, accompanied perhaps by its stalk, falls from 
the tree- Dr. Hales tried in vain to give any flavour to 
fruit by the most penetrating and volatile fluids conveyed 
through the sap-vessels ; for the laws of secretion are 
absolute in the organs of the flower, and their various re- 
sults are, if possible, more strikingly distinct than even 
those we have contemplated in the leaves. 

It is scarcely necessary to repeat that the fructification 
is essential to vegetables. A plant may be destitute of 
stem, leaves, or even roots, because if one of these parts 
be wanting, the others may perform its functions, but it 
can never be destitute of those organs by which its spe- 
cies is propagated. Hence, though many individual 
plants may be long without blossoms, there are none, so 
far as nature has been thoroughly investigated, that are 
not capable, in favourable circumstances, of producing 
them, as well as seeds ; to whose perfection the blos- 
soms themselves are altogether subservient. 

Linnaeus distinguishes seven parts of fructification, 
some of which are essential to the very nature of a flow- 


er or fruit, others not so indispensably necessary, and 
therefore not universal. 

I. Calyx, the Calyx or Flower-cup, generally resem- 
bling the leaves in texture and colour, and forming 
the outermost part of a flower. This is not essential,, 
and is often absent. 

II. Corolla, the Corolla, or more delicate coloured inter- 
nal leaf or leaves, properly petals, of a flower, likewise 
not essential. 

III. Stamen, or Stamina, the Stamen or Stamens, com- 
monly of a slender or thread like form, bearing some 
kind of knob or cellular body, and ranged internally 
with respect to the Corolla. These are essential. 

IV. Pistillum, or Pistilla, the Pistil, or Pistils, in the 
centre of the flower, consisting of the rudiments of the 
fruit, with one or more organs attached to them, and, 
of course, essential. 

V. Pericarpium, the Seed-vessel, of a pulpy, woody, or 
leathery texture, enclosing the seeds, but wanting in 
many parts. 

VI. Semen, the Seed, the perfecting of which is the sole 
end of all the other plants. 

VII. Receptaculum, the Receptacle, basis or point of 
connection. This must necessarily be present in 
some form or other. 


I. Calyx. The Flower-cup, or more correctly the 
external covering of the flower, when present, was 
originally divided by Linnaeus into seven kinds, some 
of which are more justly so denominated than the oth- 
ers, and I have ventured to make an alteration in his 

1. Perianthium.f. 142. Calyx, properly and common- 
ly so called, when it is contiguous to and makes a 
part of the flower, as the five green leaves which en- 
compass a Rose, including their urn-shaped base ; the 
two green bristly ones which enfold the bud in Glau- 
eium luteum, Fl. Brit. Engl. Bot. t. 8 ; the tubular 
part, comprehending the scales at its base, in the 
Pinks, t. 61, 62, or the globular scaly cup, in Centau- 
rea, t. 56. The Tulip, t. 63, is a naked flower, 
having no calyx at all.(98) 

(98) [Some of the most remarkable forms of the calyx are 

Ventricosus, inflated, when it appears swelled or distended, as 
in Cucubalus JBehen, or Campion. 

Prismaticus, prismatic, with sharp, somewhat parallel angles, 
as in Mimulus, or Monkey Flower. 

Imbricalum or Squamosum, imbricated or scaly. 

Squarrosinn, Squarrose, when the leaflets which compose it 
are bent back at the points. 

Scariosum, Scariose, when the leaflets are hard, thin, and dry. 

Ciliatum, fringed with hairs or bristles on the margin. 

Muricatum, Muricated, set with short stiff prickles. 

S/iinosum, thorny, each leaflet tipped with a thorn, as in thistles. 

Turbinatwn, turbinate, having the figure of a top. 

Cahjculatum, calculated or doubled, when one calyx appears 
to be enclosed at its base by another.] 


This part is of an infinite variety of forms in differ- 
ent genera, being either simple or compound, divided 
or undivided, regular or irregular. In some instances 

it is permanent till the fruit is ripe, in others it falls 
even before the flower is well expanded. 

Some genera have a double perianthium, as Malva, 
t. 671, or even a triple one, as Scabiosa, t. 1311. 

% Involucrutn, f. 143, Involucre of Professor Martyn ; 
but I generally retain the Latin termination. This is 
remote from the flower, and can scarcely be distin- 
guished clearly from a Bractea. The term was first 
adopted by Linnaeus, at the suggestion of his friend 
Artedi, in order to distinguish the genera of umbellif- 
erous plants, for which purpose the latter deemed the 
part in question very important. But according to 
the laws which Linnaeus had laid down, the parts of 
the flower and fruit alone were to afford generic char- 
acters, and the most sound botanists have ever since 
kept to this rule, with infinite advantage over less cor- 
rect ones, however ready to derive ideas respecting 
the natural habit, and secondary characters, of a ge^ 
nus, not only from the inflorescence and bracteas, but 
even from the leaves, stipulas, or other parts. Lin- 
naeus and Artedi, therefore, were obliged to consider 
the involucra and involucella, the former accompany- 
ing the general and the latter the partial umbels, as a 
sort of calyx, and the umbel altogether as one aggre- 
gate flower, composed of florets united by a common 
radiated receptacle. Consequently a cyme must be 
considered in the same light ; nor are reasons wanting 
in support of this hypothesis, which we shall consider 


after having first explained all the parts of fructifica- 

In Euphorbia, however, the term bractea would 
surely be more proper than involucrum or involucel- 
lum, as is evident from a consideration of the inflores- 
cence of the whole genus, so very different in different 
species. In E. Peplis, and many others, the flowers 
are solitary and axillary ; in others again, as E. 
amygdaloides, Engl. Bot. t. 256, and Characias, t. 
442, some flower-stalks are umbellate, some scatter- 
ed ; and the subdivisions of the umbel in all are ulti* 
mately forked, that is, of a nature between umbellate 
and scattered. This genus has, moreover, a proper 
calyx or per ianthium of a most distinct and peculiar 
nature. Some species of Anemone, a genus destitute 
of a perianthium, are said by Linnaeus to have an invo- 
lucrum, as A. Pulsatilla, t. 51, for which the name of 
bractea would be vastly more correct, though in A. 
Hepatica, Curt. Mag. t. 10, it is placed so near the 
flower as to seem a part of it, which, however, is real- 
ly not the case. 

The name of Involucrum is applied by Gleditsch 
to the membrane covering the fructification of ferns, 
f. 144, 145 ; nor have I, in studying this part with pe- 
culiar attention, in order to reform the genera of these 
plants, see Tracts relating to Natural History \ p. 215, 
found reason to contrive any new appellation. My 
learned friends Willdenow and Swartz have judged 
otherwise, caUing this membrane the indusium, or 
covering; which seems to me altogether superfluous. 
See its various forms in Engl. Bot. t. 1458 — 60, 
1150, 1159, U60, &c. 


3. Amentum, f. 146. Catkin, denominated by authors 
before Linnaeus julus, nucamentum, or catulus ; con- 
sists of a common receptacle of a cylindrical form be- 
set with numerous scales, each of which is accompa- 
nied by one or more stamens or pistils, so that the 
whole forms an aggregate flower. (99) The recepta- 
cle itself and the bases of the scales are firmly united, 
and the whole catkin falls off entire, except that in 
some instances the upper part of each scale withers 
away, as in the Willow genus, Salix, Engl. Bot. t. 
1388 — 90, 1402 — 4, &c, the seed-vessels in that 
genus being quite distinct from the scales. In others, 
the whole scale remains, enlarges, hardens, and pro- 
tects the seed, as in Pinus, the Fir tribe. Such is the 
case with catkins of fertile flowers, which are necessa- 
rily permanent till the seed is ripe ; barren ones fall 
as soon as the stamens have performed their office. 
Every catkin consists generally of either one kind of 
flower or the other. There are few certain and inva- 
riable instances of stamens and pistils in the same cat- 
kin, that circumstance occurring chiefly in a few spe- 
cies of Salix and Car ex ; nor is Typha, t. 1455 — 7, 
an exception to this. Examples of barren-flowered 
catkins are seen, not only in Salix and Pinus, but in 
several plants whose fertile or fruit-bearing flowers 
are not catkins, such as the Walnut, and, unless I am 
much mistaken, the Hasel-nut, t. 723. Each nut or 
seed of the latter has a permanent coriaceous calyx of 

(99) [The Ament or Catkin is the most common inflorescence 
of our Forest trees ; as the Oak, Walnut, Chesnut, Birch, Aldei 


its own, inadvertently called by Gasrtner an involu- 
crum, though he considers the whole as an amentum, 
which this very calyx proves it not to be.* Humu- 
lus, the Hop, t. 427, has a catkin for the fertile flower 

4. Spatha,f. 147. Sheath, a covering which bursts 
longitudinally, and is more or less remote from the 
flower. This is exemplified in the Snow-drop, Ga- 
lanthus nivalis, t. 167, the various species of Narcis- 
sus, t. 17, 275 and 276, and the Arum, (100) 1. 1298. 
The Spatha of the latter encloses a Spadix, or elon- 
gated receptacle, common to many flowers, according 
to the genuine Linnaean idea of this kind of calyx, 
taken from Palm-trees. In these the Spadix i* 
branched. (101) 

5. Gluma,/. 148. Husk, the popular calyx of Grass- 
es and Grass-like plants, of a chaffy texture. These 
husks are usually compressed, embracing each other 
at the base, as in Phleum pratense, t. 1076. Some- 
times they are depressed, flattened vertically, as in 
Briza, t. 540 and 1316. To the husk belongs the. 

* It appears moreover that Carfiinus, the Hornbeam, has hith- 
erto erroneously been supposed to have an amentum for the fer- 
tile flower. The true nature of the covering of the seed, as well 
as of the common stalk, proves it otherwise. 

(100) [The spatha of Arum trifilnjllum is inflected at the top, 
and often elegantly striped within That of Pothos fxtida ap- 
pears with its spadix before the leaves] 

(101) [The receptacle of Acorus or Sweet Flag, is a Spadix? 
destitute of a Spatha.] 



Arista,/. 149, Beard or Awn, a bristle -shaped appen- 
dage, usually spiral, and possessing the property of 
an hygrometer. This, however, is not always pres- 
ent, even in different individuals of the same species. 

« Unfortunately for the science, 
On the awn there's no reliance." 

So says, or rather sings, with more truth than sub- 
limity, the ingenious author of the Flora Londinensis, 
Jasc. 6, t. 8. 

The spiral kind of awn is most frequently attached 
to the Coj'oll of grasses, which is precisely of the same 
husky nature as their calyx, and is, by some bota- 
nists, considered as such. Specimens of glume? muti- 
cce, beardless husks, are seen in Phalaris canarie?isis, 
Engl. Bot. t. 1310, and glumes aristatee, awned ones, 
in Lagurus ovatus y t. 1334, and Stipa pennata y t. 

6. Perichatium, f. 150. A scaly Sheath, investing the 
fertile flower, and consequently the base of the fruit- 
stalk, in some Mosses. In the genus Hypnum it is 
of great consequence, not only by its presence, con- 
stituting a part of the generic character, but by its 
differences in shape, proportion, and structure, serving 
frequently to discriminate species. See Engl. Bot. t. 
1037 — 9, 1182, 1445—8, &c. ; see also the same 
part in Neckera, t. 1443, 4. Linnaeus appears by his 
manuscripts tohaveintendedadding this to the different 
kinds of calyx, though it is not one of the seven enu- 
merated in his printed works. Nor is he, surely, cor- 
rect in allowing it to the genus Jungermanma. The 


membranous part which he there calls perichcetium is 
strictly analagous indeed to the calyptra,f. 151, 152 b, 
or veil of real mosses, esteemed by him a kind of ca- 
lyx ; but as I presume with Schreber, to reckon it 
rather a corolla, and Hedwig once thought the same, 
and as Jungermannia has more or less of a real calyx 
besides,/ 152 a, see Engl Bot. t. Ill, &c, I would 
no longer apply the term perichcetium to this genus at 

The part called ealyptra being removed from the 
list, as being a corolla, the perichcetium takes its 
place among the seven kinds of calyx. We lay less 
stress upon this coincidence than Linnaeus might 
have done, when, according to the fashion of the 
times, he condescended to distribute his immortal 
Philosophia Botanica into 12 chapters and 365 sec- 
tions, and reckoned seven parts of fructification as 
well as seven species of calyx. 

7. Volva, f. 153. Wrapper, or covering of the Fungus 
tribe, of a membranous texture, concealing their 
parts of fructification, and in due time bursting all 
round, forming a ring upon the stalk, as in Agaricus 
procerus, Sowerb. Fung. t. 190, and A. campestris, 
the Common Mushroom, t. 305 ; such at least is the 
original meaning of this term, as explained in the Phil. 
Bot. ; but it has become more generally used, even 
by Linnaeus himself, for the more fleshy external cov- 
ering of some other Fungi, which is scarcely raised 
out of the ground, and enfolds the whole plant when 
young, f. 154. See Agaricus volvaceus, t. 1, and 


Lycoperdon fornicatum, t. 198 ; also the very curious 
L. phalloides, t. 390, now made a distinct genus by 
the learned Persoon, under the name of Batarrea 

Linnaeus adopted from Czesalpinus the opinion that 
the Calyx proceeded from the bark, like the leaves, be- 
cause of its similarity in colour and texture to those 
organs. He even refined upon the original idea, and 
supposed this part to proceed from the outer bark, while 
the more delicate corolla originated in the liber. What 
is now known of the physiology of the bark, as explain- 
ed in several of our preceding chapters, renders this hy- 
pothesis totally inadmissible. 

The knowledge of the real use of leaves, see chapter 
16, may however throw some light upon that of the 
calyx. Besides protection of the flower from external 
injuries, which is one evident use of this part, it ap- 
pears highly probable that it may often contribute to the 
growth and strength of the stalk which supports it, as 
the leaves do to that portion of branch below them. The 
stalk often swells considerably during the growth of the 
flower, especially just below the calyx, becoming more 
woody, an alteration frequently necessary for the support 
of the ripening fruit. When the calyx falls very early, 
as in the Poppy tribe, Papaver and Glaucium, I cannot 
find that the flower-stalk is subsequently enlarged, nor 
in any manner altered ; while in genera without num- 
ber, whose calyx is permanent, the stalk becomes not 
only more woody, but often considerably thickened. 

II. Cor on a. The Corolla, vulgarly called the leaves 
of the flower, consists of those more delicate and dila- 


ted, generally more coloured leaves, which are always 
internal with respect to the calyx, and constitute the 
chief beauty of a flower. In the Rose the Corolla is 
red and fragrant ; in the Violet purple ; in the Prim- 
rose yellow. 

This term includes two parts, the Petal, Petalum, 
and the Nectary, Nectarium. The former is either 
simple, as in the Primrose, in which case the Corolla 
is said to be monopetalous, of one petal ; or com- 
pound, as in the Rose, in which it is polypetalous, 
of several. The Nectary is sometimes a part of the 
petal, sometimes separate from it. 

A monopetalous Corolla consists of two parts ; the 
tube, tubus, the cylindrical part enclosed in the calyx 
of the Primrose, and the limb, limbus, which is the 
horizontal spreading portion of the same flower, /. 
155. The analogous parts of a polypetalous Corol- 
la, as in the Wall-flower or Stock, /. 156, are named 
the claw, unguis,/. 157 a, and the border, lamina, b. 

The Corolla is infinitely diversified in form in dif- 
ferent genera, whence Tournefort and Rivinus deriv- 
ed their methods of arrangement. It is called regular 
when its general figure is uniform, as in the Rose, the 
Pink, the Columbine, Aquilegia, vulgaris, Engl. Bot. 
t. 297, and Gentiana Pneumonanthe, t. 20 ; irregular 
when otherwise, as the Violet, t. 619, 620, Dead-net- 
tle, t. 768, and Lathyrus, t. 805 and 1108. An 
equal Corolla,^ 156, is not only regular, but all its 
divisions are of one size, like those of the Primrose, 
t. 5, Campanula, t. 12, or Saxi/raga, t. 9 ; an une- 
qual owe,/, 158, is when some segments are alternate- 


ly smaller than the others, as in Butomus, t, 651, or 
otherwise different, as in Aquilegia. t. 297. It is by 
no means always necessary, in defining characters of 
genera, to use these last terms, it being sufficient in 
general to say that a Corolla is regular in opposition 
to one that is irregular ; more especially as some 
species of a genus may possibly have an equal corolla, 
others an unequal one. 
The most usual shapes of a monopetalous corolla 

campanulata,f. 159, bell-shaped, as in Campanula, 1. 12. 
infundibuliformis, f. 160, funnel-shaped, (102) Pulmo- 

naria, £.118. 
hypocrateriformis, f. 155, salver-shaped, (103) Pri- 
mula, t. 4. 
rotata, wheel- shaped, that is salver-shaped with scarce- 
ly any tube, Borago, t. 36. 
ringens, f. 161, ringent, irregular and gaping like the 
mouth of an animal, Lamium, t. 768 ; called by for- 
mer botanists labiata, lipped. (104) 
personata,f. 162, personate, irregular and closed by a 
kind of palate, Antirrhinum, t. 129. Those of a 
polypetalous one are 
cruciformis, f. 156, cruciform, regular and like a cross, 
Dentaria, t. 309, and Cheiranthus, t. 462. 

(102) [Tubular at bottom, but gradually expanding toward the 
top, as Thorn Apple, Datura, ,] 

(103) [Tubular for most of its length, but suddenly expanding 
into a flat border at top.] 

(104) [The upper lip of a ringent corolla is commonly smaller, 
and has the stamens projecting from beneath it. The lower lip 
is larger and more expanded. When this order is changed, the 
corolla is said to be reversed.'] 


rosacea, rosaceous, spreading like a rose, Dry as, £.451. 
papilionacea,f. 163, papilionaceous, irregular and spread- 
ing, somewhat like a butterfly, Lathyrus, t. 1108. 
The various petals which compose such a flower are 
distinguished by appropriate names, as vexillum, f. 
164, standard, the large one at the back ; alce,f. .165, 
wings, the two side petals ; and carina, f. 166, the 
keel, consisting of two petals, united or separate, em- 
bracing rtie internal organs,/ 167. In Trifolium all 
the petals are sometimes united into one at the lower 
incompleta, incomplete, when parts, which analogy would 
lead us to expect, are deficient, as in Amorpha, a pa- 
pilionaceous flower apparently, but consisting of the 
vexillum only ; or Rittera of Schreber,^ 168, a ro- 
saceous one with a single lateral petal, seeming as if 
four others had been stripped off". 
It is remarkable that irregular flowers sometimes vary to 
regular ones in the very same plant, as in Bignonia 
radicans, Curt. Mag. t. 485 ; and Antirrhinum Lina- 
ria,f. 169, Engl. Bot. t. 658 and 260. 
Linnaeus was of opinion that the Corolla originated 
from the Liber or inner bark, as the Calyx from the out- 
er, but this cannot be defended now the real physiology 
of the bark is better understood. 

The whole use and physiology of the Corolla have not 
yet been fully explained. As a protection to the tender 
and important parts within, especially from wet, its use 
in many cases is obvious, but by no means in all. Lin- 
naeus imagined it to serve as wings, to waft the flower 
up and down in the air, and so to promote the functions 


of the Stamens and Pistils, as will hereafter be describ- 
ed ; nor is this opinion unfounded. 

Sprengel has ingeniously demonstrated, in some hun- 
dreds of instances, how the Corolla serves as an attraction 
to insects, indicating by various marks, sometimes per- 
haps by its scent, where they may find honey, and ac- 
commodating them with a convenient resting-place or 
shelter while they extract it. This elegant and ingen- 
ious theory receives confirmation from almost every 
flower we examine. Proud man is disposed to think 

« Full many a flower is born to blush unseen," 

because he has not deigned to explore it ; but we find 
that even the beauties of the most sequestered wilder- 
ness are not made in vain. They have myriads of ad- 
mirers, attracted by their charms, and rewarded with 
their treasures, which very treasures would be as use- 
less as the gold of a miser to the plant itself, were they 
not thus the means of bringing insects about it. The 
services rendered by such visitants will be understood 
when we have described all the parts of a flower. 

Besides the above purposes, I have always conceived 
the Corolla to fulfil some important office to the essen- 
tial parts of the flower with respect to air, and especially 
light. (105) It not only presents' itself in a remarkable 

(105) [The ingenious, but often visionary St. Pierre supposes 
the corolla to regulate the sun's influence on the fructification 
of the plant, by reverberating the solar rays upon the anthers and 
stigma ; or in some instances by sheltering them from too intense 


manner to the sun-beams, frequently closing or drooping 
when they are withdrawn, but it is so peculiarly distin- 
guished bv beauty or brilliancy of colour, that one can- 
not but think its functions somewhat different from 
those of the leaves, even with regard to light itself. Dr» 
Darwin calls the Corolla the lungs of the stamens and 
pistils, and with great probability, for they abound in 
air-vessels ( 106) But when we consider the elaborate 
and peculiar secretions of a flower, the elastic and in- 
flammable pollen, the honey, and the exquisitely volatile 
perfume, as we know from the curious discoveries of 
modern chemistry how great a share light has in the pro- 
duction of such, we cannot but conclude that the petals 
must be of primary importance with respect to their 
secretion by its means. 

Sometimes the Corolla is very short-lived ; sometimes 
very lasting, even till the fruit is perfected, though most- 
ly in a faded condition. In double flowers I have ob- 
served it to be much more durable than in single ones 
of the same species, as Anemones and Poppies, because, 
as I conceive, of its not having performed its natural 
functions, the stamens and pistils of such flowers being 
obliterated, or changed to petals ; hence the vital princi- 
ple of their corolla is not so soon exhausted as usual. 
Phil. Trans, for 1788, p. 165. 

The Corolla, as already observed, is not essential. 
Whatever its functions may be, they can be occasionally 

(106) [Flowers uniformly deteriorate the air according to the 
experiments of Priestley, Ingenhousz, and De Saussure. They 
consume oxygen, and produce carbonic acid, both in the sun- 
shine and in the shade.] 


performed by the Calyx perhaps, or even by the Fila- 
ments of the Stamens ; as those of leaves are, in leafless 
plants, bythe stems. When a flower has only one cov- 
ering, it is not always easy to say whether that be a Ca- 
lyx or Corolla. When green and coarse in texture like 
the former, we call it so, as in Chenopodium, Engl. Bot. t. 
1033, and 1721 — 4, and the natural relationship of this 
genus to Polygonum, t. 1044, 989, 756, &c, leads us to 
reckon the same part in the latter a coloured calyx. 
On the other hand, when the part present is delicate and 
finely coloured, like the generality of Corollas, we de- 
nominate it such ; more especially if the plant to which 
it belongs be allied to others that have a Calyx besides, 
as in Tulipa, t. 63, allied to Lcucojum, t. 621, which 
has a Spatha. The great Jussieu denominates this part 
in the Tulip and other liliaceous plants, however beauti- 
ful, a Calyx. His definition of a Corolla is " that cov- 
ering of a flower which is invested with the calyx, being 
very rarely naked ; a continuation of the inner bark of 
the flower-stalk, not of its cuticle ; not permanent, but 
mostly falling off with the stamens ; surrounding or 
crowning the fruit, but never growing united with it ; 
and having its parts or segments for the most part alter- 
nate with the stamens, which are equal to them in num- 
ber." By this rule the tube and six segments of a Nar- 
cissus, t. 17, 275 and 276, constitute the Calyx, and then 
surely what Jussieu calls a Crown, f. 1476, and Linnae- 
us a Nectary, must be allowed the n am of Corolla. 
On the other hand, the Spatha becomes a Bractea. Con- 
sequently the whole order of Liliaceous flowers in gene- 
ral have a coloured Calyx only, which seems hardly ad- 


missible ; and yet I cannot conceal a recent discovery 
which strongly confirms the opinion of my acute and 
candid friend. Two species of a new genus*, found by 
Mr. Menzies on the West coast of North America, 
have beautiful liliaceous flowers like an Agapanthus, with 
three internal petals besides ! Tulbaghia is a similar 
instance. I must however protest against the idea of 
the Corolla originating exclusively from the inner bark, 
as well as of the cuticle not being continued over it, for 
reasons sufficiently apparent from the former part of this 

It is a Linnzean rule that the Stamens should be oppo- 
site to the segments of the Calyx, and alternate with the 
parts of the Corolla. Its author nevertheless seems of 
opinion that no absolute means of distinction between 
these two parts can be pointed out, except colour ; of 
the insufficiency of which he is aware. If however the 
Corolla performs functions with respect to light which 
the Calyx does not, and those functions are indicated by 
its colour, a distinction founded on such a principle is 
both correct and philosophical. We must then con- 
clude that in most liliaceous plants, not in all, the two 
organs are united into one, and indeed the outside is of- 
ten green and coarse like a Calyx, the inner coloured and 
delicate ; witness Ornithogalum, t. 21, 130 and 499, 
Narthecium, t. 535, &c. Linnaeus has the same idea 
respecting Daphne, t. 119 and 1361, and the analogy 
is confirmed by Gnidia, which is a Daphne with petals. 
In Trollius, t. 28, and Helleborns,t. 200 and 613, Lin- 

* I have lately, in a paper to the Linnsean Society, named sjiis 
ijrenus Brodiea, in honour of James Brodie, Esq. F. L. S. 


naeus considers as petals what Jussieu, following Vail- 
lant, thinks a Calyx. Of these plants we shall soon have 
occasion to speak again. 

I cannot but consider as a sort of Corolla the Calyp- 
tra or Veil of Mosses, which Linnaeus reckoned a Ca- 
lyx. Schreber, very deep and critieal in his inquiries 
concerning these plants, and Hedwig, so famous for his 
discoveries among them, were both of this opinion, 
though the latter seems to have relinquished it. The 
organ in question is a membranous hood, covering the 
unripe fruit of these diminutive vegetables, like an ex- 
tinguisher,^ 151 ; but soon torn from its base, and ele- 
vated along with the ripening capsule. See Engl. Bot. 
t. 558, &c. The great peculiarity of this part, whatev- 
er it be called, consists in its summit performing the of- 
fice of a stigma, as Hedwig first remarked. In Junger- 
mannia.f. 152, t. 771, &c, the very same part, differing 
only in usually bursting at the top to let the fruit pass, 
is named by Linnaeus a perichtftium, but very incorrect- 
ly, as we have already hinted. 

Whatever office the Petals may perform with respect 
to air and light, it is probable that the oblong summit of 
the Spadix in drum, t. 1298, answers the same pur- 
pose. When this part has been for a short time expos- 
ed to the light, it assumes a purplish brown hue, which 
M. Senebier seems to attribute to the same cause which 
he thinks produces the great heat observed in this flow- 
er, the rapid combination of oxygen gas with the carbon 
of the plant : an hypothesis hardly adequate to explain 

JVectarium, the Nectary, may be defined as that part 
of the Corolla which contains or which secretes honey. 

AND HONEY. ,213 

It is perhaps in effect nearly universal, as hardly a flow- 
er can be found that has not more or less honey, though 
that liquor is far from being universally, or even gene- 
rally, formed by any apparatus separate from the Petals. 
In monopetalous flowers, as JLamium album, the Dead 
Nettle, t. 768, the tube of the corolla contains, and 
probably secretes the honey, without any evident Necta- 
ry. Sometimes the part under consideration is a pro- 
duction or elongation of the Corolla, as in Violets ; 
sometimes indeed of the Calyx, as in the Garden Nastur- 
tium, Tropaeolum, Curt. Mag. t. 23 and 98, whose col- 
oured Calyx,/! 170, partakes much of the nature of the 
petals. Sometimes it is distinct from both, either re- 
sembling the petals, as in Aquilegia, f. 171, Engl. Bot. 
t. 297, or more different, as in Epimedium,/. 112, 173, 
t. 438, Helleborus, t. 200 and 613, Acomtum, the Com- 
mon Monkshood, and Delphinium, the Larkspur. Such 
at least is the mode in which Linnaeus and his followers 
understand the four last-mentioned flowers ; but we 
have already hinted that Jussieu is of a different opinion, 
and he even calls the decided Nectary of Epimedium an 
internal petal ! Difficulties attend both theories. It 
seems paradoxical to call petals those singular bodies in 
\4conitum, f. 174, like a pair of little birds, which are 
manifestly formed only to hold the honey, and not situa- 
ted nor constructed so as to perform the proper functions 
of petals ; but on the other hand Ranunculus, t. 100, 
515 and 516, one of the same natural order, has evident 
' caly x and petals, which latter have a hone) r -bearing pore 
in their claw, evincing their identity with the less petal- 
iike Nectaries just described. Other instances indeed 


of Nectaries in the claws of petals are found . in the 
Crown Imperial and Lily ; which only confirms more 
strongly the compendious construction of the Lily tribe, 
the leaves of their flowers in these examples being Calyx, 
Petals and Nectaries all in one. 

The most indubitable of all Nectaries, as actually se- 
creting honey, are those of a glandular kind. In the 
natural order of Cruciform plants, composing the Lin- 
naean class Tetradynamia, these are generally four green 
glands at the base of the Stamens. See Dentaria, Engl. 
Bot. t. 309, Sisymbrium, t. 525, and Brassica, t. &37. 
In Salix, t. 1488, and Geranium, t. 322, 75, &c, similar 
glands are observable ; whilst in Pelargonium, the Afri- 
can Geranium, the Nectary is a tube running down one 
side of the flower- stalk. 

The elegant Parnassia, t. 82, of which we are now 
acquainted with two new American species, has a most 
elaborate apparatus called by Linnaeus Nectaries, f. 175, 
but which the cautious Jussieu names Scales only. Lin- 
naeus usually called every supernumerary part of a flow- 
er Nectary, from analogy only, though he might not in ev- 
ery case be able to prove that such parts produced hon- 
ey. This is convenient enough for botanical distinc- 
tions, though perhaps not always right in physiology ; 
yet there is nothing for which he has been more severely 
and contemptuously censured. He was too wise to an- 
swer illiberal criticism, or he might have required his 
adversaries to prove that such parts were not Nectaries. 
Sometimes possibly he may seem to err, like L'Heritier, 
in calling abortive stamens by this name. Yet who 
knows that their filaments do not secrete honey as well 


as the tubes of numerous flowers ? And though abortive 
as to Antheras, the Filament, continuing strong and vig- 
orous, may do its office. 

Honey is not absolutely confined to the flower. The 
glands on the footstalks of Passion-flowers yield it, and it 
exudes from the flower-stalks of some liliaceous plants. 

The sweet viscid liquor in question has given rise to 
much diversity of opinion respecting its use. Pontede- 
ra thought it was absorbed by the seeds for their nour- 
ishment while forming, as the yolk of the egg by the 
chick. But Linnasus observes in reply, that barren 
flowers produce it as well as fertile ones, witness Urtica 
and Salix. In some instances the fertile flowers only are 
observed to bear honey, as Phyllanthus and Tamils, but 
such cases are rare. Even Darwin says the honey 
is the food of the stamens and pistils, not recollecting 
that it is often lodged in spurs or cells quite out of their 

There can be no doubt that the sole use of the honey 
with respect to the plant is to tempt insects, who in 
procuring it fertilize the flower, by disturbing the dust of 
the Stamens, and even carry that substance from the bar- 
ren to the fertile blossoms. 

3. Stamina. The Stamens, formerly called Chives, 
are various in number in different flowers, from one to 
some hundreds. Their situation is internal with re- 
spect to the parts we have been describing ; external 
to the Pistils, at least in simple flowers. 

These organs are essential, there being no plant 
hitherto discovered, after the most careful research. 


that is destitute of them, either in the same flower 
with the pistils, or a separate one of the same species. 
A Stamen,/ 176, commonly consists of two parts 3 
the Filament, a, Filamentum, and Anther, b*, Anthe- 
ra, the former being merely what supports the latter, 
which is the only essential part. Various forms and 
proporttions of Filaments may be seen in the Tulip, 
where they are six in number, thick and short, Engl. 
Bot. t. 63 ; the Pink, where they are ten, much more 
slender, and answering to the idea of a filament or 
thread, t. 62 ; and Anemone, t. 51, where they arc 
numerous. They are commonly smooth, but some* 
times, as in Verbascum, t. 58, 59, bearded. In Melal- 
euca, Exot. Bot. t. 36 and 50, they are branched ; 
and in Prunella, Engl. Bot. t. 961, forked, one point 
only bearing an Anther. In Aristolochia, t. 398, they 
are wanting, and nearly so in Potamogeton, t. 376, 
&c. (107) 

* I submit to the opinion of Professor Martyn in adopting 
this word, for the reasons given in his Language of Botany, 
more especially as general practice seems to favour its use. 

(107) [From the direction of their filaments, Stamens are said 
to be 

Conniventia,conmvex\t, when they approach each other at their 

Incurva, incurved, when they are bent like a bow, as in 

Declinata, declined, when they tend towards the upper or un- 
der side of the flower, as in Rhododendron. 

Exserta, exserted, when they project out of the flower. 

Inculsa, included, when they are contained within the flower.) 


The Anther is the only essential part of a Stamen,, 
It is generally of a membranous texture, consisting 
of two cells or cavities, bursting longitudinally at their 
outer edges, as in the Tulip. In Erica, t. 1013 — 15, 
it opens by pores near the summit, as in the Potatoe- 
blossom. Very rarely the Anther has four cells, as 
Tetratheca, Bot. of A r . Holl. t. 5, and Exot. Bot. t„ 
20* — 22. Sometimes it is ornamented with a crest., 
as in many Erica, and the genus Pinus. See Mr. 
Lambert's splendid work. 

The Pollen, or Dust, is contained in the Anther, 
from which it is thrown out chiefly in warm dry 
weather, when the coat of the latter contracts and 
bursts, The Pollen, though to the naked eye a line 
powder, and light enough to be wafted along by the 
air, is so curiously formed, and so various in different: 
plants, as to be an interesting and popular object for 
the microscope. Each grain of it is commonly a 
membranous bag, round or angular, rough or smooth, 
which remains entire till it meets with any moisture, 
being contrary in this respect to the nature of the An- 
ther ; then it bursts with great force, discharging a 
most subtile varjour. In the Orchis family, and some 
other plants, the pollen is of a glutinous nature, very 
different from its usual aspect. See remarks on Mi- 
rabilis longiflora, Exot. Bot. v. 1. 44. 

The Stamens are changed to petals in double flow- 
ers, and rendered useless. They are often obliterated 

* In this plate the engraver has by mistake expressed the sec. 
t ion of the anther so as to look, more like a germen, though the 
original drawing was correct. 



by excessive nourishment, or when the plant increas- 
es much by root, as in the Fiery Lily, or true Lilium 
bulbiferum. (108) 

4. Pi still a. The Pistils, no less essential than the 
Stamens, stand within them in the centre of the flow- 
er, and are generally fewer. When in a different 
flower, on the same or a different plant, they are not 
always central. Linnaeus conceived them to originate 
from the pith, and the stamens from the wood, and 
hence constructed an ingenious hypothesis, relative to 
the propagation of vegetables, which is not destitute 
of observations and analogies to support it, but not 
countenanced by the anatomy and physiology of the 
parts alluded to. 

Each Pistil,/ 177, consists of three parts. 1, the 
Germen, a, or rudiment of the young fruit and seed, 
which of course is essential ; 2, the Stylus, b, style, 
various in length and thickness, sometimes altogether 
wanting, and when present serving merely to elevate 
the third part, Stigma, c. This last is indispensable. 
Its shape is various, either simple, scarcely more than 
a point, or capitate, forming a little round head, or va- 
riously lobed. Sometimes hollow, and gaping more 
especially when the flower is in its highest perfection ; 
very generally downy, and always more or less moist 
with a peculiar viscid fluid, which in some plants is so 
copious as to form a large drop, though never big 

(108) [Stamens change to petals in the Pink, Daffodil, Tulip, 
&c. They are obliterated by cultivation, in the Guelder Rose. 

Viburnum Ofiulus.~\ 


enough to fall to the ground. The moisture is de- 
signed for the reception of the pollen, which explodes 
on meeting with it, and hence the seeds are rendered 
capable of ripening, which, though in many plants ful- 
ly formed, they would not otherwise be. 

The Germen appears under a variety of shapes and 
sizes. It is of great moment for botanical distinc- 
tions to observe whether it be superior, that is, above 
the bases of the calyx and corolla, as in the Strawber- 
ry and Raspberry, or inferior, below them, as in the 
Apple and Pear. Very rarely indeed the Germen is 
supposed to be betwixt the calyx and corolla, of 
which Sangmsorba, Engl Bot. t. 1312, is reckoned 
by Linnaeus an example ; but the corolla there has 
really a tube, closely embracing the Germen. In 
Adoxa, t. 453, the calyx is half-inferior, the corolla 
superior. When in botanical language we say ger- 
men superior, it is equivalent to flower inferior ; but 
it is sometimes more convenient and proper, for the 
sake of analogy or uniformity, to use one mode of ex- 
pression than the other. 

Pistils are sometimes obliterated, though oftener 
changed to petals, in double flowers, as well as the 
stamens ; but I have met with a much more remark- 
able change in the Double Cherry, of the pistil into a 
real leaf, exactly conformable to the proper leaves of 
the tree, only smaller. By this we may trace a sort of 
round in the vegetable constitution. Beginning at 
the herbage or leaves, we proceed insensibly to brac- 
teas in many species of Salvia, or to -both calyx and 
corolla in the Garden Tulip, which frequently has a 


leaf half green half coloured, either in the flower or on 
the stalk just below it. Anemone alpina produces occa- 
sionally a petal among the segments of its involucrum 
or bractea. Geum rivale, Engl. Bot. t. 106, when 
cultivated in dry gravellv ground, exhibits such trans- 
formations in abundance Between petals and sta- 
mens there is evidently more connection, as to their 
nature and functions, than between any other organs, 
and they commonly flouiish and fall together. Yet 
only one instance is known of petals changing to sta- 
mens, which Dr. Withering has commemorated, in. 
the Black Currant, Ribes nigrum. On the other hand, 
nothing is more frequent than the alteration of stamens 
to petals. Here then the metamorphosis begins to be 
retrograde, and it is still more so in the Cherry above 
mentioned, by which we return to the herbage again. 
— The line of distinction seems to be most absolute 
between stamens and pistils, which never change into 
each other ; on the contrary, pistils, as we see, rather 
turn into petals, or even into leaves. 

5. Pericarpium. The seed vessel, extremely various 
in different plants, is formed of the germen enlarged. 
It is not an essential part, the seeds being frequently 
naked, and guarded only by the calyx, as in the first 
order of the Linn^an class Didynamia, of which La- 
mium Engl Bot. t. 768, and Galeopsis, t. 667, are 
examples ; also in the great class of compound flow- 
ers Syngenesia, as well as in Rumex, t. 724, Polygo- 
num, t. 989, the Umbelliferous tribe, numerous 
Grasses, &c. 


The use of the Seed-vessel is to protect the seeds 
till ripe, and then in some way or other to promote 
their dispersion, either scattering them by its elastic 
power, or serving for the food of animals in whose 
dung the seeds vegetate, or promoting the same end 
by various other means. The same organ which re- 
mains closed so long as it is juicy or moist, splits and 
flies asunder when dry, thus scattering the seeds in 
weather most favourable for their success. ' By an 
extraordinary provision of Nature, however, in some 
annual species of Mesembryanthemum, f. 178, na- 
tives of sandy deserts in Africa, the seed-vessel opens 
only in rainy weather ; otherwise the seeds might, in 
that country, lie long exposed before they met with 
sufficient moisture to vegetate. 

. Capsula, a Capsule, is a dry seed-vessel of a woody, 
coriaceous or membranous texture, generally split- 
ting into several valves ; more rarely discharging its 
contents by orifices or pores, as in Campanula and Pa- 
paver ; or falling off entire with the seed. Internally 
it consists either of one cell or several ; in the latter 
case the parts which separate the cells are called dis- 
sepimenta, partitions. The central column to which 
the seeds are usually attached is named columella. 
See Datura Stramonium, f. 179, Engl. Bot. t. 1288. 

Gtertner,. a writer of primary authority on fruits and 
seeds, reckons several peculiar kinds of Capsules, be- 
sides what are generally understood as such ; these 

Utriculus, a Little Bladder, which varies in thick 
ness, never opens by any valves, and falls off with the 


seed. I believe it never contains more than one seed, 
of which it is most commodiously, in botanical lan- 
guage, called an external coat, rather than a Capsule. 
Gartner applies it to Chenopodium, as well as to Cle- 
matis, &c. In the former it seems a Pellicula, in the 
latter a Testa, as we shall hereafter explain. 

Samara is indeed a species of Capsule, of a com- 
pressed form and dry coriaceous texture, with one or 
two cells, never bursting, but falling off entire, and 
dilated into a kind of wing at the summit or sides. It 
is seen in the Elm, the Maple, the Ash, Engl. Bot. 
t. 1692, and some other plants. This term however 
may well be dispensed with, especially as it is the 
name of a genus in Linnaeus ; an objection to which 
Cotyledon too is liable. 

Folliculus, a Follicle or Bag, reckoned by Linnaeus 
a separate kind of seed-vessel from the Capsule, ought 
perhaps rather to be esteemed a form of the latter, as 
Gaertner reckons it. This is of one valve and one 
cell, bursting lengthwise, and bearing the seeds on or 
near its edges, or on a receptacle parallel therewith. 
Instances are found in Vinca, t. 514, Paonia, t. 1513, 
and Embothrium, Bot. of New Holland, (109) t. 7 — 

Coccum of Gaertner, separated by him from cap- 
sules, is a dry seed-vessel, more or less aggregate, not 
solitary, whose sides are elastic, projecting the seeds 
with great force, as in Euphorbia ; also Boronia, 
Tracts on Nat. History, t. 4 — 7. This seems by no 

(108) [The seeds of Asclefiias and dfiocynum are contained ir. 
Follicles. 1 


means necessary to be esteemed otherwise than a sort 
of capsule. 

2. Siliqua,f. 180, a Pod, is a long dry solitary seed-ves- 
sel of two valves, separated by a linear receptacle, 
along each of whose edges the seeds are ranged alter- 
nately, as in the class Tetr adynamia. See Cherian- 
thus, Engl. Bot. t. 462, and Cardamine, t. 80 ; also 
Bignouia echinata, figured by Gsertner, t. 52, f. 1, 
which, though cautiously called by him a capsula sill- 
quosa only, is as true a Siliqua, according to his own 
definition, and every body's ideas, as possible ; so is 
also that of Chelidonium. He justly indeed names the 
fruit of Paonia capsula leguminosa, a follicle with him 
being a single-valved capsule, with the seeds marginal 
as in a legume. 

Silicula,f. 181, a Pouch, is only a Pod of a short 
or rounded figure, like Draba verna, Engl. Bot. t. 
586. (110) 

3. Legumen,f. 182, a Legume, is the peculiar solitary 
fruit of the Pea kind, formed of two oblong valves, 
without any iogitudinal partition, and bearing the 
seeds along one of its margins only. See Engl. Bot. 
t. 1046, 805, &c. The Tamarind is a Legume fihcd 
with pulp, in which the seeds are lodged. The Cap- 
sules of Helleborus and some other plants allied there- 
to, justly indicated by Gsertner as approaching very 
nearly to the definition of Legumes, differ essentially 

(110) [The Radish and Mustard arc familiar examples of the 
Silic/ua, the Thlas/u, or Shepherd's Purse, of the Sdicula.~\ 


in not being; solitary, and in consisting each but of one- 
valve. Some Larkspurs indeed bear such capsules 
solitary, but analogy teaches us their true nature. 

When a Legume is divided into several cells, it is 
either by transverse constrictions, or by inflexion of 
the valves ; never by a separate longitudinal partition ; 
see Dolichos purpureus, Exot. Bot. t. 74. (Ill) 

Sometimes this kind of fruit lodges but one seed, 
as in many species of Trifolium ; see Engl. Bot. t. 
1048, also Viminarxa denudata, Exot. Bot. t. 27. It 
is only by analogy that such are known to be Le- 

4. Drupa^ f. 183, a Stone-fruit, has a fleshy coat, not 
separating into valves, containing a single hard and 
bony Nut, to which it is closely attached ; as in the 
Peach, Plum, Cherry, &c. ; see Engl. Bot. t. 706 
and 1383. The Cocoa-nut is a Drupa with a less 
juicy coat. 

Sometimes the Nut, though not separating into 
distinct valves, contains more than one cell, and conse- 
quently several seeds. Instances are found in Cor- 
nus, t. 249, Gartner, t. 26, and Olea, the Olive, EL 
Grcec. t. 3, though one cell of the latter is commonlv 

(Ill) j_The term Lomentum orLoment expresses an elongated 
principle consisting of two valves, externally forming sutures, 
but never bursting like the legume. Internally it is divided in- 
to cells by small transverse partitions. It occurs in Cassia, He- 
dysarum, &c] 


5. Pomum.f. 184, an Apple, has a fleshy coat like the 
Drupa, but containing a Capsule with several seeds ; 
as in common Apples and Pears ; see Pyrus domesti- 
ca, t. 350. 

This is comprehended by Gaertner under the dif- 
ferent kinds of Bacca, it being sometimes scarcely 
possible to draw the line between them ; witness the 
Linnean genus Sorbus. 

6. Bacca,f. 185, a Berry, is fleshy, without valves, con- 
taining one or more Seeds, enveloped with pulp. It 
becomes more juicy internally as it advances to matu- 
rity, quite contrary to the nature of a Capsule, though 
the difference between these two unripe fruits ma\ 
not be discernible, and though some true Berries,, 
when fully ripe, finally become of a dry and spongy 
texture ; but they never open by valves or any regu- 
lar orifice. Examples of a Bacca are seen in Atropa 
Belladonna, Engl. Bot. t. 592, and Ribes, t. 1289 — 
92. The same part in Hedera, t. 1267, is of a more 


■mealy substance. In Cucubalus, t. 1577, the coat on- 
ly is pulpy. In Trientalis, t. 15, the coat becomes 
very dry and brittle, as soon as ripe, and the cavity 
of the fruit is nearly filled by a globular co'umdla. 
See Gaertner, t. 50. 

Bacca composita,/. 186, a Compound Berry, con- 
sists of several single ones, each containing a seed, 
united together, as in Rubus, the Raspberry, Bramble, 
&c, Engl. Bot. t. 715, 716, 826, 827. Each of the 
separate parts is denominated an Jcmus, or Grain , 



which term Gaertner extends to the simple many^ 
seeded berries of the Vine, Gooseberry, &c. 

The Orange and Lemon are true Berries, with a 
thick coat. The Melon and Cucumber tribe have a 
peculiar sort of Berry for which Gaertner uses the 
name of Pepo, Gourd ; and he defines it a Berry 
whose cells, together with the seeds, are remote from 
the axis or centre, the seeds being inserted into the 
sides of the fruit. Passiflora, suberosa,/. 187, Exot. 
Bot. t. 28, shows this insertion, being nearly allied to 
the same tribe ; but in this genus the pulp invests 
each seed separately, forming Acini within the com- 
mon cavity. 

Some fruits ranged by Linnaeus as Drupce with 
many seeds, on account of the hardness of the shells 
of those seeds, are best perhaps, on account of their 
number, considered by Gaertner as Baccae. Among 
these are Mespihis, the Medlar. 

There are several spurious kinds of berries, whose 
pulp is not properly a part of the fruit, but originates 
from some other organ. Thus, in the Mulberry, as 
well as the Strawberry Spinach, Blitum, Curt. Mag. 
t. 276, the Calyx after flowering becomes coloured 
and very juicy, investing the seed, like a genuine ber- 
ry. The Corolla of Commelina Zannonia undergoes 
a similar change, forming a black very juicy coat to 
the capsule, being totally altered both in shape and 
substance from its appearance in the flower. In the 
Juniper, Engl. Bot, t. 1100, a few scales of the fertile 
catkin become succulent and coalesce into a globular 


berry with three or more seeds, to which Gasrtner ap- 
plies the term galbnlus, the classical name of the 
Cypress fruit, which last however is as true a strobilus 
or cone as that of the Fir. In the Yew, t. 746, some 
have thought it a calyx, others a peculiar kind of re- 
ceptacle, which becomesjed and pulpy, embracing 
the seed. Lamarck has in his Encyclopedic, v. 3, 
228, considered this fruit as a real bacca or drupa, 
with the idea or definition of either of which it cannot 
by any means be made to accord, being open at the 
top, and having no connection with the stigma, which 
crowns the seed itself. The same writer mistakes for 
a calyx the scales which analogy shows to be bracte- 
as ; and I cannot think Jussieu and Gaertner more 
correct in their ideas of this singular fruit, when 
they call the pulpy part in question a receptacle, 
though the term calyx seems less paradoxical, and is 
perhaps still more just.* We do not know enough of 
Taxus nucifera to draw any conclusions from thence. 
See Gartner, t. 91. In the Strawberry, Engl. Bot. 
t. 1524, what is commonly called the berry is a pulpy 
receptable, studded with naked seeds. In the Fig, 
Gartner, t. 91, the whole fruit is a juicy calyx, or 
rather common receptacle, containing in its cavity in- 
numerable florets, each of which has a proper calyx 
of its own, that becomes pulpy and invests the seed, 
as in its near relation the Mulberry. The Paper 

* Hcrnandia, Gertn. t. 40, has a similar, though not succu- 
lent, calyx, and the green cup of the Hazel-nut is equivalent to 


Mulberry 'of China is indeed an intermediate genus 
between the two, being as it were a Fig laid open, 
but without any pulp in the common receptacle. 

7. Strobilus,f. 188, a Cone, is a Catkin hardened and 
enlarged into a Seed-vessel, as in Pimis, the Fir. 

In the most perfect examples of this kind of fruit 
the Seeds are closely sheltered by the scales as by a 
capsule, of which the Fir, Cypress, &c. are instances. 
In the Birch and Alder they have a kind of capsule 
besides, and in the Willow and Poplar a stalked bi- 
valve capsule, still more separate from the scales. The 
Plane-tree, Platanus, the Liquidamhar and the Comp- 
toma, (112) have globular catkins, in which bristles 
or tubercles supply the place of scales. See Gartner, 

6. Semina. The Seeds are the sole " end and aim" 
of all the organs of fructification. Every other part 
is, in some manner, subservient to the forming, per- 
fecting, or dispersing of these. A seed consists of 
several parts, some of which are more essential than 
others, and of these I shall speak first. 

Embryo, f. 2, 4, the Embryo, or Germ, is the most 
essential of all, to which the rest are wholly subservi- 
ent, and without which no seed is perfect, or capable 
of vegetation, however complete in external appear- 
ance. Linnaeus, after Caesalpinus, names it the Cor- 
culum, or Little Heart, and it is the point whence the 

(112) [Sweet Fern.] 


life and organization of the future plant originate, as 
we have already explained, p. 88. In some seeds it 
is much more conspicuous than in others. The Wal- 
nut, the Bean, Pea, Lupine, &c, show the Embryo 
in perfection. Its internal structure, before it begins 
to vegetate, is observed by Gaertner to be remarkably 
simple, consisting of an uniform medullary substance, 
enclosed in its appropriate bark or skin. Vessels are 
formed as soon as the vital principle is excited to ac- 
tion, and parts are then developed which seemed not 
previously to exist, just as in the egg of a bird. In 
position, the Embryo is, with respect to the base of 
the whole flower or fruit, either erect, as in the Dan- 
delion and other compound flowers, reversed as in the 
Umbelliferous tribe, or horizontal as in the Date 
Palm, f. 199 b, Gartner, t. 9. In situation it is 
most commonly within the substance of the seed, 
and either central as in Umbelliferous plants, or ex- 
centric, out of the centre, as in Coffee ; in Grasses 
however it is external. Its direction is either straight, 
curved, or even" soiral, in various instances. The 
Embryo of seeds that have a single cotyledon, or none 
at all, is peculiarly simple, without any notch or lobe, 
and is named by Gaertner Embryo monocotyledoneus. 
Cotyledones, the Cotyledons or Seed-lobes, are im- 
mediately attached to the Embryo, of which they 
form, properly speaking, a part. They are commonly 
two in number, / 7 ; but in Pinus, and Dombeya, 
the Norfolk Island Pine, they are more, f. 3, as al- 
ready mentioned, p. 90. When the seed has suffi- 
ciently established its root, these generally rise out of 


the ground, and become a kind of leaves. Sucli 
is the true idea of the organs in question, but 
the same name is commonly given to the body 
of the seed in the Grass and Corn tribe, the 
Palms, and several other plants, thence denominated 
monocotyledones, because the supposed Cotyledon is 
single. The nature of this part we shall presently 
explain. It neither rises out of the ground, nor per- 
forms the proper functions of a Cotyledon, for what 
these plants produce is, from the first, a real leaf ; or, 
if the plant has no leaves, the rudiment of a stem, as 
in Cuscuta. In either case, the part produced is soli- 
tary, never in pairs ; hence Gsertner was misled to 
reckon Cyamus Nelumbo, JExot. Bot. t. 31, 32, 
among the monocotyledonous plants, the body of its 
seed remaining in the earth, and the leaves springing 
one at a time from the Embryo, just as in the Date 
Palm, Wheat, Barley, &.c. 

The Seed-lobes of Mosses, according to the ob- 
servations of Hedwig, Fund, part 2, t. 6, are above 
all others numerous and subdivided, f. 195, 196, as 
well as most distinct from the proper leaves ; so that 
these plants are very improperly placed by authors 
among such as have no Cotyledons, a measure origi- 
nating probably in theory and analogical reasoning 
rather than observation. 

Albumen, the White, is a farinaceous, fleshy, or 
horny substance, which makes up the chief bulk of 
some seeds, as Grasses, Corn, Palms, Lilies, never 
rising out of the ground nor assuming the office of 

OK WHITE. 231 

leaves, being destined solely to nourish the germina- 
ting embryo, till its roots ean perform their office. In 
the Date Palm,^ 199, Gartner, t. 9, this part is 
nearly as hard as a stone ; in Mirabilis, Exot. Bot. t. 
23, it is like wheat flour. It is wanting in several 
tribes of plants, as those with compound, or with 
cruciform flowers, and the Cucumber or Gourd kind, 
according to Gasrtner. Some few leguminous plants 
have it, and a great number of others which, like 
them, have cotyledons besides. We are not however 
to suppose that so important an organ is altogether 
wanting, even in the above-mentioned plants. The 
farinaceous matter, destined to nourish their embryos, 
is unquestionably lodged in their cotyledons, whose 
sweet taste as they begin to germinate often evinces 
its presence, and that it has undergone the same chem- 
ical change as in Barley. The Albumen of the Nut- 
meg is remarkable for its eroded variegated appear- 
ance, and aromatic quality ; the cotyledons of this 
seed are very small. 

Vitellus, the Yolk, first named and fully illustrated 
by Gcertner, is less general than any of the parts al- 
ready mentioned. He characterizes it as very firmly 
and inseparably connected with tiie Embryo, yet nev- 
er rising out of the integuments of the seed in germi- 
nation, but absorbed, like the Albumen, for the nour- 
ishment of the Embryo. If the Ahmmen be present, 
the Vitellus is always situated between it and the Em- 
bryo, and yet is constantly distinct from the former. 
The Vitellus is esteemed by Gasrtner to compose the 
bulk of the seed in Fuci, Mosses and Ferns, as well 


as in the genus Zarnia,/. 200, closely allied to the 
latter, see his t. 3, and even in Rupp'ia, Engl. Bot. t. 
136, and Cyamus. In the natural order of Grasses 
the part under consideration forms a scale between the 
Embryo and the Albumen. 

I cannot but think that the true use of the Vitellus 
may be to perform the /unctions of a Cotyledon with 
regard to air if not to light, till a real leaf can be sent 
forth, and the " subterraneous Cotyledons" of Goert- 
nerin the Horse Chesnut and Garden Nasturtium are, 
as he seems to indicate in his Introduction, p. 151, 
rather of the nature of a Vitellus. It does not appear 
that any plant with genuine ascending Cotyledons is 
likewise furnished with this organ ; on the other 
hand, it commonly belongs to such as have the most 
copious Albumen, and therefore should seem to answer 
some other end than mere nutriment, which is suppli- 
ed by the latter. 

We learn from the above inquiries, that the old dis- 
tinction between plants with one Cotyledon and those 
with several may still be relied on, though in the for 
mer the part which has commonly been so denomina- 
ted is the Albumen, as in Corn, the real Cotyledon of 
which is the scale or Vitellus, which last organ howev- 
er seems wanting in Palms, Lilies, &c, such having 
really no Cotyledon at all, nor any thing that can 
perform its office, except the stalk of their Embryo.* 
In the Horse Chesnut, Oak and Walnut possibly, 
whose seed-lobes do not ascend, the functions of a 

* This may answer the purpose of a Cotyledon, just as the 
stems of many plants fulfil the office of leaves. 


real Cotyledon, as far as air is concerned, and 
those of the Albumen may be united in these lobes, as 
is the case with most Leguminous plants ; which is 
rendered more probable, as several of the latter have 
the corresponding parts likewise remaining under 
ground. Hence the divided Vitellus of the Cyamus is 
to be considered as a pair of subterraneous Cotyle- 
dons, and the plant consequently ranges near its natu- 
ral allies the Poppy -tribe, as Mr. Salisbury, without 
the aid of physiology, has shown in the Annals of 
Botany, v. 2, p. 70, 75. 

Testa,/. 4, the Skin, contains all the parts of a seed 
above described, giving them their due shape ; for 
the skin is perfectly formed, while they are but a ho- 
mogeneous liquid. This coat differs in thickness and 
texture in different plants. It is sometimes single, 
but more frequently lined with a finer and very deli- 
cate film, called by Gartner Membrana, as may be 
seen in a Walnut, and the kernel of a Peach, Almond, 
or Plum. In the Jasmine a quantity of pulp is lodged 
between the Membrana and the Testa, constituting a 
pulpy seed, semen baccatum, which is distinct from 
the Acinus, or grain of a compound berry in the Rasp- 
berry, the seed of the latter having its proper double 
covering within the pulp. The Testa bursts irregu- 
larly, and only from the swelling of its contents ia 

Hilum, the Scar, is the point by which the seed is 
attached to its seed-vessel or receptacle, and through 



which alone life and nourishment are conveyed lor the 
perfecting its internal parts. Consequently all those 
parts must be intimately connected with the inner 
surface of this scar, and they are all found to meet 
there, and to divide or divaricate from that point, 
more or less immediately. In describing the form or 
various external portions of any seed, the Hilum is al- 
ways to be considered as the base. When the seed is 
quite ripe, the communication through this channel is 
interrupted ; it separates from the parent plant with- 
out injury, a Scar being formed on each. Vet the 
Hilum is so far capable of resuming its former nature, 
that the juices of the earth are imbibed through it 
previous to germination. 

There are various accessory parts, or appendages, 
to seeds, which come under the following denomina- 

Pellicula, the Pellicle, called by Gaertner Epider- 
mis, closely adheres to the outside of some seeds, so 
as to conceal the proper colour and surface of their 
skin, and is either membranous, and often downy, 
as in Convolvulus, or mucilaginous, not perceptible till 
the seed is moistened, as in Salvia verbenaca, Engl. 
Bot. t. 154. Perhaps the covering of the seed in 
Chenopodium, called by Gaertner Utriculus, is merely 
a Pellicula. 

Arillus, the Tunic T is either a complete or partial 
covering of a seed, fixed to its base only, and more or 
less loosely or closely enveloping its other parts. Of 
this nature is the pulpy orange-coloured coat in Eu- 
onymus, t. 362, the beautiful scarlet cup in Afzelia. 


f. 203, and the double membranous coat in Hip- 
poph'de, t. 425, which last invests the seed within the 
pulp of the berry. The outer of these coats only is 
described by Gsertner, as a peculiar membrane lining 
the cell of the berry ; his *' integumentum duplex'''' re- 
fers to the testa, which I mention only to prevent mis- 
apprehension. The Mace which envelops the Nut- 
meg is a partial Arillus, beautifully drawn in Gaert- 
ner, t. 41. Narthecium, Engl. Bot. t. 535, has a 
complete membranous tunic, elongated beyond the 
seed at each end, as in many of the Orchis tribe ; and 
such seeds, acquiring thence a light and chaffy ap- 
pearance, have been denominated scobiformia, whence 
Bergius was perhaps led, very unscientifically, to call 
the seeds of ferns literally scobs or sawdust ! An elas- 
tic pouch-like Arillus, serving to project the seeds 
with considerable force, occurs in Oxalis, t. 762 and 
1726. In the natural order of Rutacece, the same 
part, shaped also like a pouch lining each cell of the 
capsule, is very rigid or horny ; see Dictamnus albus, 
or Fraxinella ; Gartn. t. 69, and Boronia, Tracts on 
Nat. Hist. t. 4 — 7. Besides this coincidence, there 
are many common points of affinity between these 
plants and Oxalis, concerning colour, flavour, habit 
and structure. Fagonia and its allies form the con- 
necting link between them, "which Gaertner and Jus- 
sieu did not overlook. We have pointed out this 
affinity in English Botany, p. 762, and it is confirmed 
by the curious circumstance of Jacquin's Oxalis ros- 
trata, Oxal. t. 22, having the very appendages to it c 


filaments which make a peculiar part of the character 
of Boronia. 

It is not easy to say whether the various, and fre- 
quently elaborate coat of the seed among the rough- 
leaved plants, Borago, Anchusa, Lithospermum, Cyn- 
oglosum,/. 201, Engl.Bot. t. 921, &c, should be es- 
teemed an Arillus or a Testa ; but the latter seems 
most correct, each seed having only a simple and very 
thin membranous internal skin besides. Gaertner 
therefore justly uses the term Nut for the seeds 
in question. The same may be observed of Ranun- 
culus, Myosurus, see Engl. Bot. t. 435, Clematis, Ane- 
mone, &c, whose external coats are no less various 
and elaborate ; yet such seeds are as truly naked as 
those of the Didynamia class, figured in Gaertner, t . 
66, each having a double skin and no more, which is 
one covering less than even the genuine nut of the 
stone fruit, or of the Corylus. In Geranium, Malva> 
&c, what has often been called Arillus, is rather a 
kind of Capsule, not only because their seeds have a 
double or even triple skin, quite unconnected with 
this outer cover, but because the latter is analogous to 
other Capsules. 

The loose husky covering of the seed in Carex,f. 
202, is surely an Arillus. Sec Engl. Bot. also the 
Rev. Mr. Wood's observations on this genus in Dr. 
Ree's Cyclopedia, and Gaertner, v. 1. 13. This seed 
has besides a double Testa, though most of the true 
Grasses have but one, which in ground Corn consti- 
tutes the bran, the husks of the blossom being the 


Pappus, the Seed-down, is restrained by Gsertner 
to the chaffy, feathery, or bristly crown of many seeds 
that have no Pericarpium, and which originates from a 
partial calyx crowning the summit of each of those 
seeds, and remaining after the flower is fallen. In- 
stances of this are the feathery appendages to the seeds 
of Dan lelion, Engl. Pot. t. 510, and Goat's-beard, t. 
434, in which the part in question is elevated on a 
footstalk, (113) / 204. In Carduus, t. 973 — 6, it is 
sessile, though still feathery ; but in Chicorium, t. 
539, it consists of mere chaffy teeth, more clearly 
evincing its affinity to a Calyx. In Scabiosa it is 
double. In Bidens, t. 1113, 1114, the Pappus is 
formed of 2, 3, or 4 rigid barbed bristles. The 
use of this organ is evidently to transport seeds to a 
distance from their native spot, either by resigning 
them to the power of the wind, or by attaching them 
to the shaggy coats of animals. In due time the 
feathery crown separates, and leaves the seed behind 
it, which happens sooner with the Thistle than most 
other plants. Hence the vacant down of that genus is 
frequently seen wafted in light masses over a whole 
country ; which has not escaped the notice of poets. 

The same term is used by the generality of botanists 
for the feathery crown of seeds furnished with a cap- 
sule, as Epilobium, t. 1177, Asclepias Cynanchum, 
&x., G/zrtn. t. 117, as well as for a similar appendage 
to the base or sides of any seeds, as Salix, Engl. Pot. 
t. 183, 1403, Eriophorum, t. 873, Sec, neither of 

( 1 13) [And hence denominated stifiitate or ficdicelted.~\ 


which can originate from a Calyx. For the former 
of these Gaertner adopts the term Coma, for the latter 
Pubes, which last also serves for any downiness or 
wool about the Testa of a seed, as in the Cotton plant, 
and Blandfordia nobilis, Exot. Bot. t. 4. 

Cauda, f. 205, a Tail, is an elongated, generally 
feathery, appendage to some Seeds, formed from the 
permanent style, as in Clematis, Engl. Bot. t. 612, 
Dryas, t. 451, Geum, t. 1400. (114) 

Rostrum, a Beak, mostly applies to some elongation 
of a Seed-vessel, originating likewise from the per- 
manent style, as in Geranium, t. 272, Helleborus, t. 
200, though it is also used for naked seeds,. as Scan- 
dix,f.206,t. 1397. 

Ala,f. 207, a Wing, is a dilated membranous ap- 
pendage to Seeds, as in E mbothrium, Bot. of JV, 
Holl. t. 7, Banksia, Couchium, Bignonia echinata, 
(115) Gaertn. t. 52, Rhinanthus, Engl. Bot. t. 657, 
serving to waft them along in the air. Gasrtner 
wished to confine this term to a membranous expan- 
sion of the top or upper edge of a Seed or Seed-vessel, 
using margo membranaceus for one that surrounds the 
whole, but he has not adhered to it in practice. Cap- 
sules are sometimes furnished with one wing, as the 
Ash, oftcner with several, as Halesia, Acer, Begonia, 

(114) [Sufficiently e\ident, as in Clematis Vlrginlana, and Gt- 
um rivale, natives of the United States.] 

(115) [In Bigno)iia cchinata, the wings of the seed are very 
large. In others of the genus they iire nut less observable 
though smaller, for instance, the Catalpa Tree, and TrumpeJ 


&c. In Seeds, the Wing is commonly solitary, ex- 
cept some Umbelliferous plants, as Thapsia, Geertn. 
t. 21. 

Seeds are occasionally furnished with Spines, 
Hooks, Scales, Crested appendages, particularly a 
little gland-like part near the Scar, sometimes denom- 
inated Strophiolum, as in Asarum, Gcertn. t. 14, Bos- 
sicea, Ventenat, Jard. de Cels. t. 7, Platylobium, Bot. 
of N. Holl. t. 6, UleXy Spartium, &c. In general 
however smoothness is characteristic of a seed, by 
which it best makes its way into the soft earth, 
though sometimes it is barbed, or at least its cover- 
ing, as in Stipa, Engl. Bot. 1356, that it may not easi- 
ly be withdrawn again by the powerful feathery ap- 
pendage of that plant, which after having by its cir- 
cumvolutions forced the seed deeper and deeper, 
breaks off a joint, and flies away. 

The various modes by which seeds are dispersed 
cannot fail to strike an observing mind with admira- 
tion. Who has not listened in a calm and sunny day 
to the crackling of Furze bushes, caused by the ex- 
plosion of their little elastic pods ; nor watched the 
down of innumerable seeds floating on the summer 
breeze, till they are overtaken by a shower, which 
moistening their wings stops their further flight, and 
at the same time accomplishes its final purpose, by 
immediately promoting the germination of each seed 
in the moist earth ? How little are children aware, as 
they blow away the seeds of Dandelion, or stick Burs 
in sport upon each other's clothes, that they are fulfil- 
ling one of the great ends of Nature ! Sometimes 


the Calyx, beset with hooks, forms the bur, as in 
Arctium, Lappa, Engl. Bot. t. 1228 ; sometimes 
hooks encompass the fruit itself, as in Xanthi- 
um, and some species of Galium, particularly G. 
Aparine, t. 816. Plants thus furnished are observed 
by Linnaeus to thrive best in a rank manured soil, 
with which, by being conveyed to the dens of wild 
animals, they are most likely to meet. The Awns of 
grasses answer the same end. Pulpy fruits serve 
quadrupeds and birds as food, while their seeds, of- 
ten small, hard, and indigestible, pass uninjured 
through the intestines, and are deposited far from 
their original place of growth, in a condition peculiar- 
ly fit for vegetation. Even such seeds as are them- 
selves eaten, like the various sorts of nuts, are hoarded 
up in the ground and occasionally forgotten, or carried 
to a distance, and in part only devoured. Even the 
ocean itself serves to waft the larger kinds from their 
native soil to far-distant shores. 

7. Receptaculum. The Receptacle is the common 
base or point of connexion of the other parts of fruc- 
tification. It is not always distinguishable by any par- 
ticular figure, except in compound flowers constitu- 
ting the Linnaean class Syngenesia, in which it is 
very remarkable and important. In the Daisy, f. 
208, Engl. Bot. t. 424, it is conical ; in Chrysanthe- 
mum, t. 601, convex ; in others flat, or slightly con- 
cave. Picris, t. 972, has it naked, that is destitute of 
any hairs or scales between the florets or seeds ; Car- 
duus, t. 675, hairy ; Anthemis, t. 602, scaly ; and 


Onopordum, t. 977, cellular like a honey-comb, f. 
209. On this and the seed-down are founded the 
most solid generic characters of these plants, admira- 
bly illustrated by the inimitable Gaertner. 

The term Receptacle is sometimes extended by 
Linnaeus to express the base of a flower, or even its 
internal part between the stamens and pistils, provid- 
ed there be any thing remarkable in such parts, with- 
out reference to the foundation of the whole fructifi- 
cation. It also expresses the part to which the seed? 
are attached in a seed-vessel. 

Having thus explained the various organs of fructifi- 
cation, we shall add a few remarks concerning flowers in 
general, reserving the functions of the Stamens and Pis- 
tils, with the Linnaean experiments and inquiries relative 
to that curious subject, for the next chapter. 

A flower furnished with both calyx and corolla is cal- 
led flos completes, a complete flower ; when the latter is 
wanting, incompletus ; and when the corolla is present 
without the calyx, nudus, naked. When the stamens 
and pistils are both, as usual, in one flower, that flower 
is called perfect, or united ; when they are situated in 
different flowers of the same species, such I would call 
separated flowers ; that which has the stamens being 
named the barren flower, as producing no fruit in itself, 
and that with pistils the fertile one, as bearing the seed. 
If this separation extends no further than to different sit- 
uations on the same individual plant;, Linnseus calls 



such flowers monoid, monoecious, as confined to one 
house or dwelling ; if the barren and fertile flowers 
grow from two separate roots, they are said to be dioici, 
dioecious. Some plants have united flowers and separa- 
ted ones in the same species, either from one, two or 
three roots, and such are called polygamous, as making 
a sort of compound household. 

A Compound flower consists of numerous florets )t /?0j- 
culi, all sessile on a common undivided Receptacle, and 
enclosed in one contiguous Calyx or Perianthium. It is 
also essential to this kind of flower that the Anthers should 
be united into a cylinder, to which only the genus Tus- 
silago affords one or two exceptions, and Kuhnia anoth- 
er ; and moreover, that the stamens should be 5 to each 
floret, Sigesbeckia fiosculosa of L'Heritier, Stirp. Nov. 
t. 19, alone having but 3. The florets are always mo- 
nopetalous and superior, each standing on a solitary na- 
ked seed, or at least the rudiments of one, though not al- 
ways perfected. Some Compound flowers consist of 
very few florets, as Humea elegans, Exot. Bot. t. 1 , 
Prenanthes muralis, Engl. Bot. t. 457 ; others of many, 
as the Thistle, Daisy, Sunflower, &c. The florets them- 
selves are of two kinds, ligulati, ligulate, shaped like a 
strap or ribband,^ 210, with 3 or 5 teeth, as in Trago- 
pogon, t. 434, and the Dandelion ; or tubu/osi, tubular, 
cylindrical and 5-cleft, as in Carduus, t. 107, and Tana- 
cetum, t. 1229. The marginal white florets of the 
Daisy, f. 211, are of the former description, and com- 
pose its radius, or rays, and its yellow central ones come 
under the latter denomination,/ 212, constituting its 
discus, or disk. The disk of such flowers is most fre- 


quently yellow, the rays yellow, white, red, or blue. 
No instance is known of yellow rays with a white, red, 
or blue disk. 

An Aggregate flower has a common undivided Recep- 
tacle, the Anthers all separate and distant, Jasione only, 
Engl. Bot. I. 882, having them united at the base, but 
not into a cylinder, and the florets commonly stand on 
stalks, each having a single or double partial calyx. 
Such flowers have rarely any inclination to yellow, but 
are blue, purple, or white. Instances are found in Sea- 
biosa, t. 659, and 1311, Dipsacus, t. 1032 and 877, and 
the beautiful Cape genus Protea. 

Such is the true idea of an Aggregate flower, but Lin- 
nasus enumerates, under that denomination, 7 kinds, his 
favourite number ; these are, 

1. The Aggregate flower properly so called, as just 

2. The Compound flower previously described. 

3. The Amentaceous flower, or Catkin, of which we 
have spoken, p. 200. 

4. The Glumose, or Chaffy flower, peculiar to the 
Grasses, seej&. 201. 

5. The Sheathed flower, whose common receptacle 
springs from a Sheath, as in Arum. 

6. The Umbellate ; and 

7. The Cymose flowers, concerning which two last a 
few observations are necessary. 

Linnaeus and his friend Artedi thought the great nat- 
ural umbelliferous order could not be divided into good 



and distinct genera by the seeds or parts of the iiower, 
without taking into consideration the general and partial 
mvolucral leaves, which they therefore chose to consider 
as a part of the fructification, and defined as a calyx re- 
mote from the flower. The rays of the umbel, of 
course, became the subdivisions of a branched recepta- 
cle, and the whole umbel was considered as one aggre- 
gate flower. It necessarily followed that a Cyme, see 
p. 192, must be considered in the same light, nor did 
the sagacity of Linnasus overlook the arguments in fa- 
vour of this hypothesis. Many of the umbelliferous 
tribe, as Heracleum, t. 939, Caucalis, Coriandrum, &c, 
have their marginal flowers dilated, radiant, and more or 
less inclined to be imperfect or abortive, thus evincing 
an analogy with real compound flowers like the Sunflow- 
er, which analogy is still more striking between Oe- 
nanthe, t. 363, 347, 348, and the Marigold, Calendula. 
So the cymose plants, as Viburnum Opulus, t. 332, bear 
dilated and abortive marginal flowers, and Hydrangea, 
hortensis, Sm. Ic. Pict. t. 12, has scarcely any others. 
Cornus sanguinea, Engl. Dot. t. 249, has a naked cyme, 
Suecica, t. 310, an umbel accompanied by coloured 
bracteas, or, as Linnseus judged, a coloured involucrum, 
proving the close affinity between these two modes of 

Notwithstanding all this, I presume to dissent from 
the above hypothesis, as offering too great violence to 
Nature, and swerving from that beautiful and philosophi- 
cal Linnasan principle, of characterizing genera by the 
fructification alone ; a principle which those who are 
competent to the subject at all, will, I believe, nevei; 


find to fail. The seeds and flowers of the umbelliferous 
family are quite sufficient for our purpose, while the in- 
volucrum is very precarious and changeable ; often de- 
ficient, often immoderately luxuriant, in the same genus. 
In the cymose plants every body knows the real parts of 
fructification to be abundantly adequate, the involucrum 
being of small moment ; witness that most natural genus 
Cornus. For all these, and other reasons, to particular- 
ize which would lead me too far, I have, p. 191, rec- 
koned the Umbel and Cyme modes of flowering, and not 
themselves aggregate flowers. 

[ 246 J 



The real use of the Stamens of Plants was long a 
subject of dispute among philosophers, till Linnaeus, ac- 
cording to the general opinion at present, explained it 
beyond a possibility of doubt. Still there are not want- 
ing persons who from time to time start objections, 
prompted either by a philosophical pursuit of truth, or 
an ambitious desire of distinguishing themselves in con- 
troverting so celebrated a doctrine, as some have writ- 
ten against the circulation of the animal blood. I pro- 
pose to trace the history of this doctrine, and especially 
to review the facts and experiments upon which Linnasus 
founded his opinion, as well as the objections it has had 
to encounter. It would be endless, and altogether su- 
perfluous, to bring forward new facts in its support, nor 
shall I do so, except where new arguments may render 
such a measure necessary. 

The Stamens and Pistils of flowers have, from the 
most remote antiquity, been considered as of great im- 
portance in perfecting the fruit. The Date Palm, from 
time immemorial a primary object of cultivation in the 
more temperate climates of the globe, bears barren and 
fertile flowers on separate trees. The ancient Greeks 
soon discovered that in order to have abundant and 
well-flavoured fruit, it was expedient to plant both 


trees near together, or to bring the barren blossoms to 
those which were to bear fruit ; and in this chiefly con- 
sisted the culture of that valuable plant. Tournefort 
tells us that without such assistance dates kave no ker- 
nel, and are not good food. The same has long been 
practised, and is continued to this very day in the Le- 
vant, upon the Pistacia, and the Fig. 

At the revival of learning botanists were more occupied 
in determining the species, and investigating the medi- 
cal properties of plants, than in studying their physiolo- 
gy ; and when after a while the subject in question was 
started, some of them, as Morison, Tournefort and 
Pontedera, uniformly treated with great contempt the 
hypothesis which has since been established. We 
shall, as we proceed, advert to some of their arguments. 
About the year 1676, Sir Thomas Millington, Savil- 
ian Professor at Oxford, is recorded to have hinted to 
Dr. Grew that the use of the Stamens was probably to 
perfect and fertilize the seed. Grew adopted the idea, 
and the great Ray approved it. Several other botanists 
either followed them, or had previously conceived the 
same opinion, among which R. J. Camerarius, Professor 
at Tubingen towards the end of the seventeenth centu- 
ry, was one of the most able and original. Vaillant 
wrote an excellent oration on the subject, which being- 
hostile to the opinions of Tournefort, lay in obscurity 
till published by Boerhave. Blair and B-adley assented 
in England, and several continental botanists imbibed 
the same sentiments. Pontedera, however, at Padua, 
an university long^amous. but then on the decline, and 
•consequently adverse to all new inquiry and information- 


in 1720 published his Anthologia, quite on the other 
side of the question. 

Linnaeus, towards the year 1732, reviewed all that had 
been done before him, and clearly established the fact 
so long in dispute, in his Fundamenta and Philosophia 
Botanica. He determined the functions of the Stamens 
and Pistils, proved these organs to be essential to every 
plant, and thence conceived the happy idea of using 
them for the purpose of systematical arrangement. In 
the latter point his merit was altogether original ; in the 
former he made use of the discoveries and remarks of 
others, but set them in so new and clear a light, as in a 
manner to render them his own. 

We have already mentioned,/;. 121, die two modes 
by which plants are multiplied, and have shown the im- 
portant difference between them. Propagation by seed 
is the only genuine reproduction of the species, and it 
now remains to prove that the essential organs of the 
flower are indispensably requisite for the perfecting of 
the seed. 

Every one must have observed that the flower of a 
plant always precedes its fruit. To this the Meadow 
Saffron, Engl. Bot. t. 133, seems an objection, the fruit 
and leaves being perfected in the spring, the blossoms 
not appearing till autumn ; but a due examination will 
readily ascertain that the seed-bud formed in autumn is 
the very same which comes to maturity in the following 
spring. A Pine-apple was once very unexpectedly ci- 
ted to me as an instance of fruit being formed before the 
flower, because the green fruit in ttjat instance, as in 
many others, is almost fully grown before the flowers ex- 


pand. The seeds however, the essence of the fruit, are 
only in embryo at this period, just as in the gennen of an 
Apple blossom. 

It was very soon ascertained that flowers are invaria- 
bly furnished with Stamens and Pistils, either in the 
same individual, or two of the same species, however 
defective they may be in other parts ; of which Hippu- 
ris, Engl. Bot. t. 763, the most simple of all blossoms,, 
is a remarkable example. Few botanists indeed had 
detected them in the Lemma or Duck -weed, so abun- 
dant on the surface of still waters, and Valisneri alone for 
a long time engrossed the honour of having seen them. 
In our days however they rewarded the researches of 
the indefatigable Ehrhart in Germany, and on being 
sought with equal acuteness, were found in England. 
Three species have been delineated in Engl. Bot. t, 
926, 1095, and 1233, from the discoveries of Mr. Tur- 
ner and Mr. W. Borrer. The flowers of Mosses, long- 
neglected and afterwards mistaken, were faithfully de- 
lineated by Micheli, carefully examined and properly 
understood by Linnaeus as he rambled over the wilds of 
Lapland*, and at length fully illustrated and placed out 
of all uncertainty by the justly celebrated Hedwig^ 
These parts indeed are still unknown in ferns, or at 
least no satisfactory explanation of them has reached me, 
though the seeds and seed-vessels are sufficiently obvi- 

The existence of the parts under consideration is so 
incontrovertible in every flower around us, that Ponte- 

* This hitherto unknown fact will appear in his Tour through 
that country, now preparing for the press in English. 


dera was reduced to seek plants without stamens among 
the figures of the Hortus Malabaricus, but the plates in 
which he confided are now known to be faulty in that 
very particular. 

Plants indeed have occasionally abortive stamens in 
one flower and barren pistils in another, and the Plan- 
tain-tree, Musa, is described by Linnaeus as having five 
out of its six stamens perfected in such blossoms as ri- 
pen no fruit, while those with a fertile germen contain 
only a single ripe stamen, five being ineffective. This 
only shows the resources, the wisdom, and the infinite 
variety of the creation. When the roots are luxuriantly 
prolific, the flowers are in some measure defective, Na- 
ture, relaxing as it were from her usual solicitude, and 
allowing her children to repose, and indulge in the abund- 
ance of good things about them. But when want 
threatens, she instantly takes the alarm ; all her energies 
are exerted to secure the future progeny, even at the 
hazard of the parent stock, and to send them abroad to 
colonise more favourable situations. 

Most generally the access of the pollen is not trusted 
to any accidental modes of conveyance, however nume- 
rous, elaborate, and, if we may so express it, ingenious, 
such modes may be ; but the Stamens are for greater 
security lodged in the same flower, under the protection 
of the same silken veils, or more substantial guards, 
which shelter their appropriate pistils. This is the case 
with the majority of our herbs and shrubs, and even 
with the trees of hot countries, whose leaves being al- 
ways present might impede the passage of the pollen. 
On the contrary, the trees of cold climates have genei J 


ly separated flowers, blossoming before the leaves come 
forth, and in a windy season of the year ; while those 
which blossom later, as the Oak, are either peculiarly 
frequented by insects, or, like the numerous kinds of 
Fir, have leaves so little in the way, and pollen so exces- 
sively abundant, that impregnation can scarcely fail. 

The pollen and the stigma are always in perfection at 
the same time, the latter commonly withering and foiling 
ofFa little after the anthers, though the style may remain 
to become an useful appendage to the fruit. The Viola 
tricolor or Pansy, the Gratiola, the Martynia, and many 
plants besides, have been observed to be furnished with 
a stigma gaping only at the time the pollen is ripe. The 
beautiful Jacobean Lily, Amaryllis formossissima, Curt. 
Mag. t. 47, is justly described by Linnaeus as provided 
with a drop of clear liquid, which protrudes every morn- 
ing from the stigma, and about noon seems almost 
ready to fall to the ground. It is however re-absorbed in 
the afternoon, having received the pollen whose vapour 
renders it turbid, and whose minute husks afterwards 
remain upon the stigma. The same phenomenon takes 
place several successive days. 

In opposition to similar facts, proving the synchro- 
nous operation of these organs, Pontedera has, with 
more observation than usual, remarked that in the um- 
belliferous tribe the style frequently does not appear till 
the anthers are fallen. But he ought to have perceived 
that the stigma is previously perfected, and that the style 
seems to grow out afterwards, in a recurved and divari- 
cated form, for the purpose of providing hooks to the 
seeds. It is also observable that in this family the sev- 


eral organs are sometimes brought to perfection in differ- 
ent flowers at different times, so that the anthers of one 
may impregnate the stigmas of another, whose stamens 
were abortive, or long since withered. The same thing 
happens in other instances. Linnaeus mentions the Ja- 
tropha urens as producing flowers with stamens some 
weeks in general before or after the others. Hence he 
obtained no seed till he preserved the pollen a month or 
more in paper, and scattered it on a few stigmas then in 
perfection. There can be no do ibt that, in a wild state, 
some or other of the two kinds of blossoms are ripe to- 
gether, throughout the flowering season, on different 

A similar experiment to that just mentioned was made 
in 1749 upon a Palm-tree at Berlin, which for want of 
pollen hid never brought any fruit to perfection. A 
branch of barren flowers was sent by the post from Leip- 
sic, twenty German miles distant, and suspended over the 
pistils. Consequently abundance of fruit was ripened, 
and many young plants raised from the seeds.* 

* What species of Palm was the subject of this experiment 
does not clearly appear. In the original communication to Dr. 
Watson, printed in tne preface of Lee's Introduction to Botany, 
it is called Palma major foliis Jiabclliformibus^ which seems ap- 
propriate to Rufihis fiabcllif rmis, Ait Hort. Kttv. v. 3. 473 ; yet 
L aeus, in his dissertation on this subject, expressly calls it 
P csnix dac'ylifera, the Date Palm, and says he had in his gar- 
den many vigorous plants raised from a portion of the seeds 
above mentioned. The great success of the experiment, and 
the " fan shaped" leaves, makes mc rather take it for the Rfw 
fiis,a. plant not well known to Linnaeus. 


Tournefort and Pontcdera supposed the pollen to be 
of an excrementitious nature, and thrown off as superflu- 
ous. But its being so curiously and distinctly organiz- 
ed in every plant, and producing a peculiar vapour on 
the accession of moisture, shows, beyond contradiction, 
that it has functions to perform after it has left the anther. 
The same writers conceived that the stamens might 
possibly secrete something to circulate from them to the 
young seeds ; an hypothesis totally subverted by every 
flower with separated organs, whose stamens could circu- 
late nothing to germens on a different branch or root ; a 
difficulty which the judicious Tournefort perceived, 
and was candid enough to allow. 

Both the conjectures just mentioned vanish before 
one luminous experiment of Linnaeus, of all others the 
most easy to repeat and to understand. He removed 
the anthers from a flower of Glaucium phceniceum ; 
Engl. Hot. t. 1433, stripping off the rest of that day's 
blossoms. Another morning he repeated the same prac- 
tice, only sprinkling the stigma of that blossom, which 
he had last deprived of its own stamens, with the pollen 
from another. The flower first mutilated produced no 
fruit, but the second afforded very perfect seed. " My 
design," says Linnaeus, " was to prevent any one in fu- 
ture from believing that the removal of the anthers from 
a flower was in itself capable of rendering the germen 

The usual proportion and situation of stamens with 
respect to pistils is well worthy of notice. The former 
are generally shortest in drooping flowers, longest in 


erect ones. The barren blossoms stand above the 
fertile ones in Carex, Coix, Arum, &c, that the 
pollen may fall on the stigmas. This is the more re- 
markable, as the usual order of Nature seems in such 
plants, as well indeed as in compound, and even um- 
belliferous flowers, to be reversed, for the pistils are 
invariably central, or internal, in every simple flower, 
and would therefore, if drawn out into a monoecious 
spike, be above the stamens. 

Many curious contrivances of Nature serve to bring 
the anthers and stigmas together. In Gloriosa, Andr. 
Repos. t. 129, the style is bent, at a right angle from the 
very base, for this evident purpose. In Saxijraga, and 
Parnassia, Engl. Bot. t. 82, the stamens lean one or 
two at a time over the stigma, retiring after they have 
shed their pollen, and giving place to others ; which 
wonderful ceconomy is very striking in the garden Rue, 
Ruta graveolens, whose stout and firm filaments cannot 
be disturbed from the posture in which they may happen 
to be, and evince a spontaneous movement unaffected by 
external causes. The five filaments of the Celosia, 
Cock's-comb, are connected at their lower part by a 
membranous web, which in moist weather is relaxed, 
and the stamens spread for shelter under the concave 
lobes of the corolla. When the air is dry, the contrac- 
tion of the membrane brings them together, to scatter 
their pollen in the centre of the flower. The elastic fila- 
ments of Parietaria, Engl. Bot. t. 879, for a while re 


strained by the calyx, as those of the lovely Kalmix,{\ 16) 
Curt. Mag. t. 175, 177, are by the minute pouches in 
the corolla, relieve themselves by an elastic spring, which 
in both instances serves to dash the pollen with great 
force upon the stigma. The same end is accomplished 
by the curved germen of Medicagofalcata, Engl. Bot. U 
1016, releasing itself by a spring from the closed keel of 
the flower. 

But of all flowers that of the Barberry-bush, t. 49, is 
most worthy the attention of a curious physiologist. In 
this the six stamens, spreading moderately, are sheltered 
under the concave tips of the petals, till some extraneous 
body, as the feet or trunk of an insect in search of honey, 
touches the inner part of each filament near the bottom. 
The irritability of that part is such, that the filament im- 
mediately contracts there, and consequently strikes its 
anther, full of pollen, against the stigma. Any other 
part of the filament may be touched without this effect, 
provided no concussion be given to the whole. After a 
while the filament retires gradually, and may again be 
stimulated ; and when each petal, with its annexed fila- 
ment, is fallen to the ground, the latter on being touched 
shows as much sensibility as ever. See Tracts on Nat. 
History, 165. I have never detected any sympathy be- 
tween the filaments, nor is any thug of the kind expres- 
sed in the paper just mentioned, though Dr. Darwin, 
from some unaccountable misapprc lension, has quoted 

(116) [The ten stamens of the Kalmi are h nt out v. ird, and 
their anthers confined in the same number of depressions in the 
corolla, until liberated in the manner described.] 


me to that effect. It is still more wonderful that the 
celebrated Bonnet, as mentioned in Senebier's Physiolo- 
gie Fegetale, v. 5. 105, should have observed this phoe- 
nomenon in the Barberry so very inaccurately as to com- 
pare it to the relaxation of a spring, and that the ingen- 
ious Senebier himself, in quoting me, p. 94, for having 
ascertained the lower part only of each filament to be ir- 
" ritable, should express himself as follows : — " It has not 
yet been proved that the movement of the stamens is at- 
tended with the contraction of the filaments ; which 
nevertheless was the first proof necessary to have been 
given in order to ascertain their irritability ; it is not 
even yet well known which is the irritable part of the 
filaments, and whether it be only their base, as Smith 
has had the address to discover." In answer to which I 
need only request any one to read the above account, or 
the more ample detail in my original paper, and, above 
all, to examine a Barberry -blossom for himself ; and if 
any doubts remain concerning the existence of vegetable 
irritability, let him read Senebier's whole Chapter intend- 
ed to disprove it, where that candid philosopher, while 
he expresses his own doubts, has brought together every 
thing in its favour. Among the whole of his facts noth- 
ing is more decisive than the remarks of Coulomb and 
Van Mammon the Euphorbia, whose milky juices flow 
so copiously from a wound, in consequence of the evi- 
dent irritability of their vessels ; but when the life of 
the plant is destroyed by electricity, all the flowing is at 
an end. It is superfluous to add any thing on this sub- 
ject, and I return to that of the impregnation of flowers. 


I have already mentioned that any moisture causes the 
pollen to explode, consequently its purpose is liable to 
be frustrated by rain or heavy dews. Linnasus observes 
that husbandmen find their crops of rye to suffer more 
from this cause than barley, because in the latter the an- 
thers are more protected by the husks ; and the Juni- 
per berries are sparingly, or not at all, produced in Sue- 
den when the flowering season has been wet. The 
same great observer also remarks, what yearly experi- 
ence confirms, that Cherry-trees are more certainly fruit- 
ful than Pear-trees, because in the former the opening 
of the anthers is, in each blossom, much more progres- 
sive, so that a longer period elapses for the accomplish- 
ment of the fertilization of the germen, and there is con- 
sequently less chance of its being hindered by a few 

To guard against the hurtful influence of nocturnal 
dews or drenching rains, most flowers either fold their 
petals together, or hang down their heads, when the sun 
does not shine ; by which, their internal organs are 
sheltered. In some which always droop, as the Snow- 
drops Galanthus and Leacojum, Engl. Bot. t. 19 and 
621, the Fritillary, t. 622, the Crown Imperial, various 
species of Campanula, and others, while the over-shad- 
owing corolla keeps off rain, the air has free access un- 
derneath to blow the pollen, to the stigma. Nor is this 
drooping caused by che weight of the flowers, for the 
fruit in most of them is much heavier, and yet stands 
erect on the very same stalk. The papilionaceous flow- 
ers in general spread their wings in fine weather, admit- 


ting the sun and air to the parts within ; whereas many 
of them not only close their petals at night, but also de- 
rive additional protection from the green leaves of the 
plant folding closely about them. Convolvulus arven- 
s-is, t. 312, Anagallis arvensis, t. 529, Calendula pluvi- 
alis, and many others, are well known to shut up their 
flowers against the approach of rain ; whence the 
Anagallis has been called the Poor Man's Weather- 
glass. It has been observed by Linnaeus that flowers 
lose this fine sensibility, either after the anthers have 
performed their office, or when deprived of them arti- 
ficially ; nor do I doubt the fact. I have had reason 
to think that, during a long continuance of wet, the sen- 
sibility of the Anagallis is sometimes exhausted ; and it 
is evident that very sudden thunder-showers often take 
such flowers by surprise, the previous state of the atmos- 
phere not having been such as to give them due warning. 
That parts of vegetables not only lose their irritabili- 
ty, but even their vital principle, in consequence of hav- 
ing accomplished the ends of their being, appears from 
an experiment of Linnaeus upon Hemp. This is a dioe- 
cious plant, step. 241, and Linnaeus kept several fer- 
tile-flowered individuals in separate apartments from the 
barren ones, in order to try whether they could perfect 
their seeds without the aid of pollen. Some few how- 
ever remained with the barren-flowered plants, and these 
ripened seed in due time, their stigmas having faded and 
withered soon after they had received the pollen. On 
the contrary, the stigmas which had been out of its 
reach continued green and vigorous, as if in vain expec- 
tation, nor did they begin to fade till they had thus last- 

MELONS, CYCAS, Sec. 259 

ed for a very long while. Since I read the history of 
this experiment, I have found it easy in many plants to 
tell by the appearance of the stigma whether the seed be 
fertilized or not. The above experiment is the more 
important, as the abbe Spallanzani has recorded one 
made by himself upon the same species of plant, with a 
contrary result. But as he has said nothing of the ap- 
pearance of the stigmas, his experiment must yield to 
that of Linnaeus in point of accuracy ; and even if his 
account be otherwise correct, the result is easily ex- 
plained. Hemp, Spinach, some Nettles, &x., naturally 
dioecious, are occasionally not completely so, a few latent 
barren or fertile flowers being frequently found among 
those of the other sort, by which provision is made 
against accidents, and the perfecting of a few seeds, at 
any rate, secured. 

In general, germens whose stigmas have not received 
the pollen wither away without swelling at all, but some 
grow to a considerable size, and in such the substance 
of the seed, its skin, and even its cotyledons, are often to 
be found, the embryo only being wanting. In a Melon 
or Cucumber it is common to find, among numerous 
perfect seeds, many mere unimpregnated husks. In 
the magnificent Cycas revoluta, which bore fruit at the 
bishop of Winchester's, and of which a history with 
plates is given in the sixth volume of the Linnaean So- 
ciety's Transactions, I found the drupa and all its con- 
tents apparently perfect, except that there was only a 
minute cavity where the embryo should have been, in 
consequence of the want of another tree with stamens, 
which was not to be found perhaps nearer than Japan. 


Gardeners formerly attempted to assist Nature by strip- 
ping off the barren flowers of Melons and Cucumbers, 
which, having no germen, they found could not come to 
fruit, and were, therefore, as they supposed, an unneces- 
sary encumbrance to the constitution of the parent plant. 
But finding they thus obtained no fruit at all, they soon 
learned the wiser practice of admitting air as often as 
possible to the flowering plants, for the purpose of 
blowing the pollen from one blossom to the other, and 
even to gather the barren kind and place it over that 
destined to bear fruit. 

The ceconomy of various aquatic plants throws great 
light upon the subject before us. Different species of 
Potamogeton, Engl. Bot. t. 168, 297, 376, &c.,Ruppia 
mantima, t. 136, and others, float entirely under water., 
often at some considerable depth, till the flowering season 
arrives, when they rise near the surface, and throw up 
their flowering spikes above it, sinking afterwards to ri- 
pen and sow their seeds at the bottom. Nymphtca albaj. 
160, is very truly described by Linnseus in his FloraSue- 
cica'zs closing its flowers in the afternoon and laying them 
down upon the surface of the water till morning, when it 
raises and expands them, often, in a bright day, to seve- 
ral inches above the water. To this I can speak from 
mv own knowledge, and it is confirmed by the history 
given by Theophrastus of his Lotus, which, according 
to all appearance, is the Nymphaa Lotus of Linnaeus. 
« This," says he, " as well as the Cyamus*, bears its 
fruit in a head. The flower is white, consisting of 

* Exot. Boi. t. 31, 32. 


many crowded leaves about as broad as those of a lily. 
These leaves at sunset fold themselves together, cover- 
ing the head (or seed-vessel). At sun-rise they expand, 
and rise above the water. This they continue till the 
head is perfected, and the flowers fall off." So far 
Theophrastus writes as of his own knowledge ; he con- 
tinues as follows ; " It is reported that in the Euphrates 
the head and flowers keep sinking till midnight, when 
they are so deep in the water as to be out of reach of 
the hand, but towards morning they return, and still 
more as the day advances. At sun-rise they are already 
above the surface, with the flower expanded ; afterwards 
they rise high above the water." Pliny repeats the 
same account ; and Prosper Alpinus, whose purpose is 
to prove the Lotus of Theophrastus not different from 
the common Nymphfia, in which, as far as genus is 
concerned, he is correct, has the following remarkable 
passage : " The celebrated stories of the Lotus turning 
to the sun, closing its flowers and sinking under water at 
night, and rising again in the morning, are conformable 
to what every body has observed in the Nymphaa." 

I have been the more particular in the above quota- 
tions,because the veracity of Theophrastus has lately been 
somewhat rudely impeached, on very questionable au- 
thority. For my own part, I think what we see of the 
Nymphxa in England is sufficient to render the above ac- 
count highly probable in a country where the sun has so 
much more power, even if it did not come from the most 
faithful and philosophical botanist of antiquity, and I have 
always with confidence cited it on his authority. The 
reader, however, will perceive that the only important 

afij OF THE VAUSXEltlA. 

eircumstance for our purpose is the closing of the flow- 
ers at night, which is sufficiently well established. 

But the most memorable of aquatic plants is the Valis- 
neria spiralis, well figured and described by Micheli, 
Nov, Gen. t. 10, which grows at the bottoms of ditches 
in Italy. In this the fertile flowers stand on long spiral 
stalks, and these by uncoiling elevate them to the surface 
of the water, where the calyx expands in the open air. 
In the mean while plenty of barren flowers are produced 
on a distinct root, on short straight stalks, from which 
they rise like little separate white bubbles, suddenly ex- 
panding when they reach the surface, and floating 
about it in such abundance as to cover it entirely. Thus 
their pollen is scattered over the stigmas of the first- 
mentioned blossoms, whose stalks soon afterwards re- 
sume their spiral figure, and the fruit comes to maturity 
at the bottom of the water. All this Micheli has de- 
scribed, without being aware of its final purpose ; so dif- 
ferent is it to observe and to reason ! 

Some aquatic vegetables, which blossom under water, 
seem to have a peculiar kind of glutinous pollen, des- 
tined to perform its office in that situation, as Chara, 
Engl. Bot. t. 3S6 } &c. ; as well as the Facus and Con- 
ferva tribe : but of the, real nature of the fructification 
of these last we can at present only form analogical con- 

The fertilization of the Fig is accomplished in a strik- 
ing manner by insects, as is that of the real Sycamore. 
Ficus Sycomorus. In this genus the green fruit is a hol- 
low common calyx, or rather receptacle, lined with va- 
rious flowers seldom both barren and fertile in the same 


fig. This receptacle has only a very small orifice at the 
summit. The seeds therefore would not in general be 
perfected were it not for certain minute flies of the ge- 
nus Cynips, continually fluttering from one fig to the 
other, all covered with pollen, and depositing their eggs 
within the cavity. 

A very curious observation is recorded by Schreber 
and Willdenow concerning the Aristolochia C/ematitis, 
Engl. Bot. t. 398. The stamens and pistils of this flow- 
er are enclosed in its globular base, the anthers being 
under the stigma, and by no means commodiously situ- 
ated for conveying their pollen to it. This therefore is 
accomplished by an insect, the Tipula pennicornis, which 
enters the flower by the tubular part. But that part be- 
ing thickly lined with inflexed hairs, though the fly en- 
ters easily, its return is totally impeded, till the corolla 
fades, when the hairs lie flat against the sides, and allow 
the captive to escape. In the mean while the insect, 
continually struggling for liberty, and pacing his prison 
round and round, has brushed the pollen about the stig- 
ma. I do not doubt the accuracy of this account, 
though I have never caught the imprisoned Tipula. In- 
deed I have never seen any fruit formed by this plant. 
Probably for want of some insect adapted to the same 
purpose in its own country, the American Aristolochia 
Sipho, though it flowers plentifully, rarely forms fruit in 
our gardens. That it sometimes does, I have been in- 
formed by Lady Amelia Hume, since the first edition of 
this work was published. 

The ways in which insects serve the same purpose 
are innumerable. These active little beings are peculiarly 



busy about flowers in bright sunny weather, when every 
blossom is expanded, the pollen in perfection, and all 
the powers of vegetation in their greatest vigour. Then 
we see the rough sides and legs of the bee, laden with 
the golden dust which it shakes off, and collects anew, 
in its visits to the honeyed stores inviting it on every 
side. All Nature is then alive, and a thousand wise 
ends are accomplished by innumerable means that 
" seeing we perceive not ;" for though in the abundance 
of creation there seems to be a waste, yet in proportion 
as we understand the subject, we find the more reason 
to conclude that nothing is made in vain. 

[ 265 ] 



The diseases of Vegetables serve in many instances to 
prove their vitality, and to illustrate the nature of their 

Plants are subject to Gangrene or Sphacelus, especial- 
ly the more succulent kinds, of which a very curious ac- 
count, concerning the Cactus coccinellifer, Indian Fig, 
or Nopal, extremely to our present purpose, is given by 
M. Thiery de Menonville, in his work on the culture of 
the Nopal as the food of the Cochineal insect. This 
writer travelled about twenty years since, through the 
Spanish settlements in South America, chiefly noted for 
the cultivation of this precious insect r on purpose to 
transport it clandestinely to some of the French islands- 
Such were the supineness and ignorance of the Span- 
iards, that he succeeded in conveying not only the liv- 
ing insects, but the bulky plant necessary for their sus- 
tenance, notwithstanding severe edicts to the contrary. 
He had attended previously to the management of the 
Nopal, and made his remarks on the diseases to which it 
is liable. Of these the Gangrene is extremely frequent 
in the true Nopal of Mexico, beginning by a black spot, 
which spreads till the whole leaf or branch rots off, or 
the shrub dies. But the same kind of plant is often af- 
fected with a much more serious disease, called by Thie- 



tj " la dissolution." This seems to be a sudden decay 
of the vital principle, like that produced in animals by 
lightning or strong electricity. In an hour's time, from 
some unknown cause, a joint, a whole branch, or some- 
times an entire plant of the Nopal, changes from appar- 
ent health to a state of putrefaction or dissolution. One 
minute its surface is verdant and shining ; the next it 
turns yellow, and all its brilliancy is gone. On cutting 
into its substance, the inside is found to have lost all co- 
hesion, being quite rotten. The only remedy in this 
case is speedy amputation below the diseased part. 
Sometimes the force of the vital principle makes a 
stand, as it were, against the encroaching disease, and 
throws off the infected joint or branch. Such is the ac- 
count given by Thiery, which evinces a power in vege- 
tables precisely adequate to that of the animal constitu- 
tion, by which an injured or diseased part is, by an effort 
of Nature, thrown off to preserve the rest. 

Nor need we travel to Mexico to find examples of 
this. Every deciduous tree or shrub exhibits the very 
same phenomenon ; for the fall of their decaying foli- 
age in autumn, leaving the branches and young buds 
vigorous and healthy, can be explained in no other way. 
Yet Du Hamel laboured in vain to account for the fall of 
the leaf;* nor is it wonderful that he or any body else, 
who endeavours to explain the physiology of vegeta- 
bles or of animals, according to one principle only, 
whether it be mechanical or chemical, should entirely 
fail. To consider the fall of leaves in autumn as a 
bloughing, or casting off diseased and worn out parts, 

* See his Phys. de$ Arbrea, v. 1. 127. 


seems so simple and evident, as to be hardly worth insist- 
ing upon. Yet I find myself anticipated in this theory 
by one physiologist only, named Vrolick, cited by 
Willdenow in his Principles of Botany, p. 304, though 
several learned speculations to no purpose are extant on 
the subject. It is but just, however, that I should re- 
late what led me to consider the matter with any atten- 
tion. My observing friend Mr. Fairbairn of Chelsea 
garden long ago remarked to me, that when he had oc- 
casion to transplant any tree or shrub whilst in leaf, he 
could soon judge of its success by the ease with which 
its leaves were detached. The consequence of such 
treatment is more or less injury to the health of the 
plant, as will first appear by the drooping of the leaves, 
most of which will probably die, and the decay will 
generally be extended to the younger more delicate 
twigs. The exact progress of this decay may speedily 
be known, by the leaves of those branches which are ir- 
recoverably dying or dead, remaining firmly attached, so 
as not to be pulled off without a force sufficient to bring 
away the bark or buds along with them : whereas the 
leaves of parts that have received no material injury, and 
where the vital energy acts with due power, either fall oft' 
spontaneously, or are detached by the slighest touch. 
Plants of hot countries, kept in our stoves, exhibit the 
same phenomenon when transplanted or otherwise in- 
jured, even though not naturally deciduous. 

So when fruits are thoroughly ripened, they become, 
with respect to the parent plant, dead substances, and, 
however strongly attached before, are then thrown off as 
extraneous bodies. Their stalks fade or wither, though 


the life of the adjoining branch continues unimpaired, 
and a line of separation is soon drawn. In a poor soil, 
or unfavourable climate, a bunch or spike which should 
naturally consist of a considerable number of flowers, 
btars perhaps not half so many. Its upper part very 
early withers, the vital principle ceases to act at the point 
beyond which it could not continue to act with effect, 
and all its energy is directed to perfect what lies within 
the compass of its resources. This is evident in Lathy - 
rus odoratus, the Sweet Pea of our gardens, a native of 
a very hot climate, at the summits of whose flower- 
stalks are generally found the rudiments of one or more 
flowers, not attempted to be perfected. So also the first 
Barley sown on the sandy heaths of Norfolk, and indeed 
too many a following crop, bears very few grains in an 
ear ; for the same meagre supply of nourishment, be- 
stowed equally on a numerous spike of blossoms, would 
infallibly starve them all. In like manner one seed only 
is perfected in the best wild Arabian Coffee, known by- 
its round form ; while the West Indian plantation Cof- 
fee has two in each berry, both consequently flattened 
on one side. The former grows in barren open places, 
in situations sufficiently favourable for the impregna- 
tion of its blossoms, but far less so for the perfecting 
of much seed ; while the latter, well supplied with 
manure and moisture, is enabled to bring every germ to 

Very strange effects are often produced upon plants 
by the attacks of insects, whence the various kinds of 
Galls derive their origin. These are occasioned by the 


punctures of those little animals, chiefly of the Hymen- 
opt era order, and of the genus Cynips, in some vigorous 
part of the plant, as the leaves, leaf-stalks, young stem or 
branches, and sometimes the calyx or germen. The 
parent insect deposits its egg there, which is soon hatch- 
ed, and in consequence of the perpetual irritation occa- 
sioned by the young maggot, feeding on the juices of 
the plant, the part where it is lodged acquires a morbid 
degree of luxuriance, frequently swelling to an immod- 
erate size, and assuming the most extraordinary and 
whimsical shapes. This often happens to the shrubby 
species of Hawkweed, Hieracium sabaudum, Engl. Bot. 
t. 349, and umbellatum, t. 1771, whose stems in conse- 
quence swell into oval knots. Several different kinds of 
Galls are borne by the Oak, as those light spongy bod- 
ies, as big as walnuts, vulgarly named Oak apples ; a 
red juicy berry-like excrescence on its leaves ; and the 
very astringent Galls brought from the Levant, for the 
purposes of dyeing and making ink, which last are pro- 
duced by a different species of Qiiercus from either of 
our own. The common Dog-rose, t. 992, frequently 
bears large moss-like balls, in whose internal parts nume- 
rous maggots are always to be found, till they become the 
winged Cynips Rosa, and eat their way out. Many of 
our Willows bear round excrescences, (116) as large as 
peas, on their leaves ; but I remember to have been very 
much astonished in Provence with a fine branched pro- 
duction on the Willows in winter, which appeared like a 

fll6) [Very singular spongy or juicy excrescences arc produ- 
ced from some American 6hrubs of the genus Andromeda and 
Azalea ; caused, no doubt, by insects.] 


tufted Lichen, but proved on examination a real Gall. 
Indeed our Salix Helix, t. 1343, is called Rose Willow 
from its bearing no less remarkable an excrescence, like 
a rose, at the ends of some of its branches, in conse. 
quence of the puncture of an insect, and these are in like 
manner durable, though the proper leaves fall. The 
Mastic-tree, Pistacia Lentiscus, is often laden, in the 
south of Europe, with large red hollow finger-like bod- 
ies, swarming internally with small insects, the Aphis 
Pistacia of Linnaeus. The young shoots of Salvia po- 
mifera, Fl. Grxc. t. 15, S. triloba, t. 17, and even S. 
officinalis, in consequence of the attacks probably of 
some Cynips, swell into large juicy balls, very like ap. 
pies, and even crowned with rudiments of leaves resem- 
bling the calyx of that fruit. These are esteemed in the 
Levant for their aromatic and acid flavour, especially 
when prepared with sugar. 

It may be remarked that all the excrescences above 
mentioned are generally more acid than the rest of the 
plant that bears them, and also greatly inclined to turn 
red. The acid they contain is partly acetous, but more 
of the astringent kind. 

The diseases of the skin, to which many vegetables 
are subject, are less easily understood than the forego- 
ing. Besides one kind of Honey-dew, already mention- 
ed, p. 157, something like leprosy may be observed in 
Tragopogon major, Jacq. Austr. t. 29, which as I have 
been informed by an accurate observer, does not injure 
the seed, nor infect the progeny. The stem of Shep- 
herd's Purse, Engl. Bot. t. 1485, is occasionally swel- 
led, and a white cream-like crust, afterwards powdery, 


ensues. The White Garden Rose, Rosa alba, produ- 
ces, in like manner, an orange-coloured powder. It 
proves very difficult, in many cases, to judge whether 
such appearances proceed from a primary disease in the 
plant, arising from unseasonable cold or wet, or are owing 
to the baneful stimulus of parasitical fungi irritating the 
vital principle, like the young progeny of insects as 
above related. Sir Joseph Banks has, with great care 
and sagacity, traced the progress of the Blight in Corn, 
Uredo fumenti, Soxuerb. Fung. t. 140, and given a com- 
plete history of the minute fungus which causes that 
appearance. See Annals of Botany, v. 2. 51, t. 3, 4. 
Under the inspection of this eminent promoter of sci- 
ence, Mr. Francis Bauer has made microscopical draw- 
ings of many similar fungi infecting the herbage and 
seeds of several plants, but has decided that the black 
swelling of the seed of corn, called by the French Ergot, 
though not well distinguished from other appearances by 
the generality of our agricultural writers, is indubitably 
a morbid swelling of the seed, and not in any way con- 
nected with the growth of a fungus. The anthers of 
certain plants often exhibit a similar disease, swelling, 
and producing an inordinate quantity of dark purplish 
powder, instead of true pollen, as happens in Silene in- 
fiata, Fl. Brit. Engl. Bot. t. 164, and the white Lych- 
nis dioica, t. 1580, whose petals are, not uncommonly, 
stained all over with this powder. Our knowledge on 
all these subjects is yet in its infancy ; but it is to hoped, 
now the pursuit of agriculture and of philosophical bot- 
any begin to be, in some distinguished instances, united, 
such examples will be followed, and science directed to 


one of its best ends, that of improving useful arts. And 
here I cannot but mention the experiments continually 
going on under the inspection of the ingenious Mr. 
Knight, of fertilizing the germen of one species or vari- 
ety with the pollen of another nearly akin, as in apples, 
o-arden peas, &c, by which, judiciously managed, the 
advantages of different kinds are combined. By the 
same means Linnaeus obtained intermediate species or 
varieties of several plants : and if any thing were want- 
ing to confirm his theory respecting the stamens and 
pistils, this alone would place it out of all uncertainty* 

[ 273 ] 



The foregoing chapters have sufficiently explained 
the parts of plants, and the leading differences in their 
conformation, for us now to proceed to the Systematical 
part of our subject. In this, when properly understood 
and studied, there is no less exercise for ti.e mind, no 
less employment for its observation and admiration, than 
in physiological or anatomical inquiries ; nor are the 
organs of vegetables, when considered only as instru- 
ments of classification and discrimination, less conspicu- 
ous for beauty, fitness, and infinite variety of contri- 
vance, than under any other point of view. The wis- 
dom of an Infinite Superintending Mind is displayed 
throughout Nature, in whatever way we contemplate 
her productions. 

When we take into consideration the multitude of 
species which compose the vegetable kingdom, even in 
any one country or climate, it is obvious that some ar- 
rangement, some regular mode of naming and distin- 
guishing them, must be very desirable, and even neces- 
sary, for retaining them in our Own memory, or for com- 
municating to others any thiug concerning them. Yet 
the antients have scarcely used any further classification 
of plants than the Yague and superficial division into 



trees, shrubs and herbs, except a consideration of their 
places of growth, and also of their qualities. The earli- 
er botanists among the moderns almost inevitably fell 
into some rude arrangement of the objects of their 
study, and distributed them under the heads of Grasses, 
Bulbous plants, Medicinal or Eatable plants, &c, in 
which their successors made several improvements, but 
it is not worth while to contemplate them. 

The science of Botanical Arrangement first assumed 
a regular form under the auspices of Conrad Gesner and 
Caesalpinus, who, independent of each other, without 
any mutual communication, both conceived the idea of 
a regular classification of plants, by means of the parts of 
fructification alone, to which the very existence of Bota- 
ny as a science is owing. The first of these has left us 
scattered hints only, in various letters, communicated to 
the world after his premature death in 1565 ; the latter 
published a system, founded on the fruit, except the 
primary division into trees and herbs, in a quarto vol- 
ume printed at Florence in 1583. This work Linnaeus 
studied with great care, as appears from the many notes 
and marked passages in his own copy now before me. 
Hence he adopted his ideas of the supposed origin of 
the calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistils, from the outer 
bark, inner bark, wood and pith, which are now proved 
to be erroneous. In his own Classes Plantarum he has 
drawn out a regular plan of the System of Caesalpinus, 
the chief principles of which are the following : 

1 , Whether the embryo be at the summit or base of 
the seed. 


2. Whether the germen be superior or inferior, 

3. Seeds, 1, 2, 3, 4, or numerous. 

4. Seed-vessels, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. 

The work of Caesalpinus, though full of information, 
was too deep to be of common use, and excited but lit- 
tle attention. A century afterwards Morison, Professor 
of Botany at Oxford, improved somewhat upon the 
ideas of the last- mentioned writer, but has been justly 
blamed for passing over in silence the source of his own 
information. Ray, the great English naturalist, formed 
a considerably different system upon the fruit, as did 
Hermann, Professor at Leyden, and the greatBoerhaave, 
but in these last there is little originality. 

Rivinus, Ruppius and Ludwig in Germany proposed 
to arrange plants by the various forms of their Corolla, 
as did Tournefort the illustrious French botanist, whose 
system is by far the best of the kind ; and this having 
been more celebrated than most others, I shall give a 
sketch of its plan. 

In the first place we meet with the old but highly un- 
philosophical division into Herbs and Trees, each of 
which sections is subdivided into those with a Corolla 
and those without. The Trees with a Corolla are again 
distributed into such as have one or many petals, and 
those regular or irregular. — Herbs with a Corolla have 
that part either compound (as the Dandelion, Thistle 
and Daisy), or simple ; the latter being either of 
one or many petals, and in either case regular or irregu- 
lar. We come at last to the final sections, or classes, of 
the Tournefortian system. Herbs with a simple, mo 


nopetalous, regular corolla are either bell-shaped or fun- 
nel-shaped ; those with an irregular one either anoma- 
lous or labiate. 

Herbs with a simple, polypetalous regular corolla are 
either cruciform, rosaceous, umbellate, pink-like or lilia- 
ceous ; those with an irregular one, papilionaceous or 
anomalous. The subdivisions of the classes are found- 
ed on the fruit. 

It is easy to perceive that a system of this kind can 
never provide for all the forms of corolla which may be 
discovered after its first contrivance ; and therefore the 
celebrated Dr. Garden, who studied by it, assured me 
that when he attempted to reduce the American plants 
to Tournefort's classes, he found them so untractable, 
that, after attempting in vain to correct or augment the 
system, he should probably have given up the science 
in despair, had not the works of Linnaeus fallen in his 

Magnol, Professor at Montpellier, and even Linnaeus 
himself, formed schemes of arranging plants by the ca 
lyx, which nobody has followed. 

All preceding systems, and all controversies respect- 
ing their superior merits, were laid aside, as soon as the 
famous Linnaean method of classification, founded on 
the Stamens and Pistils, became known in the botanical 
world. Linnaeus, after proving these organs to be the 
most essential of all to the very being of a plant,first con- 
ceived the fortunate idea of rendering them subservient 
to the purposes of methodical arrangement, taking into 
consideration their number, situation and proportion. 


How these principles are applied, we shall presently ex- 
plain ; but some previous observations are necessary. 

Linnaeus first made a distinction between a natural 
and an artificial method of botanical arrangement. His 
predecessors probably conceived their own systems to 
be each most consonant with the order of Nature, as 
well as most commodious for use, and it was reserved 
for him to perceive and to explain that these were two 
very distinct things. 

The most superficial observer must perceive some- 
thing of the classification of Nature. The Grasses, 
Umbelliferous plants, Mosses, Sea-weeds, Ferns, Lilia- 
ceous plants, Orchises, Compound flowers, each consti- 
tute a family strikingly similar in form and qualities 
among themselves, and no less evidently distinct from 
all others. If the whole vegetable kingdom could with 
equal facility be distributed into tribes or classes, the 
study of Botany on such a plan would be no less easy 
than satisfactory. But as we proceed in this path, we 
soon find ourselves in a labyrinth. The natural orders 
and families of plants, so far from being connected in a 
regular series, approach one another by so many points, 
as to bewilder instead of directing us. We may seize 
some striking combinations and analogies ; but the fur- 
ther we proceed, the more we become sensible that, even 
if we had the whole vegetable world before us at one 
view, our knowledge must be imperfect, and that our 
" genius" is certainly not " equal to the majesty of Na- 
ture." Nevertheless Linnaeus, and all true philosophi- 
cal botanists since the first mention of the natural affini- 
ties of plants, have ever considered them as the most 


important and interesting branch, or rather the funda- 
mental part, of systematical botany. Without them the 
science is truly a study of words, contributing nothing to 
enlarge, little worthy to exercise, a rational mind. Lin- 
naeus therefore suggests a scheme which he modestly 
calls Fragments of a Natural Method, which formed 
the subject of his occasional contemplation ; but he dai- 
ly and hourly studied the principles of natural affinities 
among plants, conscious that no true knowledge of their 
distinctions, any more than of their qualities, could be 
obtained without ; of which important truth he was not 
only the earliest, but even the most strenuous assertor. 
In the mean while, however, Linnaeus, well aware 
that a natural classification was scarcely ever to be com- 
pletely discovered, and that if discovered it would prob- 
ably be too difficult for common use, contrived an artifi- 
cial system, by which plants might conveniently be ar- 
ranged, like words in a dictionary, so as to be most 
readily found. If all the words of a language could be 
disposed according to their abstract derivations, or gram- 
matical affinities, such a performance might be very in- 
structive to a philosopher, but would prove of little ser- 
vice to a young scholar ; nor has it ever been mentioned 
as any objection to the use of a dictionary, that words of 
very different meanings, if formed of nearly the same let- 
ters, often stand together. The method of Linnaeus 
therefore is just such a dictionary in Botany, while his 
Philosophia Botanica is the grammar, and his other 
works contain the history, and even the poetry, of the 


But before we give a detail of his artificial system, we 
must first see how this great man fixed the fundamental 
principles of botanical science. Nor are these princi- 
ples confined to botany, though they originated in that 
study. The Linnrean style of discriminating plants, 
has been extended by himself and others to animals and 
even fossils ; and his admirable principles of nomencla- 
ture are applied with great advantage even to chemistry 
itself, now become so vast and accurate a science. 

Independently of all general methods of classification, 
whether natural or artificial, plants, as well as animals, 
are distinguished into Genera*, Species and Varieties, 

By Species are understood so many individuals, or, 
among the generality of animals, so many pairs, as are 
presumed to have been formed at the creation, and have 
been perpetuated ever since ; for though some animals 
appear to have been exterminated, we have no reason 
to suspect any new species has been produced ; neither 
have we any cause to suppose any species of plant has 
been lost, nor any new one permanently established, 
since their first formation, notwithstanding the specula- 
tions of some philosophers. We frequently indeed see 
new Varieties, by which word is understood a variation 
in an established species ; but such are imperfectly, or 
for a limited time, if at all, perpetuated in the offspring. 
A Genua comprehends one or more species, so es- 
sentially different in formation, nature, and often many 

* Our scientific language in English is not sufficiently perfect 
to afford a plural for genus, and we are therefore obliged to 
adopt the Latin one, genera, though it exposes us sometimes to 
the horrors of hearing of " a new genera" of plants. 


adventitious qualities, from other plants, as to constitute 
a distinct family or kind, no less permanent, and found- 
ed in the immutable laws of the creation, than the dif- 
ferent species of such a genus. Thus in the animal 
kingdom, a horse, ass and zebra form three species of a 
very distinct genus, marked, not only by its general 
habit or aspect, its uses and qualities, but also by essen- 
tial characters in its teeth, hoofs, and internal constitu- 
tion. The lion, tiger, leopard, panther, lynx, cat, &c, 
also compose another sufficiently obvious and natural 
genus, and the numerous herd of monkeys, apes and 
baboons a third. The elephant is, as far as we know, 
a solitary species of a most distinct and striking genus. 

So among vegetables, the various species of rose com- 
pose a beautiful genus, known to every one who ever 
looked at a plant, merely by a certain combination of 
ideas, but essentially distinguished, as we shall hereafter 
find, by clear and decisive characters. The species of 
Iris form also a numerous genus, and the Willows an- 
other ; while the curious Epimedium alpinum, Engl. 
Bot. t. 438, is too singular and distinct to be associated 
with any known plant besides, and constitutes a genus 
by itself, as well as the Adoxa, t. 453, and Linncea, 
t. 433. 

The first great and successful attempt to define the 
genera of plants was made by Tournefort, and in this 
his transcendent merit will ever be conspicuous, though 
his system of arrangement should be entirely forgotten. 
Not that he has excelled in verbal definitions, nor built 
all his genera on sure foundations ; but his figures, and 
his enumerations of species under each genus, show the 


clearness of his conceptions, and rank him as the father 
of this branch of botany. 

Linnaeus first insisted on generic characters being 
exclusively taken from the 7 parts of fructification, and 
he demonstrated these to be sufficient, for all the plants 
that can be discovered. He also laid it down as a max- 
im, that all genera are as much founded in nature as the 
species which compose them ; and hence follows one of 
the most just and valuable of all his principles, that a ge- 
nus should furnish a character, not a character form a 
genus ; or, in other words, that a certain coincidence of 
structure, habit, and perhaps qualities, among a number 
of plants, should strike the judgment of a botanist, before 
he fixes on one or more technical characters, by which 
to stamp and define such plants as one natural genus. 
Thus the Hemerocallis ccerulea, Andr. Repos. t. 6, and 
alba, t. 194, though hitherto referred by all botanists to 
that genus, are so very different from the other species 
in habit, that a discriminative character might with con- 
fidence be expected in some part or other of their fructi- 
fication, and such a character is accordingly found in 
the winged seeds. Yet in the natural genera of Arena- 
ria and Spergula, winged or bordered seeds are so far 
from indicating a distinct genus, that it is doubtful 
whether they are sufficient to constitute even a specific 
character. See Engl. Bot. t. 958, 1535 and 1536. So 
Blandfordia, Exot. Bot. t. 4, is well distinguished from 
Aletris, with which some botanists have confounded it, 
by its hairy seeds ; but the same circumstance will not 
justify us in separating a few species from Convolvulus, 



which are attached to that genus by stronger ties of an 
other kind. 

Some genera are obvious and indubitable both in 
habit and character, as Quercus, Rosa, Euphorbia, Be- 
gonia, Exot. Bot. t. 101, and Sarracenia, t. 53 ; others 
are obvious, but their character extremely difficult to 
define, as Valeriana. The greatest difficulty lies in dis- 
tinguishing genera that belong to such very natural or- 
ders as the Grasses and Umbelliferous plants ; and the 
ablest botanists differ about the best guides in these two 
particular cases. Yet other orders, equally natural, 
sometimes afford very excellent generic differences, as 
that to which Rosa, Rubus, Fragaria, &c, belong ; and 
even in the Papilionaceous plants with ten distinct sta- 
mens, a tribe hitherto judged inextricable, a regular ex- 
amination on scientific principles has led to the discovery 
of very natural well defined genera. See Annals of 
Botany, v. 1. 501. I have in a preceding chapter 
hinted that the umbelliferous plants seem to me very 
capable of being well discriminated by their seeds, and 
other botanists have held the same opinion. 

But though I feel convinced, as far as my experience 
goes, that genera are really founded in nature, I am far 
from asserting that Linnaeus, or any other writer, has 
succeeded in fixing all their just limits. This deep and 
important branch of natural science requires the union 
of various talents. Many persons who can perceive a 
genus cannot define it ; nor do acuteness of perception, 
solidity of judgment, and perspicuity of expression, 
always meet in the same person. Those who excel in 
this department are named by Linnaeus, Phil. Bot, sect. 


152, theoretical botanists ; those who study only species 
and varieties, practical ones. 

In methodical arrangement, whether natural or artifi- 
cial, every thing must give way to generic distinctions. 
A natural system which should separate the species of a 
good genus, would,by that very test alone, prove entirely 
worthless ; and if such a defect be sometimes unavoid- 
able in an artificial one, contrivances must be adopted to 
remedy it ; of which Linnseus has set us the example, 
as will hereafter be explained. 

Generic characters are reckoned by Linnaeus of three 
kinds, the factitious, the essential, and the natural, all 
founded on the fructification alone, and not on the inflo- 
rescence, nor any other part. 

The first of these serves only to discriminate genera 
that happen to come together in the same artificial or- 
der or section ; the second to distinguish a particular 
genus, by one striking mark, from all of the same natu- 
ral order, and consequently from all other plants ; and 
the third comprehends every possible mark common to 
all the species of one genus. 

The factitious character can never stand alone, but 
may sometimes, commodiously enough, be added to 
more essential distinctions, as the insertion of the petals 
in Agrimonia, Engl. Bot. t. 1335, indicating the natur- 
al order to which the plant belongs, which character, 
though essential to that order, here becomes factitious. 

Linnaeus very much altered his notions of the essen- 
tial character after he had published his Philosophia Bo- 
tanica, whence the above definitions are taken. Instead 
of confining it to one mark or idea, he. in his Systemq 


VegetahWium, makes it comprehend all the distinctions 
requisite to discriminate each genus from every other in 
the system, only avoiding a repetition at every step of 
the characters of the artificial class and order, which 
stand at the top of each page, and are not always essen- 
tial to the character of the genus. This is the kind of 
generic character now universally adopted, and indeed 
the only one in common use. The learned Jussieu has 
given it the sanction of his approbation and adoption, as 
far as its plan is concerned, throughout his immortal 
work, subjoining in a different type such characters and 
remarks as belong to the habit, or refer to other circum- 
stances. For my own part, I profess to retain, not only 
the plan, but the very words of Linnaeus, unless I find 
them erroneous, copying nothing without examination, 
but altering with a very sparing hand, and leaving much 
for future examination. I cannot blame my predeces- 
sors for implicitly copying the Linnean characters, nor 
should I have been the first among English writers to 
set a contrary example, had I not fortunately been fur 
nished with peculiar materials for the purpose. 

The beauty and perfection of these essential generic 
characters consist in perspicuity, and a clear concise 
style of contrasting them with each other. All feeble- 
ness, all superfluity, should be avoided by those who are 
competent to the purpose, and those who are not should 
decline the task. Comparative words, as long or shorty 
without any scale of comparison, are among the gross- 
est, though most common, faults in such compositions. 

The natural character seems to have been, at one 
time, what Linnaeus most esteemed. It is what he has 


used throughout his Genera Plantarum, a work now su- 
perseded by the essential characters in his Systema Veg- 
ctabilium, and therefore in some measure laid aside. 
The disadvantages of the natural character are, that it 
does not particularly express, nor direct the mind to, the 
most important marks, and that it can accord only with 
such species of the genus as are known to the author, 
being therefore necessarily imperfect. This kind of 
character is, however, admirable for the illustration of 
any difficult natural order. Mr. Gawler's elucidations 
of the Ensatce, Sword-leaved plants, Annals of Botany, 
v. 1. 219, and Curt. Mag. afford excellent specimens of 
it, serving as a store of facts and observations for follow- 
ing systematical writers. 

Specific characters should be constructed on similar 
principles to the generic ones, as far as regards certainty, 
clearness and conciseness. The genus being first well 
defined, we are to seek for characters, not mentioned 
among the generic marks, for distinguishing the species. 
A specific difference for a solitary species of any genus, 
is therefore an absurdity. Linnaeus at first intended his 
specific definitions should be used as names ; but the in- 
vention of trivial names happily set aside this inconve- 
nient scheme. On this account however he limited 
each to twelve words, a rule to which all philosophical 
naturalists have adhered, except in cases of great neces- 
sity. Nor is the admission of one or two words beyond 
the allotted number reprehensible, provided the whole 
sentence be so neatly and perspicuously constructed, 
that the mind may comprehend it, and compare it with 
others at one view ; but this can hardly be done when 


the words much exceed twelve. This rule, of 
course, can be strictly applied to Latin definitions 
only, though it should be kept in view in any lan- 
guage, as far as the genius of that language will 
allow. Linnaeus says, " Genuine specific distinc- 
tions constitute the perfection of natural science ;" 
which is strongly confirmed by the great inferiority of 
most botanists, in this department, to that great man, 
and especially by that tedious feebleness and insufficien- 
cy displayed among those who court celebrity by despis- 
ing his principles. 

In constructing generic and specific characters, the 
arrangement of the different parts on which they are 
founded is to be considered. Such as are most impor- 
tant in the natural order, or genus, are to stand first, and 
the subordinate, or more peculiar marks of the object 
before us, ought to close the sentence. On the 
contrary, in drawing up natural characters of a ge- 
nus, as well as full descriptions of particular plants, it is 
proper to take, in the former instance, the calyx, corolla, 
stamens, pistils, seed-vessel, seed and receptacle, and 
in the latter, the root, stem, leaves, appendages, flower 
and fruit, in the order in which they naturally occur. 

Nomenclature is no less essential a branch of method- 
ical science than characteristic definitions ; for, unless 
some fixed laws, or, in other words, good sense and per- 
spicuity, be attended to in this department, great confu- 
sion and uncertainty must ensue. 

The vague names of natural objects handed down to 
us, in various languages, from all antiquity, could have 


no uniformity of derivation or plan in any of those lan- 
guages. Their different origins may be imagined, but 
cannot be traced. Many of these, furnished by the 
Greek or Latin, are retained as generic names in scien- 
tific botany, though neither their precise meaning, nor 
even the plants to which they originally belonged, can 
always be determined, as Rosa, Ficus, Piper, &c. It is 
sufficient that those to which they are now, by common 
consent, applied, should be defined and fixed. Bota- 
nists of the Linnsean school, however, admit no such 
generic names from any other language than the Greek 
or Latin, all others being esteemed barbarous. With- 
out this rule we should be overwhelmed, not only with 
a torrent of uncouth and unmanageable words, but we 
should be puzzled where to fix our choice, as the same 
plant may have fifty different original denominations in 
different parts of the world, and we might happen to 
choose one by which it is least known. Thus the cele- 
brated Indian plant, now proved beyond all doubt to be 
the Cyamus of Theophrastus*, having been erroneously 
reckoned by Linnaeus a Nymphcea, received from Gart- 
ner, one of the first who well distinguished it as a genus, 
the Ceylon name of Nelnmbo ; which being contrary to 
all rules of science, literature or taste for a generic name, 
has by others been made into bad Latin as Nelumbium. 
But the universal Hindu name of the plant is Tamara, 

* See Exot. Bot. v. I. 60, where the arguments in support 
of this opinion are given, and Curt. Mag. t. 903, where some of 
them are with much candour and ingenuity controverted, though 
not so as to alter my sentiments ; nor can any thing justify the 
use of Xclumbium in a scientific work as a generic name. 


which, independent of barbarism, ought to have been 
preferred to the very confined one of Nelumbo. In like 
manner the Bamboo, Arundo Bambos of Linnaeus, prov- 
ing a distinct genus, has received the appellation of 
Bambusa, though Jussieu had already given it that of 
Nastus, from Dioscorides*. Perhaps the barbarous 
name of some very local plants, when they cannot pos- 
sibly have been known previously by any other, and 
when that name is harmonious and easily reconcileable 
to the Latin tongue, may be admitted, as that of the Ja 
pan shrub Aucuba ; but such a word as Ginkgo is in- 
tolerable. The Roman writers, as Cesar, in describing 
foreign countries, have occasionally latinized some 
words or names that fell in their way, which may possi- 
bly excuse our making Ailanthus of Aylanto, or Pan- 
danus of Pandang. Still I can only barely tolerate 
such names out of deference to the botanical merits, not 
the learning, of their contrivers ; and I highly honour 
the zeal and correctness of Mr. Salisbury, who, in de- 
fiance of all undue authority, has ever opposed them, 
naming Aucuba> on account of its singular base or re- 
ceptacle, Eubasis. I know not how Pandanus escaped 
his reforming hand especially as the plant has already a 
good characteristic Greek name in the classical Forster 7 

* It is not indeed clear that this name is so correctly applied 
as that of Cyamus, because A r astus originally belonged to " a 
reed with a solid stem," perhaps a palm ; but not being wanted, 
nor capable of being correctly used, for the latter, it may very 
well serve for the Bamboo. There is no end of raking up old 
uncertainties about classical names. 


Excellent Greek or Latin names are such as indicate 
some striking peculiarity in the genus : as Glycyrrhiza, 
a sweet root, for the Liquorice ; Amaranthus, without 
decay, for an everlasting flower : Heliantkus, a sunflow- 
er ; Lithospermum, a stony seed ; Eriocalia*, a flower 
with a singularly woolly base or cup ; Origanum, an 
ornamental mountain plant ; Hemerocallis, a beauty of a 
day ; Arenaria, a plant that inhabits sandy places ; and 
Gypsophila, one that loves a chalky soil. Such as mark 
the botanical character of the genus, when they can be 
obtained for a nondescript plant, are peculiarly desira- 
ble : as Ceratop ctalum, from the branched hornlike pe- 
tals ; Lasiopetalum, from the very singular woolly corol- 
la ; Calceolaria, from the shoe-like figure of the same 
part ; Concilium, from the exact resemblance of its fruit 
to a bivalve shell. 

In all ages it has been customary to dedicate certain 
plants to the honour of distinguished persons. Thus 
Euphorbia commemorates the physician of Juba a Moor- 
ish prince, and Gentiana immortalizes a king of Illyria. 
The scientific botanists of modern times have adopted 
the same mode of preserving the memory of benefactors 
to their science ; and though the honour may have been 
sometimes extended too far, that is no argument for its 
total abrogation. Some uncouth names thus unavoida- 
bly deform our botanical books ; but this is often effa- 

* When I named this genus in Exotic Botany, I was not 
aware of its having previously been published by M Billaidiere 
under the name of Actinotus ; a name however not tenable in 
Botany, because it has long been preoccupied in Mineralogy. 



cecl by the merit of their owners, and it is allowable to 
model them into grace as much as possible. Thus the 
elegant Tournefort made Gundelm from Gundelschei- 
mcr ; which induced me to choose Goodenia y for my 
much honoured and valued friend Dr. Goodenough, 
though it has, when too late, been suggested that Goode- 
novia, might have been preferable. Some difficulty has 
arisen respecting French botanists on account of the ad- 
ditional names by which their grandeur, or at least their 
vanity, was displayed during the existence of the mon- 
archy. Hence Pittonia was applied to the plant conse- 
crated to Pitton de Tournefort ; but Linnaeus preferred 
the name by which alone he was known out of his own 
country or in learned language, and called the same 
genus Tournefortia. Thus we have a Fontainesia and 
a Louichea, after the excellent Louiche Desfontaines ; 
but the latter proving a doubtful genus, or, if a good one, 
being previously named Pteranthus, the former is es- 
tablished. We have even in England, by a strange 
oversight, both Stuartia and Butca after the famous 
Earl of Bute ; but the former being long ago settled by 
Linnaeus, the latter, since given by Kcenig, is totally 
inadmissible on any pretence whatever, and the genus 
which bears it must have a new appellation. In like 
manner my own Humea, Exot. Bot. t. 1, has been call- 
ed in France Calomeria after the present Emperor, by 
the help of a pun, though there has long been another 
genus Bonapartea, which last can possibly be admitted 
only in honour of the Empress, and not of her consort, 
who has no botanical pretensions. Our own beloved 


sovereign could derive no glory from the Georgia* of 
Ehrhart ; but the Strelitzia of Aiton stands on the sure 
basis of botanical knowledge and zeal, to which I can 
bear ample and very disinterested testimony. 

Linnaeus, in his entertaining book Critica Botanica, 
p. 79, has in several instances drawn a fanciful analogy 
between botanists and their appropriate plants, thus — 

Bauhinia, after the two distinguished brothers John 
and Caspar Bauhin, has a twolobed or twin leaf. 

Scheuchzeria, a grassy alpine plant, commemorates 
the two Scheuchzers, one of whom excelled in the 
knowledge of alpine productions, the other in that of 

Dorstenia, with its obsolete flowers devoid of all beau- 
ty, alludes to the antiquated and uncouth book of Dors- 

Hernandia, an American plant, the most beautiful of 
all trees in its foliage, but furnished with trifling blos- 
soms, bears the name of a botanist highly favoured by 
fortune, and allowed an ample salary for the purpose of 
investigating the natural history of the Western world, 
but whose labours have not answered the expense. Qn 
the contrary 

Magnolia with its noble leaves and flowers, and 
Dillenia with its beautiful blossoms and fruit, serve 
to immortalize two of the most meritorious among bot- 

Linnaa, " a depressed, abject, Lapland plant, long 
overlooked, flowering at an early age, was named by 
Gronovius after its prototype Linnaeus." 

* Tctrap.hU of Hedwig and Engl, Bot. t. 1020, 


In pursuance of the same idea Dicksonia, a beautiful 
and curious fern, is well devoted to our great cryptoga- 
mist ; Knappia, a small and singular grass, to an author 
celebrated for his minute and curious drawings of that 
tribe ; Sprengelia, to one distinguished for illustrating 
the impregnation of plants, which the remarkable form 
and union of its anthers serve to indicate ; while Smithia 
sensitiva, named by Mr. Dryander* in the Hortus Kew- 
ensis of our mutual friend Aiton, could at that time be 
merited only by an original treatise on the Irritability of 
Phintsf, to which the specific name happily alludes. 

The generic name being fixed, the specific one is next 
to be considered. With respect to this, Rivinus has 
the merit of originality, having been the first to contrive 
naming each plant in two words. But his names were 
meant for specific definitions, for which they are totally 
inadequate. Linnaeus, in constructing his more accu- 
rate and full specific characters, intended the latter 
should serve as names, and therefore called them nomina 
specified. When he, most fortunately for the science 
and for the popularity of his whole System of Nature, 
invented the present simple specific names, he called 
them nomina trivialia, trivial, or for common use ; but 
that term is now superfluous. 

Specific names should be formed on similar princi- 
ples to the generic ones ; but some exceptions are al- 
lowed, not only without inconvenience, but with great 
advantage. Such as express the essential specific char- 
acter are unexceptionable, as Banksia serraia > integrijb 

* Salisb.Hort. 342. t Phil. Tram, for 1788 


lia, dentata, &c. ; but perhaps those which express 
something equally certain, but not comprehended in 
that character, are still more useful, as conveying addi- 
tional information, like Ixora alba and coccinea, Scle- 
ranthus annnus and perennis, Aletris fragrans,Saxifraga 
eernua, &c. ; for which reason it is often useful that 
vernacular names should not be mere translations of the 
Latin ones. Comparative appellations are very good, ns 
Banksia ericifolia, Andromeda salicifolia* , Saxifraga 
bryoides, Milium cimieinum, Elymus Hystrix, Pedicula- 
ris Sceptrum.{ 1 17) Names which express the local situa- 
tions of different species are excellent,such as Melampyrum 

* Some botanists write ericx/olia, salicis/oHa, linguaformis, &c.» 
instead of following the analogy of the Latin in forming adjectives 
with an z, as fialmifer from fialma^ <e ; baccifer, from bacca, <e ,- 
barbiger, from barba y & ; Sec. 

(117) [Comparative appellations are useful, provided they do 
not protract the name to an inconvenient length, which is too 
apt to be the case. Linnaeus himself occasionally transgresses 
his own rules, and some of his specific names are among the 
most formidable of the Sesquifiedalia verba. Such are Arethusa 
ephioglossoidesy Afiocynum androscemifolium, &c. The genus 
Jiufiatorium, which is itself none of the shortest, has for its spe- 
cies a Coronofiifolium, Hyssofiifolium, Ceanothifolium, and several 
others of the kind. Names of this sort give a repulsive aspect 
to the science, and increase its difficulties, since, at the present 
day, many persons who possess a gi'eat taste for the study, are t r - 
tally unacquainted with the languages. To those who are con- 
versant in Latin and Greek, it is true, the etymology affords a 
very great aid to the recollection ; but it often happens that the 
standard of comparison is imperfectly known to us, so that the 
name gives no more idea of the species, than a much shorter, or 
less significant one might do. American plants are often com- 


arveiise, pratensc, nemorosum and sylvaticum^ Carex 
arenaria, vliginosa and syhatica, as well as aquatica-, 
maritima, rupestris, alpina, nivalis, used for many 
plants. But names derived from particular countries 
or districts are liable to much exception, few plants 
being sufficiently local to justify their use. Thus 
Ligustieum cornubiense is found, not only in Cornwall, 
but in Portugal, Italy, and Greece ; Schwenkia ameri- 
cana grows in Guinea as well as in South America. 
Such therefore, though suffered to remain on the author- 
ity of Linnaeus, will seldom or never be imitated by any 
judicious writer, unless Trollius europcens and asiaticus 
may justify our naming the third species of that genus» 
lately brought from America, americanas. (118) The use of 

pared to European ones, not only genera, but species ; which to 
us are far from being the most familiar objects, and by no means 
" dextra manu notiora." It is of no use to us to have a Carex 
vulpinoidea, if we have no vulpina, or a Viburnum Lantanoidesy 
while we have no Lantana. Comparisons were formerly built 
one upon another, so as to become exceedingly uncouth and un- 
satisfactory. Thus from Alsine were formed Alsinastrum, Alsin- 
astroides, and Alsinastriformis. The Aira Mgilopsoides of Wal- 
ter may be rendered, something, 'which resembles something, which 
resembles a goat. Carex vulpinoidea is an equally distant rela- 
tion of a fox.] 

(118) [Names derived from the native countries of plants arc 
frequent, particularly those furnished by places foreign to Europe, 
which have been formerly visited by botanists from that continent. 
Among the most common are Jafionica, Sibirica, Zeylanica, Sec. 
A great portion of North American plants bear the names Vir- 
ginica and Canadensis. Some names of this kind are far from being 
the most short or harmonious. Thus we have Astranthus Co- 
chine hinensis, Limonia Madagaacaricnsis, Lilium Kamscatcenge, 


a plant is often commodiously expressed in its specific 
name, as Brassica oleracea, Papaver somniferum, Ino- 
carpus edulis ; so is likewise its time of flowering, as 
Primula veris, Leucojum vernum, astivum and autumna- 
le, and Helleborus hy emails. 

When a plant has been erroneously made into a new 
genus, the name so applied to it may be retained for a 
specific appellation, as Lathnea Phelypaa and Bartsia 
Gymnandra ; which may also be practised when a plant 
has been celebrated, either in botanical, medical, or any 
other history, by a particular name, as Origanum Dic- 

and Rosa Cherokeensis. If names of this sort have any advan- 
tage, it is in preserving the history of a species by designating 
its original habitat or place of growth. Thus Erigeron Cana- 
dense has overrun the continent of Europe, and the Peach Tree, 
dnujgdalus Persica is cultivated in most parts of the world. The 
supposed origin of both these, being preserved in their specific 
meaning, will never be subject to mistake. Where we have ev- 
idence that a plant or tree inhabited a country at a very remote 
period, its local name becomes additionally interesting. Thus 
the Citron or Lemon Tree, Citrus Medica, according to the 
Greek botanical writers, is a native of Medea ; and from that 
country it was brought into Italy after the time of Pliny. It is 
the tree intended by Virgil in the lines 

" Medea fcrt tristes succos tardumque saporem 
Felicis mali," &c. 

The Weeping Willow, appears from the manuscripts of 
P. Collinson, Esq. was first introduced into England from the 
banks of the Euphrates, some time before the year i 748. The 
elegant name Salix Babylonica instantly recals to the mind one of 
the most beautiful and pathetic pieces of ancient poetry ; " By 
the rivers of Babylon we sat down, yea we wept," &c] 


tamnus, Artemisia Dracunculus, Laurus Cinnamomum, 
Selinum Carvifolia, Carica Papaya. (119) In either case 
the specific name stands as a substantive, retaining its own 
gender and termination, and must begin with a capital 
letter ; which last circumstance should be observed if a 
species be called after any botanist who has more par- 
ticularly illustrated it, as Cortusa Matthioli, and C. 
Gmelini, Duranta Plumierii, and Mutisii. The latter 
genus suggests an improvement in such kind of names. 
The genitive case is rightly used for 7 the person who 
founded the genus, D. Plumerii ; D. Mutisiana might 
serve to commemorate the finder of a species, while D. 
Ellisia implies the plant which bears it to have been 
once called Ellisia. 

There is another sort of specific names in the geni- 
itive case, which are to me absolutely intolerable, though 
contrived by Linnasus in his latter days. These are of 
a comparative kind, as Lobelia Columnea, meaning Co- 
lumned for mis. We may allow a few such, already es- 
tablished, to remain, but no judicious author will imitate 

Botanists occasionally adapt a specific name to some 
historical fact belonging to the plant or to the person 
whose name it bears, as Linruza borealis from the grtat 
botanist of the north ; Murrcea exotica after one of his 
favourite pupils, a foreigner ; Browallia demisa and ela- 
ta, from a botanist of humble origin and character, who 

(119) [The factitious word Theobroma, food for the gods ; ap- 
plied to the Cocoa or Chocolate Tree, is much better merited, 
than the classical Ambrosia, which belongs to a common weed.J 


afterwards became a lofty bishop, and in whose work 
upon water I find the following quotation from Seneca 
in the hand-writing of Linnasus : " Many might attain 
wisdom, if they did not suppose they had already reach- 
ed it." In like manner Buffonia tenuifolia is well known 
to be a satire on the slender botanical pretensions of tho 
great French zoologist, as the Hillia parasitica of Jac- 
quin, though perhaps not meant, is an equally just one 
upon our pompous Sir John Hill. I mean not to approve 
of such satires. They stain the purity of our lovely 
science. If a botanist does not deserve commemora- 
tion, let him sink peaceably into oblivion. It savours of 
malignity to make his crown a crown of thorns, and if 
the application be unjust, it is truly diabolical. 

Before I conclude the subject of nomenclature, I beg 
leave to offer a few reflections on changes of established 
names. It is generally agreed among mankind that 
names of countries, places, or things, sanctioned by gen- 
eral use, should be sacred ; and the study of natural his- 
tory is, from the multitude of objects with which it is 
conversant, necessarily so encumbered with names, that 
students require every possible assistance to facilitate the 
attainment of those names, and have a just right to com- 
plain of every needless impediment. The grateful Hol- 
landers named the island of Mauritius after the hero 
who had established their liberty and prosperity ; and it 
ill became the French, at that period dead to such feel- 
ings, to change it, when in their power, to Isle de 
France, by which we have in some late botanical works 

the barbarous Latin of Instda FrancU. Nor is it allow* 


able to alter such names, even for the better. Americo 
Vespucci had no very great pretensions to give his own 
name to a quarter of the world, yet it is scarcely probable 
that Columbia will supersede America. In our science 
the names established throughout the works of Linnaeus 
are become current coin, nor can they be altered without 
great inconvenience. Perhaps, if he had foreseen the 
future authority and popularity of his writings, he might 
himself have improved upon many which he adopted out 
of deference to his predecessors, and it is in some cases 
to be regretted that he has not sufficiently done so. In 
like manner, the few great leaders in natural knowledge 
must and will be allowed to ward off and to correct, from 
time to time, all that may deform or enfeeble the prevail- 
ing system. They must choose between names nearly 
of the same date, and even between good and bad ones 
of any date. A botanist, who, by the strength of his 
own superior knowledge and authority, reforms and elu- 
cidates a whole tribe of plants hitherto in confusion, as a 
Hedwig in Mosses, or Acharius in Lichens, ought to 
be unshackled in every point in which he can be of ser- 
vice. His wisdom will be evinced by extreme caution 
and reserve in using his liberty with respect to new 
names, but more especially new terms ; and, after all, 
he will be amenable to the general tribunal of botanists, 
and the judgment of those who come after him. Few 
indeed are illustrious enough to claim such privileges as 
these. Those who alter names, often for the worse, ac- 
cording to arbitrary rules of their own, or in order to 
aim at consequence which they cannot otherwise attain, 
are best treated with silent neglect. The system should 


not be encumbered with such names, even as syno- 

When, however, solid discoveries and improvements 
are made in the science ; when species or genera have 
been confounded by Linnaeus himself, and new ones 
require to be separated from them, the latter must neces- 
sarily receive appropriate appellations ; as also when a 
totally wrong and absurd name has by mistake been 
given, as Begonia capensis ; in such cases names must 
give place to things, and alterations proceeding from 
such causes must be submitted to. Thus I believe Mr. 
Salisbury's Castalia is well separated from Nymphaa. 
See Annals of Botany, v. 2. 71. 

A great and just complaint has arisen in my time 
among the cultivators of botany, who found the names 
of many garden plants, with which they had long been 
conversant, altered for others without any apparent 
cause, and in many instances for the worse ; as Aristolo- 
chia macrophylla, an excellent and expressive name, for 
a very unappropriate. one, A. Sipho. For this I am 
obliged to censure my much regretted and very intelli- 
gent friend L'Heritier. When he came to England to 
reap the rich harvest of our undescribed plants, he paid 
no respect to the generic or specific names by which Dr. 
Solander or others had called them, because those names 
were not printed ; but he indulged himself, and perhaps 
thought he confirmed his own importance, by contriv- 
ing new ones ; a factitious mode of gaining celebrity, to 
which his talents ought to have been infinitely superior. 
Nor would it have been easy to say how far this incon- 
venient plan of innovation might have extended, had 


not the Hortus Kewensis come forth to secure our re- 
maining property. 

I have only to add a few words respecting a kind of 
generic names that has of late become more common 
than Linnaeus probably would have approved, though 
he has once or twice allowed it ; I allude to those com- 
pounded either of two established names, or of one com- 
bined with any other word. Of the former number is 
Calamagrostis, formed of Calamus and Agrostis, two 
Linnaean names ; and this is no where sanctioned by 
any good authority. Happily the genus to which it has 
negligently been applied is an Arundo. Of the latter 
sort is Cissampelos, formed of Cissus, another established 
genus, and Ampelos, a Vine ; the latter not among Lin- 
naean names : also Elceagnus, constructed of two old 
Greek names, neither of which is now in botanical use 
by itself. These are both expressly allowed by Lin- 
naeus, nor indeed can there be any objection to the latter. 
Cissampelos may certainly justify Hyoscyamus, composed 
of Cyamus and a word denoting swine ; if not, this would 
prove an objection to the reestablishment of Cyamus> 
much more to the purpose than any that has been ad- 
vanced ; for Hyoscyamus having been so long and uni- 
versally used in systematic botany, could scarcely give 
place, even to its venerable prototype. On the same 
ground only can several new generic names used in the 
fern tribe, be admitted. These are formed out of Pte- 
risj the established generic appellation of a common 
Brake, with some other Greek word prefixed ; as Angi- 
opteris, a Brake with a capsule, Tmesipteris, a cloven 
Brake, and Cxnopteris a new Brake. Whatever may 


become of the former two, I must always protest against 
the last, given by the celebrated Bergius to the Darea of 
Jussieu; on account of its unexampled impropriety. As 
well might any new genus, resembling a Rose, be called 
Novarosa ; for though the Greek language may assist 
us with regard to sound, it can never make amends for a 
radical deficiency of sense. 

[ 302 J 



The Linnaean System is, as I have already observed, 
professedly artificial. Its sole aim is to help any one to 
learn the name and history of an unknown plant in the 
most easy and certain manner, by first determining its 
Class and Order in this system ; after which its Genus 
is to be made out by comparing the parts of fructifica- 
tion with all the generic characters of that Order ; and 
finally its Species, by examining all the Specific defini- 
tions of the Genus. We thus ascertain the generic and 
specific name of our plant in Linnaeus, and under those 
we find an enumeration more or less ample, of its Syno- 
nyms, or the different appellations it has received from 
other writers, with a reference to figures in various 
books ; and as Linnaeus always cites Bauhin's Pinax, 
which is the common botanical catalogue, or index to all 
previous works, we thus gain a clue to every thing re- 
corded concerning our plant. Of all this mass of infor- 
mation and entertainment we shall find nothing more 
concise, luminous, or engaging, either with respect to 
the distinctions, uses, or history of plants, than what is 
diffused through the various publications of Linnaeus 
himself ; and the same may, with at least equal truth, 
be said of those of his works which illustrate the Animal 
kingdom. His magic pen turns the wilds of Lapland 
into fairy land. He has all the animals of Sweden as 
much at his call, as our first parent while the terrestrial 


paradise was yet in primeval tranquillity. No writer 
whatever has rendered the natural productions of the 
happiest and most luxuriant climates of the globe half so 
interesting or instructive as Linnaeus has made those of 
his own northern country. 

The Classes of the Linnsean System are 24, and 
their distinctions are founded on the number, situation, 
or proportion of the Stamens. The Orders are founded 
either on the number of the Pistils, or on some circum- 
stance equally easy, which we shall in due time explain. 

The first eleven Classes are characterized solely by 
the number of the Stamens, and distinguished by names, 
of Greek derivation, expressive of these distinctions. 

1. Monandria. Stamen 1. 
A small Class. 

2. Diandria. Stamens 2. 

3. Triandria 3. 

4. Tetrandria 4. 

5. Pentandria 5. 

A numerous Class. 

6. Hexandria 6. 

7. Heptandria 7. 

A very small class. 

8. octandria 8. 

9. Enneandria 9. 

A small Class. 

10. Decandria 10. 

11. DODECANDRIA 12 tO 19. 

12. Icosandria 20 or more Stamens, in- 
serted into the Calyx. Here we first find the situation 


of the Stamens taken into consideration. They grow 
out of the sides of the Calyx, often from a sort of 
ring, as in the Strawberry. This is truly a natural 
Class, as are several of the following ones ; so that 
in these instances the Linnsean method of arrange 
ment performs more than it promises. The character 
of this Class is the more important, as such a mode of 
insertion indicates the pulpy fruits which accompany 
it to be infalliby wholesome, and this holds good, not 
only when the stamens are numerous, but in all other 
cases. Thus Hibes y the Currant and Goosberry ge- 
nus, whose 5 stamens grow out of the calyx, stand in 
the fifth class, a wholesome fruit, among many poison- 
ous berries. No traveller in the most unknown 
wilderness need scruple to eat any fruit whose stamens 
are thus situated ; while on the other hand he will do 
well to be cautious of feeding on any other parts of 
the plant. 

13. Polyandria. Stamens numerons, commonly 
more so than in the last Class, and inserted into the 
Receptacle, or base of the flower, as in the Poppy, 
Anemone, &c. The plants of this fine and nume- 
rous Class are very distinct in nature, as well as char- 
acter, from those of the Icosandria. 

14. Didynamia. Stamens 2 long and 2 short. Here 
proportion comes to our assistance. This is a natural 
Class, and contains most of the labiate, ringent or 
personate flowers as the Dead-nettle, Snap- dragon , 
Fox-glove, &c. 


15. Tetradynamia. Stamens 4 long and 2 short 
A very natural Class, comprehending all the Cruciform 
flowers, as the Wall-flower, Stock, Radish, Mustard, 
&c. Cleome only does not properly belong to the 

16. Monadelphia. Stamens united by their fila* 
ments, more or less extensively, into one tube, as the 
Mallow tribe, in which such union is very remarkable, 
and the Geranium family, in which it is less evident- 

17. Diadelphia. Stamens united into 2 parcels, 
both sometimes cohering together at the base. This 
Class consists of Papilinaceous flowers, and is there- 
fore natural, except that some such genera having 
distinct Stamens are excluded, and referred to the 
tenth Class, in consideration of their number solely ; 
as some ringent flowers with only 2 Stamens are 
necessarily placed, not in the 14th Class, but the 2d. 

18. Polyadelphia. Stamens united into more than 
2 parcels, as in St. John's- wort. A small Class, in 
some points related to Icosandria. 

19. Syngenesia. Stamens united by their Anthers 
into a tube, rarely by their Filaments also ; and the 
flowers are Compound. A very natural and extremely 
numerous Class. Examples of it are the Dandelion, 
Daisy, Sunflower, &c. 

20. Gynandria. Stamens united with, or growing 

out of the Pistil ; either proceeding from the Germen, 


as in Aristolochia, Engl. Bot. t. 398, or from the Style, 
as in the Orchis family. The Passion-flower is 
wrongly put by Linnaeus and others into this Class, 
as its stamens merely grow out of an elongated re- 
ceptacle or column supporting the Germen. 

21. Monoecia. Stamens and Pistils in separate flow- 
ers, but both growing on the same plant, or, as the 
name expresses, dwelling in one house, as the Oak, 
Hazle, and Fir. 

22. Dioecia. Stamens and Pistils not only in separate 
flowers, but those flowers situated on two separate 
plants, as in the Willow, Hop, Yew, &c. 

These two last Classes are natural when the barren 
flowers have, besides the difference in their essential 
organs, a different structure from the fertile ones in 
other respects ; but not so when they have the same 
structure, because then both organs are liable to meet 
in the same flower. In some plants, as Rhodiola, 
Erw'l. Bot. t. 508, each flower has always the rudi- 
meats of the other organ, though generally inefficient. 

23. Polygamia. Stamens and Pistils separate in some 
flowers, united in others, either on the same plant, or 
on two or three different ones. 

This Class is natural only when the several flowers 
have a different structure, as those of Jtriplex ; but 
in this genus the Pistil of the united flower scarcely 
produces seed. If, with Linnaeus, we admit into 
Polygamia every plant on which some separated bar- 


ren or fertile flowers may be found among the united 
ones, while all agree in general structure, the Class 
will be overwhelmed, especially with Indian trees. I 
have therefore proposed that regard should be had to 
their general structure, which removes all such incon- 
venience, and renders the Class much more natural, 

24. Cryptogamia. Stamens and Pistils either not 
well ascertained, or not to be numbered with any 
certainty, insomuch that the plants cannot be referred 
to any of the foregoing classes. Of this Ferns, Lich- 
ens, Sea- weeds and Mushrooms are examples. 

Appendix. PAL1VL/E, Palm-trees, a magnificent 
tribe of plants, chiefly tropical, whose flowers were 
too little known when Linnaeus wrote, to serve the 
purpose of classification ; but they are daily clearing 
up, and the Palms are found generally to belong to 
the Classes Monoecia, Dioecia, or Hexandr'ia. 

The Orders of the Linnsean System are, in the first 
13 Classes, founded on the number of the Styles, or on 
that of the Stigmas when the Styles are wanting, which 
occurs in Viburnum. Such Orders are accordingly 

Monogynia. Style, or sessile Stigma, 1. 

Digynia. Styles, or sessile Stigmas, 2. 

Trig yn i a 3. 

Tetragynia 4. 

Pentagynia 5. 


Hexagynia. Styles, or sessile Stigmas, 6, 

of very rare occurrence. 

Heptagynia 7 , 

still more unusual. 


scarcely occurs at all. 
Enneagynia. Styles, or sessile S<igmas, 9, 

of which there is hardly an instance. 

Decagynia 10. 

Dodecagynia about 12. 

Polygynia many. 

The 2 Orders of the 14th Class, Didynamia, both 
natural, are characterized by the fruit, as follows : 

1. Gymnospermia. Seeds naked, almost universally, 4. 

2. Angiospermia. Seeds in a capsule, numerous. 

The 2 Orders of the 15th Class, Tetradynamia, both 
very natural, are distinguished by the form of the fruit, 
thus : 

1. Siliculosa. Fruit a Silicula, Pouch, or roundish 

2. Siliqjjosa. Fruit a S,liqua, or long Pod. 

The orders of the 16th, 17th and 18th Classes, Mona- 
delphia, Diadelphia and Polyade/phia, are founded on the 
number of the Stamens, that is, on the characters of the 
first 13 Classes. 

The Orders of the great natural 19th Class, Syngen* 
esia, are marked by the united or separated, barren, fer- 
tile, or abortive, nature of the florets. 


1. Polygamia jEqjjalis. Florets all perfect or uni- 
ted, that is, each furnished with perfect Stamens, a 
Pistil, and one Seed. 

2. Polygamia superflpa. Florets of the disk with 
Stamens and Pistil ; those of the radius with Pistil 
only, but each, of both kinds, forming perfect Seed. 

3. Polygamia prustranea. Florets of the disk as 
in the last ; those of the radius with merely an abor- 
tive Pistil, or with not even the rudiments of any. 
This is a bad Order, for reasons hereafter to be ex- 

4. Polygamia necessaria. Florets of the disk 
with Stamens only, those of the radius with Pistils 

5. Polygamia segregata. Several flowers, either 
simple or compound, but with united anthers, and 
with a proper calyx, included in one common calyx. 

Linnaeus has a 6th Order in this Class, named Mo- 
nogamia, consisting of simple flowers with united an- 
thers ; but this I have presumed to disuse, because the 
union of the anthers is not constant throughout the spe- 
cies of each genus referred to it, witness Lobelia and 
Viola, while on the contrary several detached species in 
other Classes have united anthers, as in Gentiana, Engl. 
Bot. t. 20. These reasons, which show the connection 
of the anthers of a simple flower to be neither important 
in nature, nor constant as an artificial character, are con- 
firmed by the plants of this whole Linnaean Order being 
natural allies of others in the 5th Class, and totally dis- 


cordant, in every point, from the compound syrigene- 
sious flowers. 

The Orders of the 20th, 21st and 22d Classes are 
distinguished by the characters of some of the Classes 
themselves which precede them, that is, almost entirely 
by the number of their Stamens ; for the union of the 
anthers in some of them is, for the reasons just given, of 
no moment. 

The Orders of the 23d Class, Polygamic are, accord- 
ing to the beautiful uniformity of plan which runs 
through this ingenious system, distinguished upon the 
principles of the Classes immediately preceding. 

1. Monoecia has flowers with Stamens and Pistils on 
the same plant with others that have only Pistils, or 
only Stamens ; or perhaps all these three kinds of 
blossoms occur ; but whatever the different kinds 
may be, they are confined to one plant. 

2. Dioecia has the two or three kinds of flowers on 
two separate plants. 

3. Trioecia has them on three separate plants, of 
which the Fig is the only real example, and in that 
the structure of the flowers is alike in all. 

The Orders of the 24th Class, Cryptogatma, are pro- 
fessedly natural. They are 4 in Linnaeus, but we now 
reckon 5. 

1. Filices. Ferns, whose fauctification is obscure, 
and grows either on the back, summit, or near the 
base of the leaf, thence denominated a frond. See p. 


2. Muse i. Mosses, which have real separate leaves, 
and often a stem ; a hood-like corolla, or calyptra, 
bearing the style, and concealing the capsule, which 
at length rises on a stalk with the calyptra, and opens 
by a lid. 

3. Hepatic^. Liverworts, whose herb is a frond, 
being leaf and stem united, and whose capsules do not 
open with a lid. Linnaeus comprehends this Order 
under the following. 

4. Alg^e. Flags, whose herb is likewise a frond, and 
whose seeds are imbedded, either in its very sub- 
stance, or in the disk of some appropriate receptacle. 

5. Fungi. Mushrooms, destitute of herbage, bearing 
their fructification in a fleshy substance. 

Such are the principles of the Linnaean Classes and 
Orders, which have the advantage of all other systems in 
facility, if not conformity to the arrangement of nature ; 
the latter merit they do not claim. They are happily 
founded on two organs, not only essential to a plant, but 
both necessarily present at the same time ; for though 
the Orders of the 14th and 15th Classes are distinguish- 
ed by the fruit, they can be clearly ascertained even in 
the earliest state of the germen.* 

* An instance apparently to the contrary occurs in the history 
of my Hastingia coccinea, Exot. Bot. t. 80, a plant most evident- 
ly, both by character and natural affinity, belonging to the Didy- 
namia Gymnosfiermia, but as I could no where find it described 
in that Order, I concluded it to be unpublished ; and was not a 
little surprised to be told some time afterwards, that it was ex- 
tant in the works of my friends Retzius and Willdenow, undev 


Tournefort founded his Orders on the fruit ; and his 
countryman Andanson is charmed with the propriety of 
this measure, because the fruit comes after the flower, 
and thus precedence is given to the nobler part which 
distinguishes the primary divisions or Classes ! But 
happily the laws of a drawing-room do not extend to 
philosophy, and we are allowed to prefer parts which 
we arc sure to meet with at one and the same moment, 
without waiting a month or two, after we have made out 
the Class of a plant, before we can settle its Order. 

The Linnasan System, however, like all human inven- 
tions, has its imperfections and difficulties. If we meet 
in gardens with double or monstrous flowers, whose es- 
sential organs of fructification are deformed, multiplied, 
or changed to petals ; or if we find a solitary barren or 
fertile blossom only ; we must be at a loss, and in such 
cases could only guess at a new plant from its natural 
resemblance to some known one. But the principal 
imperfection of the System in question consists, not 
merely in what arises from variations in number or 
structure among the parts of a flower, against which no 
system could provide, but in the differences which some- 
times occur between the number of Stamens, Styles, 
&c, in different plants of the same natural genus. Thus, 
some species of Cerastium have only 4, others 5, Sta- 
mens, though the greater part have 10. Lychnis dioica 

Didynamia Angiosfiermia, by the name of Holmsfcioldia, after a 
meritorious botanist. This last name therefore, however unut- 
terable, must remain ; and I wish the Linnaean system, as well 
as myself, might be as free from blame in all other cases as in 


has the Stamens on one plant, the Pistils on another, 
though the rest of the genus has them united in the same 
flower ; and there are several similar instances ; for 
number in the parts of fructification is no more invaria- 
ble than other characters, and even more uncertain than 
such as are founded on insertion, or the connexion of 
one part with another. Against these inconveniences 
the author of this System has provided an all-sufficient 
remedy. At the head of every Class and Order, after 
the genera which properly belong to them, he enume- 
rates, in italics, all the anomalous species of genera sta- 
tioned in other places, that, by their own peculiar num- 
ber of Stamens or Styles, should belong to the Class or 
Order in question, but which are thus easily found with 
their brethren by means of the index. 

It is further to be observed that Linnaeus, ever aware 
of the importance of keeping the natural affinities of 
plants in view, has in each of his artificial Orders, and 
sections of those Orders, arranged the genera according 
to those affinities ; while at the head of each Class, in 
his Systema Vegetabilium> he places the same genera 
according to their technical characters ; thus combining, 
as far as art can keep pace with nature, the merits of a 
natural and an artificial system. His editors have sel- 
dom been aware of this ; and Murray especially, in his 
14th edition of the book just mentioned, has inserted 
new plants without any regard to this original plan of 
the work. 

From the foregoing remarks it is easy to comprehend 
what is the real and highly important use of the Genera 
Plantarum of Jussieu arranged in Natural Orders, the 


most learned botanical work that has appeared since the 
Speices Plantarum of Linnaeus, and the most useful to 
those who study the philosophy of botanical arrange- 
ment. The aim of this excellent author is to bring the 
genera of plants together as much as possible according 
to their natural affinities ; constructing his Classes and 
Orders rather from an enlarged and general view of those 
affinities, than from technical characters previously as- 
sumed for each Class or Order ; except great and pri- 
mary divisions, derived chiefly from the Cotyledons, 
the Petals, and the insertion of the Stamens. But his 
characters are so far from absolute, that at the end of 
almost every Order we find a number of genera merely 
related to it, and not properly belonging to it, and at the 
end of the system a very large assemblage of genera in- 
capable of being referred to any Order whatever. Nor 
could a learner possibly use this system as a dictionary, 
so as to find out any unknown plant. The characters 
of the Orders are necessarily, in proportion as those Or- 
ders are natural, so widely and loosely constructed, that 
a student has no where to fix ; and in proportion as they 
are here and there more defined, this, or any other sys- 
tem, becomes artificial, and liable to the more excep- 
tions. The way therefore to use this valuable work, so 
as to ascertain an unknown plant, is, after turning to the 
Order or Genus to which we conceive it most probably 
allied, to read and study the characters and observations 
there brought together, as well as all to which they may 
allude. We shall find we learn more from the doubts 
and queries of Jussieu than from the assertions of most 
other writers. We shall readily perceive whether our 


plant be known to him or not ; and if at the same time 
we refer it, by its artificial characters, to the Linnsean 
System, we can hardly fail to ascertain, even under the 
most difficult circumstances, whether it be described by 
either of these authors. A student may acquire a com- 
petent knowledge of natural orders, with very great 
pleasure to himself, by repeatedly turning over the work 
of Jussieu with any known plants in his hand, and con- 
templating their essential generic characters in the first 
place, and then what regards their habit and affinities ; 
proceeding afterwards to combine in his own mind their 
several points of agreement, till he is competent to form 
an idea of those assemblages which constitute natural 
Classes and Orders. This will gradually extend his 
ideas ; whereas a contrary mode would only contract 
them, and his Jussieu would prove merely an artificial 
guide, without the advantages of facility or perspicuity. 

[ 316 ] 



I proceed to a compendious view of the Linnaean 
Classes and Orders, which will serve to illustrate many 
things in the preceding pages. 

Class 1. Monandria. Stamen 1. 

This contains only two Orders. 

1. Monogyma. Style 1. Here we find the beautiful 
exotic natural order called Scitaminea, consisting of 
Cardamoms, Ginger, Turmerick, &c, hitherto a 
chaos, till Mr. Roscoe, in a paper printed in the 8th 
vol. of the Linntean Society" s Transactions, reduced 
them to very natural and distinct genera by the form 
of the filament. See Exot. Bot. t. 102, 103, 106 

Salicornia, Engl. Bot. £. 415 and 1691, and Hip- 
puris, t. 763, are British examples of Monandria Mo- 
nogynia. (120) 

Valeriana (Class 3) has some species with pne sta- 

2. Digynia. Styles 2. Contains Corispermum, Fl. Grac. 
t. 1, Blitum, Curt. Mag. t. 276, and a few plants be- 

(120) [Salicornia or Glasswort, and Callitric/ie, or Water Star 
Wort, are common American examples of the first class] 


Class 2. Diandria. Stamens 2. — Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. This, the most natural and numerous 
Order, comprehends the elegant and fragrant Jasmi- 
nes, the Jasmine, Lilac, Olive, &c. (121) — also Vero- 
nica. Engl. Bot. t. 2, 1027, 623, 783, &c— and a few- 
labiate flowers with naked seeds, as Salvia, Engl. Bot. 
t. 153, 154, Rosemary, &c, natural allies of the 14th 
class ; but having only two stamens, they are neces- 
sarily ranged here in the artificial system. ( 122) 

2. Digynia consists only of Anthoxanthum, a grass, 
Engl. Bot. t. 647, which for the reason just given is 
separated from its natural family in the third class. 

3. Trigynia — has only Piper, the Pepper, a large tropi- 
cal genus. 

Class 3. Triandria. Stamens 3. — Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. Valeriana, Engl. Bot. t. 698, 1591 and 
1371, is placed here because most of its species have 
three stamens. See Class 1, Here also we find the 
sword-leaved plants, (123) so amply illustrated in Cur- 

(121) [The Jasminece of Jussieu are trees or shrubs with 
generally opposite leaves and regular monopetalous corollas. 
They correspond nearly to the Linnaeun natural order Sefiiarite. 
The Privet Ligustrum, and Fringe Tree, Chionanthus ; are 
American examples.] 

(122) [Of Labiate flowers of the second class, we have Penny- 
Royal, Cunila ; Oswego tea, Monarda ; Water Horehound, Ly- 
co/ius, 8cc. They are closely allied to the first order of class 

(123) [The Ensatx constitute a very beautiful natural order, 
with sword shaped leaves and liliaceous flowers.} 


tis's Magazine, Iris, Gladiolus, Ixia, he, also Crocus, 
Engl. Bot. t. 343, 344, 491, and numerous grass-like 
plants, Schcemis, Cyperus, Scirpus, sec Fl. Grac. v. 1, 
and Engl. Bot. t, 950, 1309, 542, 873, &c. 

2. Digynia. This important Order consists of the true 
Grasses; see/;. 113. Their habit is more easily 
perceived than defined ; their value, as furnishing 
herbage for cattle, and grain for man, is sufficiently- 
obvious. No poisonous plant is found among them, 
except the Lolium temulentum, Engl. Bot. t. 1124, 
said to be intoxicating and pernicious in bread. 
Their genera are not easily defined. Linnaeus, Jus- 
sieu, and most botanists pay regard to the number of 
florets in each spikelet, but in Arundo this is of no 
moment. Magnificent and valuable works on this 
family have been published in Germany by the cele- 
brated Schreber and by Dr. Host. The Fl. Grxca 
also is rich in this department, to which the late Dr. 
Sibthorp paid great attention. Much is to be ex- 
pected from scientific agriculturists ; but Nature so 
absolutely, in general, accommodates each grass to its 
own soil, and station, that nothing is more difficult 
than to overcome their habits, insomuch that few 
grasses can be generally cultivated at pleasure. 

3. Trigynia is chiefly composed of little pink-like 
plants or Caryophyllece, as Holosteum, Engl. Bot. 

t. 27. 

Tillaa muscosa, t. 116, has the number proper to 
this order, but the rest of the genus bears every part 
of the fructification in fours. This in Linnasan Ian- 


guage is expressed by saying the flower of Tillaa is 
quadrifidus* , four cleft, and T. muscosa excludes or 
lavs aside, one fourth of the fructification. 

Class 4. Tetrandria. Stamens 4. — Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. A very numerous and various Order, 
of whichthe Protectees make a conspicuous part, con- 
sisting of Protect, Banksia, Lambertia, Embot/irium, 
&c. See Botany of New Holland, t. 7 — 10. Scabiosa, 
Engl. Bot. t. 659 ; (124) Plantago, t. 1558, 1559, 
remarkable for its capsula circumscissa, a membra- 
nous capsule, separating by a complete circular 
fissure into two parts, as in the next genus, Centun- 
culns, t. 531 ; Rubia, t. 851, and others of its natu- 
ral order, of whose stipulation we have spoken p. 178, 
are found here, (125) and the curious Epimedium, t. 

2. Digynia. Buffbnia, t. 1313. 

Cuscuta, placed here by Linnaeus, is best removed 
to the next class. (126) 

3. Tetragynia. Ilex, t. 496, a genus sometimes 
furnished with a few barren flowers, and therefore 

* See Linn. Sfi. PI. 186, and Curt. Lond.fasc. 6. t. 31. 

(124) [The Protex of Jussieu are splendid exotics. Many of 
the jiggregatx or Aggregate flowers belong to the fourth class. 
Cefihalanthus or Button bush is an American example. This 
however is included the Rubiacex.^ 

(125) [The Rubiacex of Jussieu including the Stellatx of Lin- 
naeus have a regular corolla, four or five parted, with the same 
number of stamens inserted in its tube. The fruit resembles 
two naked seeds, or is a single capsule or berry. Leaves com; 
monly opposite as in Houstonia, or whorled as in Galium.'] 

(126) [Cuscuta Americana, has always five stamens.! 


removed by Hudson to the 23d class, of which it 
only serves to show the disadvantage ; Potamogeton, 
t. 168, 376, and Ruppia, t. 136, are examples of this 
Order. They all have sessile stigmas. 

Class 5. Pentandria. Stamens 5. A very large 
class. —Orders 6. 

1. Monogynia. One of the largest and most important 
Orders of the whole system. The genera are enu- 
merated first artificially, according to the corolla being 
of one petal or more, or wanting ; inferior or superior ; 
with naked or covered seeds ; but stand in the system 
according to their affinities, and compose some 
natural orders, as Asperifolide, rough-leaved plants, 
which have a monopetalous inferior corolla, and four 
naked seeds, with always more or less of spinous 
bristles or callous asperities on their foliage ; see 
Borago,Engl. Bot. t. 36, Lycopsis,t. 938 and Echium, 
t. 181. Next comes that most elegant tribe of spring 
plants denominated Precice by Linnarus, Primula, t. 4 
— 6, Cy daman, t. 548, the charming alpine Aretia, 
and Androsace, Curt. Mag. t. 743. These are fol- 
lowed by another Linnaean order, nearly akin, called 
Rotaceae, from the wheel- shaped corolla, Hottonia, 
Engl. Bot. t. 364, Lysimachia, t. 761. — Convolvulus 
and Campanula, two large well-known genera, come 
afterwards ; then Lobelia, t. 140, Impatiens, t. 937, 
and Viola, t. 619, 620, brought hither from the abol- 
ished Linnaean order Syngenesia Monogamia. The 
Luridee follow, so called from their frequently dark, 
gloomy aspect, indicative of their narcotic and very 


dangerous qualities ; as Datura, t. 1288, Hyoscya* 
mus, t. 591, Atropa, t. 592, and Nicotiana, or Tobac- 
co. In a subsequent part we meet with the Vine, 
Currant, and Ivy, and the Order finishes with some 
of the natural family of Contorts, so called from their 
oblique or twisted corolla, and which are many of 
them very fine plants, as Vinca, t. 514, 917. They 
often abound with milky juice, generally highly acrid ; 
but Dr. Afzelius met with a shrub of this order at 
Sierra Leone, the milk of whose fruit was so sweet, as 
well as copious, as to be used instead of cream for tea. 
This is certainly what no one could have guesstd 
from analogy. Gardenia is erroneously reckoned a 
contort a by Linnaeus. 

2. Digynia begins with the remainder of the Contorts ; 
then follows some incomplete flowers, as Chenopo- 
dium, t. 1033, Beta, t. 285, and afterwards the fine 
alpine genus of Gentiana, t. 20, 493, 896, famous 
for its extreme bitterness and consequent stomachic 

The rest of the Order consists of the very natural 
Umbelliferous family, characterized by having five 
superior petals, and a pair of naked seeds, suspended 
vertically when ripe from the summit of a slender 
hair-like receptacle. Of the inflorescence of this 
tribe, and the difficulties attending their generic dis- 
tinctions, we have spoken p. 243. In Eryngium, t. 
718, and 57, the umbel is condensed into a capitulum, 
or conical scaly head, showing an approach towards 
the compound flowers, and accompanied, as Jussieu 



observes, by the habit of a Thistle. Lagoecia is 
justly referred to this natural order by the same 
writer, though it has only a solitary seed and style. 

The Umbelliferce are mostly herbaceous ; the qual- 
ities of such as grow on dry ground are aromatic, 
while the aquatic species are among the most deadly 
of poisons ; according to the remark of Linnaeus, 
who detected the cause of a dreadful disorder among 
horned cattle in Lapland, in their eating young leaves 
of Cicuta virosa, Engl. Bot. t. 479, under water. 

Botanists in general shrink from the study of the 
Umbellifertf, nor have these plants much beauty in 
the eyes of amateurs ; but they will repay the trouble 
of a careful observation. The late M. Cusson of 
Montpellier bestowed more pains upon them than 
any other botanist has ever done ; but the world has, 
as yet, been favoured with only a part of his remarks. 
His labours met with a most ungrateful check, in the 
unkindness, and still more mortifying stupidity, of his 
wife, who, on his absence from home, is recorded to 
have destroyed his whole herbarium, scraping off the 
dried specimens, for the sake of the paper on which 
they were pasted ! 
5. Trigynia is illustrated by the Elder, the Sumach, or 
Rhus, Viburnum, &c, (128) also Corrigiola, Engl. 

(127) [To this general rule there are exceptions. The pois- 
onous Hemlock, Conium maculatutn, grows in dry ground, while 
several species of dngelica,\vhich are aromatic and harmless,inhab- 
it watery places.] 

(128) [The Sumach, Rhus ; Elder, Sambucus, and many simi- 
lar shrubs with pithy stems and small flowers, constitute the Lin- 
nsean order Dumosce.^ 


Bot. t. 669, and Tamarix, t. 1318, of which last one 
species, germanica, has 10 stamens. 

4. Tetragynia has only JEvolvulus, nearly allied to Con- 
volvulus, and the elegant and curious Parnassia, t. 82. 

5. Pentagynia contains Statiee, t. 226, 102, and 328. 
a beautiful maritime genus, with a kind of everlasting 
calix. The Mora Grteca has many line species. 
Linum or Flax follows : also the curious exotic Aldro- 
vanda, Dicks. Dr. PL 30 ; Drosera, Engl. Bot. t. 867 
— 9 : the numerous succulent genus Crassula ; and 
the alpine Sibbaldia, t. 897, of the natural order pf 

6. Polygynia. 3fyosurus, t. 435, a remarkable instance 
of few stamens (though they often exceed five) to a 
multitude of pistils. 

Class 6. Hexandria. Stamens 6. Orders 6. 

1. Monogynia. This, as usual, is the most numerous. 
The Liliaceous family, with or without a spat/ia, (129) 
called by Linnaeus the nobles of the vegetable king- 
dom, constitute its most splendid ornament. The 
beautiful White Lily is commonly chosen by popular 
writers to exemplify the stamens and pistils. The less 
ostentatious genus of/z^cwsorRush, which soon follows 
is more nearly allied to the Lilies than a young bota- 
nist would suppose. Near it stand several genera 
which have little affinity to each other, and of these 
Capura is a mistake, having been made out of a 

(129) [Called by Linnseus Sfmlhacece and Coronarice, according 
as' the spathc is present or wanting.] 


specimen of Daphne indica, which chanced to have 
but six stamens. 

2. Digynia, has but few genera. The valuable Oryza, 
Rice, of which there now seems to be more than one 
species, is the most remarkable. It is a grass with 
six stamens. 

3. Trigynia. See Rumex, Engl. Bot. t. 1533, 127, &c> 
some species of which have separated flowers ; Tqfi- 
eldia, t. 536 ; and Colchicum, t. 133 and 1432. 

4. Tetragynia. Petiveria alliacea, a plant the number 
of whose stamens is not very constant, and whose 
specific name is supposed to allude, not only to its 
garlic scent, but also to the caustic humour of the bo- 
tanist whom it commemorates. 

5. Hexagynia. An order in Schreber and Willdenow, 
contains TVendlandia populifolia of the latter ; with 
Damasonium of the former, a genus consisting of the 
Linnzeun Stratiotes alismoides, Exot. Bot. t. 15. 

6. Polygynia. Alisma only — Engl. Bot. t. 837, 775, 

Class 7. Heptandria. Stamens 7. Orders 4. 

1. Monogynia. Trien talis, Engl. Bot. t. 15, a favour- 
ite plant of Linnasus ; and JEsculus, the Horse Ches- 
nut. Several genera are removed to this order by 
late writers. 

2. Digynia. Limeum, an African genus, only. 

3. Tetragynia. Saururus, a Virginian plant. Aponog- 
eton, placed here by Linn?eus, is now properly re- 


moved to Dodecandria. It is an East Indian and 
Cape aquatic genus, bearing above the water white 
fragrant flowers in a peculiar spike, which is either 
solitary or double. 
4. Heptagynia. Septas, a Cape plant, very nearly akin 
to Crassula, to which Thunberg refers it. If its char- 
acter in Linnaeus be constant with respect to number, 
it is very remarkable, having the calyx in 7 deep seg- 
ments, 7 petals, 7 germens, and consequently 7 cap- 

Class 8. Octandria. Stamens 8. Orders 4. 

1. Monogynia. A very various and rich order, consist- 
ing of the well-known Tropceolum or Nasturtium, 
whose original Latin name, given from the flavour of 
the plant, like Garden Cresses, is now become its 
English one in every body's mouth. The elegant 
and fanciful Linnsean appellation, equivalent to a tro- 
phy plant, alludes to its use for decorating bowers, 
and the resemblance of its peltate leaves to shields, as 
well as of its flowers to golden helmets, pierced 
through, and through, and stained with blood. See 
Linn. Hort. Cliff. 143. — Epilobium, Engl. Bot. t. 
838, 795, &c, with its allies, makes a beautiful part 
of this order ; (130) but above all are conspicuous the 
favourite Fuchsia, the chiefly American genus Vac- 

(130) [The natural order Caly cant hem <e includes many beautiful 
American plants of this class. Such are Efiilobium^ Gaura 
amothera, Rhexia, &c. These have their petals and stamens in- 
serted in the calyx, which commmonly stands upon the germ.] 


oimum, t. 456, 319, &c. ; the immense and most ele- 
gant genus, Erica, so abundant in southern Africa, 
but not known in America ; and the fragrant Daphne, 
t. 1381, of which last the Levant possesses many 
charming species. Acer, the Maple, is removed hith- 
er in Fl. Brit, from the 23d class. 

2. Digynia has a few plants, but little known ; among 
them are Galenia africana, and Moehringia mus- 

3. Trigynia. Polygonum, t. 436, 509, 941, is a genus 
whose species difFer in the number of their stamens 
and styles, and yet none can be more natural. Here 
therefore the Linnaean system claims our indulgence. 
Paullinia and Cardiospermum are more constant. 

4. Tetragynia. Here we find the curious Paris, t. 7, 
and Adoxa, t. 453. Of the former I have lately re- 
ceived a new species, gathered by my liberal friend 
Buchanan among the mountains of Nepal. 

Class 9. Enneandria. Stamens 9. Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia. Of this the precious genus Laurus, in- 
cluding the Cinnamon, Bay, Sassafras, Camphor, and 
many other noble plants, is an example. 

2. Trigynia has only Rheum, the Rhubarb, nearly re- 
lated to Rumex. 

3. Hexagynia. Butomus umbellatus, Engl. Bot. t. 
651, a great ornament to our rivers and pools. 


Class 10. Decandria. Stamens 10. Orders 5. 

1. Monogynia. A numerous and fine assemblage, be- 
ginning with a tribe of flowers more or less correctly 
papilionaceous and leguminous, which differ very 
materially from the rest of that natural order in having 
ten stout, firm, separate stamens. See Cassia, Curt. 
Mag. t. 107, 633, and Sophora, t. 167 ; also Exot. 
Bot. t. 25 — 27,and Annals of Botany, v. 1. 501. 

The Ruta, Rue, and its allies, now become very 
numerous, follow. See Tracts on Nat. Hist. 287. 
Dictamnus, vulgarly called Fraxinella, is one of them. 
Dioncca Muscipula, seep. 146, stands in this artificial 
order, as do the beautiful Kalmia, Rhododendron, An- 
dromeda, Arbutus and Pyrola, Engl. Bot. t. 213, &g. 

2. Digynia. Saxifraga, remarkable for having the 
german inferior, half inferior, and superior, in differ- 
ent species, a very rare example. See Engl. Bot. t. 
167, 440, 663, 1009, 500, 501. Dianthus, the Pink 
or Carnation tribe, and some of its very distinct nat- 
ural order, Caryophijllece, conclude the Decandria, 
Digynia. (132) 

3. Trigynia. The Caryophyllece are here continued, as 
Cucubalus, t. 1527, Sdene, t. 465, 1398, Arenaria, t. 
189, 512, very prolific and intricate genera intheLe- 

(131) [The last genera, with Erica and Vaccintum, from 
the 8th class, and some others, constitute the natural order Bi- 
cornes, so called, because their anthers are furnished with two 
long straight'points or horns.] 

(132) [The Car yofihy Ilex have five petals inserted with claws. 
Cucubalus, Arenaria, Stellaria, 8cc. are native genera of this order.] 


vant. Malpighia and Banisteria, beautiful plants oi 
the Maple family, which next occur, have no affinity 
to the foregoing. 

4. Pentagynia. Abounds in more Caryophyllea, as 
Lychnis, t. 573, and Cerastium. t. 789, 790. Coty- 
ledon, 325, Sedym, t. 1319,, and Oxalis, t. 762, are 
placed here. Some of the last genus have the fila- 
ments united at their base, and therefore should be- 
long to the 16th class, — another defect in the artificial 

5. Decagynia. Consists of only Neurada, with Phyto- 
lacca ; the latter an irregular genus as to stamens and 
styles, which therefore afford good marks to discrim- 
inate the species. 

Class 11. Dodecandria. Stamens 12 to 19. Orders 6 

1. Monogynla. A rather numerous and very various 
order, with scarcely any natural affinity between the 
genera. Some of them have twelve, others fifteen or 
more stamens, which should be mentioned in their 
characters. Asarum, Engl. Bot. t. 1083, and the 
handsome Ly thrum Salicaria, t. 1061, also the Amer- 
ican Snow-drop-tree, Halesia, not rare in our gardens, 
may serve as examples of this order. Sterculia is 
very properly removed hither from Gynandria by 
Schreber and Willdenow, as its stamens are not in- 
serted above the germen. 

2. Digynia consists of Heliocarpus, a very rare Ameri- 
can tree with a singularly fringed or radiated fruit ; 


and Agrimonia, Engl. Bot. t. 1335. The latter 
might as well have been placed in the next class, with 
which it agrees in natural order. 

3. Trigynia is chiefly occupied by Reseda, the Migno- 
nette, t. 320, 321, and Euphorbia, t. 256* 883, &c, 
one of the most well defined and natural genera, of 
which the Punicea, Ic. Pict. t. 3, is a splendid ex- 
otic species. 

4. Tetragynia, in Schreber and Willdenow, consists of 
Calligonum, a genus illustrated by L/Heritier in the 
Transactions of Linn. Society, V. 1 ; and Aponogeton, 
already mentioned/?. 324* 

5. Pentagynia has Giinus, an insignificant genus ; and 
Blackwellia, a doubtful one. 

6. Dodecagynia is exemplified in Sempervivum, the 
Houseleek, Engl. Bot. t. 1320, whose styles vary 
from 12 to 18 or 20. Sempervivum Sedifor?ne,Jacq, 
Hort. Find. t. 81, is a Sedum with a superabundance 
of parts in the fructification, Linnaeus confounded it 
with S. rupestre. 

Class 12. Icosandria. Stamens 20 or more, inserted 
into the Calyx. Orders 3. 

1. Monogynia consists of fine trees, bearing for the most 
part stone fruits, as the Peach, Plum, Cherry, &c., 
though the leaves and other parts are bitter, acrid, and, 
as we have already mentioned, sometimes very dan- 
gerous, owing to the peculiar essential oil, known by 


its bitter-almond flavour. See specimens of this fam- 
ily in Engl. Bot. t. 1383, 706, 841, 842. The Myr- 
tle tribe (133) is another natural order, comprehended 
chiefly under Icosandria Mo?iogynia> abounding in a 
fragrant and wholesome aromatic oil. These are plen- 
tiful in New Holland. See Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 3. 
255, also Exot. Bot. t. 43, 59, and 84. Caryophyllus 
aromaticus, the Clove, should on every account be 
removed hither. 

■2. Pentagynia. In this order it is most convenient to 
include such plants as have from two to five styles, 
and occasionally, from accidental luxuriance only, 
one or two more. An example of it is the very natu- 
ral family of the Po?nacea, as Pyrus, the Apple, Pear, 
Sec. Engl. Bot. t. 179, 350, 337 ; and Mespilus, t. 
1523, Exot. Bot. t. 18, 85. In this family some 
species of the same genus have five, others three, two, 
or only one style, and a corresponding number of 
seeds. Spiraea, nearly allied to it, stands here, most 
of its species having five styles, though some have a 
much greater number ; see Engl. Bot. t. 284,960. 
Mesembryanthemum, a vast and brilliant exotic genus, 
of a succulent habit, abounding in alkaline salt, and a 
few genera naturally allied to it, make up the rest of 
the order. 

3. Polygyria. An entirely natural order of genuine 
Rosaceous flowers, except possibly Calycanthus. 

(133) \_IIes/ieride<s.of Linnaeus. They have firm, evergreen 
■eaves, sweet scented flowers, and numerous stamens.] 


Here we find Rosa, Engl. Bot. t. 187, 990—2 ; Ru- 
bus, t. 826, 827, 716 ; Fragaria, t. 1524 ; Potentil- 
la, t. 88, 89, 862 ; Tormentilla, t. 863, 864 ; Geum, 
t. 106 ; Dryas, t. 451; and Comarum, t. 172 : all 
elegant plants, agreeing in the astringent qualities of 
their roots, bark and foliage, and in their generally 
eatable, always innocent, fruit. (134) The vegetable 
kingdom does not afford a more satisfactory example 
of a natural order, composed of natural genera, than 
this ; and Linnaeus has well illustrated it in the Flora 
Lapponica. His genus Tormentilla, differing from 
Potentilla in number of petals and segments of the 
calyx, though retained by Jussieu, may perhaps be 
scarcely distinct ; yet there is a difference in their 
habit, which has induced me to leave it for further 
consideration. Haller united them both with Fraga- 
ria and Comarum, which the character and habit of 
the latter totally forbid, and Gsertner has well sug- 
gested a mark from the smoothness of the seeds in 
Fragaria, (as well as Comarum,) to strengthen that of 
its pulpy receptacle. Whatever difficulties may at- 
tend these genera, how admirably does the fruit serve 
us in Rosa, Rubus, Dryas and Geum, to discriminate 
those whose leaves, flowers, and habit all stamp them 
as distinct ! A student cannot do better than to study 
this order and these genera, as an introduction to the 
knowledge of more obscure ones ; and the beautiful 
plants which compose it, mostly familiar to every 
body, are easily obtained. 

(134) [The Rose, Bramble, Strawberry, Cinquefoil, and the 
other plants mentioned above were called by Linnaeus Senticotce^ 


Class 13. Polyandria. Stamens numerous, inserted 
into the Receptacle. Orders 7. 

1. Monogynia. The genera of this order are artificially 
distributed according to the number of their petals^ 
but not so arranged in the body of the system. They 
form a numerous and various assemblage of handsome 
plants, but many are of a suspected quality. Among 
them are the Poppy, the Caper-shrub, the Sanguma- 
ria canadensis, Curt. Mag. i. 162, remarkable for its 
orange juice, like our Celandine, Engl. Bot. f. 158 1 ; 
(135) also the beautiful genus Cistus with its copious 
but short-lived flowers, some of which {Engl. Bot. t> 
1321) have irritable stamens ; the splendid aquatic 
tribe of Nymphtea, &c, t. 159, 160. But the pre- 
cious Nutmeg and the Tea are perhaps erroneously 
placed here by Linn as us, as well as the Clove ; while 
on the other hand Cleome more properly belongs to 
this part of the system than to the 15th Class. 

2. Digynia has principally the Paonia, t. 1513, variable 
in number of pistils, and Fothergilla alnifolia y an 
American shrub. 

3. Trigynia. Delphinium the Larkspur, and Aconitum 
the Monk's hood, two variable and uncertain genera 
as to number of pistils. 

(135) [The Poppy, Celandine, Blood Root, &c. which have a 
aapsule or silique, and a caducous calyx belong to the natural 
order Rhwadea. Some other genera chiefly of the order Polygy- 
nies,, which have many pods, or many naked seeds, to one flower, 
are placed in the natural order Multisiliquce. Such are Caltha<, 
Aquilegia, Anemone, Ranunculus, Sec] 


4. Tetragynia. Tetracera ought, by its name, to have 
constantly four pistils, but the rest of this order are 
very doubtful. Caryocar, whose large rugged woody 
nuts contain the most exquisite kernel ever brought to 
our tables, and which is the same plant with Gaert- 
ner's and Schreber's Rhizobolus, as the excellent 
Willdenow rightly judged, is not certain in number ; 
and still less the Cimicifuga ; whilst Wahlbomia is 
probably a Tetracera : see Willdenow. 

5. Pentagynia contains chiefly Aquilegia the Colum- 
bine, and Nigella — both strictly allied to genera in 
the third order. Reaumuria indeed is here well pla- 
ced. Some Nigella have ten styles. 

6. Hexagynia consists of Stratiotes^Engl Bot. t. 379; 
and Brasenia, a new genus of Schreber's with which 
I am not acquainted. (136) 

I would recommend an union of the last five orders, 
for the same reasons that influenced me in the preced- 
ing class. They now only serve to keep natural gen- 
era asunder, the species of which not only differ 
among themselves as to number of pistils, but each 
species is often variable besides. The genera are so 
few that no inconvenience could arise on that account. 
I conceive such reforms, founded in experience not 
in theory, serve to strengthen the system, by greatly 
facilitating its application to practice. 

(136) [I presume it is the Hydrofieltis of Michaux, the only 
species of which is a common North American aquatic; both 
from the similarity of their characters, and the application of the 
name In Dr. Muhlenburg's catalogue. Ed.~] 

334 D1DYNAM1A. 

7. Polygyria. An order for the most part natural, com- 
prehending some fine exotic trees, as Dillenia, Exot. 
Bot. t. 2, 3, 92 and 93 ; Liriodendron, the Tulip- 
tree ; the noble Magnolia, he. ; a tribe concerning 
whose genera our periodical writers are falling into 
great mistakes. To these succeed a family of plants, 
cither herbaceous or climbing, of great elegance, but 
of acrid and dangerous qualities, as Anemone, in a 
single state the most lovely, in a double one the most 
splendid, ornament of our parterres in the spring ; 
Atragena and Clematis, so graceful for bowers ; Tha- 
lictrum, Adonis, Ranunculus, Trollius, Helleborus and 
Caltha, all conspicuous in our gardens or meadows, 
which, with a few less familiar, close this class. 

Nothing can be more injudicious than uniting these 
two last classes, as some inexperienced authors have 
done. They are immutably distinct in nature and 
characters, whether we call the part which immedi- 
ately bears the stamens in the Icosandria a calyx, with 
most botanists, or a receptacle with Mr. Salisbury in 
the 8th vol. of the Linnasan Society's Transactions, 
where, among many things which I wish had been 
omitted, are some good remarks concerning the dis- 
tinction made between calyx and corolla. This the 
writer in question considers as decided in doubtful 
cases by the latter sometimes bearing the stamens, 
which the former, in his opinion, never really does. 

Class 14. Didynamia. Stamens 2 long and 2 short. 
Orders 2, each on the whole very natural. 

1. Gymnospermia. Seeds naked, in the bottom of the 
calyx, 4, except in Phryma, which has a solitary 


seed. — Corolla monopetalous and irregular, a little 
inflated at the base, and holding honey, without any 
particular nectary. Stamens in 2 pairs, incurved, 
with the style between them, so that the impregnation 
rarely fails.(137) The plants of this order are mostly 
aromatic, and none, I believe, poisonous. The calyx 
is either in 5 nearly equal segments, or 2 lipped. 
Most of the genera afford excellent essential charac- 
ters, taken frequently from the corolla, or from some 
other part. Thus, Peri/la has 2 styles, of which it 
is an unique example in this class. 

Mentha a corolla whose segments are nearly equal, 
and spreading stamens. Engl. Bot. t. 446 — 8. 

Lavandula the Lavender and Westringia, Tracts on 
Natural History, 277, t. 3, have a corolla resupinata, 
reversed or laid on its back. 

Teucrium a deeply divided upper lip, allowing the 
stamens and style to project between its lobes. Engl. 
Bot. t. 680. 

djuga scarcely any upper lip at all, t. 77 and 489. 

Lamium has the mouth toothed on each side, t. 

Prunella, t. 961, has forked filaments ; Oleoma 4 
stigmas ; Prasium a pulpy coat to its seeds. These 

( 1 37) [Plants of this order, besides their 4 unequal stamens, rin- 
gent corolla and naked seeds ; have their flowers commonly 
arranged in whorls, their stems square and their leaves opposite. 
Examples are common, as, the Mints, Germander, Balm, Catmint, 
Ground Ivy, &c. They form the natural order Verticiilatte of 
Linnaeus, and Labiata of Jussieu. Some of the genera however 
depart from the usual mode of inflorescence, as Trichostema and 


instances will suffice as clear examples of natural gen- 
era, distinguished by an essential technical character, 
in a most natural order. 
2. Angiospermia. Seeds in a capsule, and generally 
very numerous. (138) — The plants of this order have 
the greatest possible affinity with some families in 
Pentandria Monogynia. (139) Some species even 
vary from one class to the other, as Bignonia radicans t 
Curt. Mag. t. 485, and Antirrhinum Linaria, EngL 
Bot. t. 658, 260, in which the irregular corolla be- 
comes regular, and the 4 unequal stamens are chang- 
ed to 5 equal ones ; nor does this depend, as has 
been asserted, on the action of any extraneous pollen 
upon the stigmas of the parent plant, neither are the 
seeds always abortive. No method of arrangement, 
natural or artificial, could provide against such anom- 
alies as these, and therefore imperfections must be ex- 
pected in every system. 

Class 15. Tetradynamia. Stamens 4 long and 2 
short. Orders 2, perfectly natural. Flowers cruci- 

1. Siliculosa. Fruit a roundish pod, or pouch. In 
some genera it is entire, as Draba, Engl. Bot. t. 586, 
and the Honesty or Satin flower Lunaria : in others 

(138) [The Personate or masked flowers are chiefly found here, 
as Antirrhinum, Chelone, Mimulus, &c] 

(139) [Some genera of this order have the rudiment of a fifth 
stamen ; as Chelo?ie, Pentstemon, 8cc. while many plants of the 
fifth class have an irregular motiopetalous corolla, resembling: 
those of this order.] 


notched, as Thlaspi, t. 1659, and Iberis, t. 52 ; which 
last genus is unique in its natural order in having un- 
equal petals. Crambe, t. 924 ; Isatis. t. 97 ; and 
Bunias, t. 231 ; certainly belong to this Order, 
though placed by Linnaeus in the next. 

2. Siliquosa. Fruit a very long pod. Some genera 
have a calyx claitsus, its leaves slightly cohering by 
their sides, as Raphanus, t. 856 ; Cheiranthus, t. 462 ; 
Hesperis, t. 731 ; Brassica, t. 637, &c. Others have 
a spreading or gaping calyx, as Cardamine, t. 1000 ; 
Sisymbrium, t. 855 ; and especially Simpis, t. 969 
and t. 1677. 

Cleome is a very irregular genus, allied in habit, 
and even in the number of stamens of several species, 
to the Polyandria Monogynia. Its fruit, moreover, 
is a capsule of one cell, not the real two-celled pod of 
this Order. Most of its species are foetid and very 
poisonous, whereas scarcely any plants properly be- 
longing to this Class are remarkably noxious, for I 
have great doubts concerning the disease called Ra~ 
phania, attributed by Linnaeus to the seeds of Ra- 
phanus Raphanistrum. 

The Cruciform plants are vulgarly called antiscor- 
butic, and supposed to be of an alkalescent nature. 
Their essential oil, which is generally obtainable in 
very small qualities by distillation, smells like volatile 
alkali, and is of a very acrid quality. Hence the foetid 
scent of water in which cabbages, or other plants of 
this tribe, have been boiled. 



Class 16. Monadelphia. Stamens united by their 
filaments into one tube. Orders 8, distinguished by 
the number of their stamens. 

1. Triandria is exemplified by Sisyrinchium, Ic. Pict. t. 
9, and Ferraria, Curt. Mag. t. 144, 532, both erro- 
neously placed by Linnaeus in Gynandria. Also the 
singular Cape plant Aphyteia, consisting of a large 
flower and succulent fruit, springing immediately 
from the root, without stem or leaves. On this plant 
Linn ecus published a dissertation in 1775. Tama- 
rindus has lately been removed hither from the third 
Class, perhaps justly. 

2. Pentandria. Erodium, Engl. Pot. t. 902, separated, 
with great propriety, from Geranium by L'Heritier ; 
Hermannia, a pretty Cape genus, Curt. Mag. t. 307 ; 
and a few other plants, more or less akin to the Mal- 
low tribe, compose this Order ; to which also strictly 
belong some species of Linum, Geranium, he. Pas- 
siflora, removed from Gynandria, belongs most un- 
questionably to Pentandria Trigynia, and by no means 
to this Class. 

3. Heptandria consists only of Pelargonium of L'Heri- 
tier, an excellent genus, comprising most of the Cape 
Geraniums, and marked by its irregular flower, 7 
stamens, and tubular nectary. 

4. Octandria contains Aitonia, Curt. Mag. t. 173, nam- 
ed in honour of the excellent and universally respected 
author of the Hortus Kewensis. Pistia is, I believe 
justly, placed here by Schreber and Wijldenow. 


5. Decandria. Geranium, properly so called, Engl. 
Bot. t. 404, 405, 272, &c, is the principal genus 
here. The late Professor Cavanilles, however, in 
his Dissertationes Botanicce referred to this order a 
vast number of genera, never before suspected to be- 
long to it, as Bannisteria, Malpighia, Turr<ea y Melia, 
&c, on account of some fancied union of their fila- 
ments, perhaps through the medium of a tubular nec- 
tary ; which principle is absolutely inadmissible ; for 
we might just as well refer to Monadelphia every 
plant whose filaments are connected by insertion into 
a tubular corolla. Some species of Oxalis, see p. 
327, belong to this Order ; as do several papiliona- 
ceous genera, of which we shall speak under the next 
class. (140) 

6. Endecandria contains only the splendid South-Amer- 
ican genus Brownea, the number of whose stamens is 
different in different species. 

7. Dodecandria, Stamens mostly 15, is composed of 
some fine plants allied to the Mallows, as Pterosper- 
mum, t. 620, Pentapetes, 8cc. 

8. Polyandria, a very numerous and magnificent Order, 
comprises, among other things, the true Columnife r 
rae or Malvaceae, (141) as Ma/va, Engl. Bot. t. 671, 
754, Althcea, t. 147, Hibiscus, Spirit. Bot. t. 8, Gos- 

(140) [The Geraniums, Oxalis, and some others, which have 
a five petalled corolla, and their fruit surmounted with a beak, 
are called by Linnaeus Oruinales.~\ 

(141) [The Malvaceous plants were called by Linnaeus Colum- 
rdferce, on account cf the large tube of stamens, rising like a col- 
umn in the centre of the flower.] 


sypium, the cotton-tree, Alcea the Hollyhock, &c. 
Stately and beautiful plants of this Order, though not 
Malvaceae, are Carolinea, whose angular seeds are 
sold in our shops by the name of Brasil nuts ; Gusta- 
via, named after the late King of Sweden, a great pat- 
ron of botany and of Linn asus ; Camellia, Curt. Mag. 
t. 42, whose splendid varieties have of late become 
favourites with collectors ; Stuartia, Exot. Bot. t. 
110 ; and Barringtonia, the original Commersonia, 
Sonnerat Voy. a la Nouv. Guinee, t. 8, 9. 

Class 17. Diadelphia. Stamens united by their fila- 
ments into 2 parcels, both sometimes cohering at the 
base. Orders 4, distinguished by the number of 
their Stamens. — Flowers almost universally papiliona- 

1. Pcntandria. The only genus in this Order is Mon- 
nieria, Lamarck, t. 596, a rare little South American 
plant, whose natural order is uncertain. It has a rin- 
gent corolla, ternate leaves, a simple bristly pubes- 
cence, and is besprinkled with resinous dots. 

2. Hexandria. Saraca, in this Order, is as little 
known as the Monnieria, except that it undoubtedly 
belongs to the leguminous family. It seems most alli- 
ed to Brownea, Jonesia, Afzelia, &c. Fumaria, the 
only genus besides, is remarkable for the great varie- 
ty of forms in its seed-vessel, whence botanists who 
make genera from technical characters, without regard 
to natural principles, have injudiciously subdivided it. 
See Engl. Bot. t. 588—590, 943, 1471. 


3. Octandria. Polygala, t. 76, is the principal genus 
here. America and the Cape of Good Hope abound 
in beautiful species of it, and New Holland affords 
some new genera, long confounded with this. Dul- 
ler gia is perhaps as well placed in the next Older. 

4. Decandria is by far the most numerous, as well as 
natural, Order of this Class, consequently the genera 
are difficult to characterize. They compose the fam- 
ily of proper Papihonacce or Leguminosce, the Pea, 
Vetch, Broom, &c. Their stamens are most usually 
9 in one set, with a single one separate. 

The genera are arranged in sections variously charac- 

* Stamens all united, that is, all in one set. The 
plants of this section are really not diadelphous but mo- 
nadelphous. See Spartium, En&l. Bot. t. 1339. Some 
of them, as Lupinus, and Ulex, t. 742, 743, have in- 
deed the tenth stamen evidently distinguished from the 
rest, though incorporated with them by its lower part. 
Others have a longitudinal slit in the upper side of the 
tube, or the latter easily separates there, as Ononis, t. 
682, without any indication of a separate stamen. Here 
therefore the Linnaean System swerves from its strict 
artificial laws, in compliance with the decisive natural 
character which marks the plants in question. We ea- 
sily perceive that character, and have only to ascertain 
whether any papilionaceous plant we may nave to ex- 
amine has 10 stamens, all alike separate and distinct, in 
which case it belongs to the 10th Class, or whether they 
are in any way combined, which refers it to the 17ih. 


** Stigma downy, without the character of the pre- 
ceding' section, for this and all the following are truly di- 
adelphous. Very nice, but accurate, marks distinguish 
the genera, which are sufficiently natural. The style 
and stigma afford the discriminative characteristics of 
Orobus, t. 1153 ; Pisum, t. 1046 ; Lathyrus, t. 670, 
1108 ; Vicia, t. 334, 481 — 483 ; and no less decisively 
in Ervum, t. 970, 1223, which last genus, notwithstand- 
ing the remark in Jussitu 360, " stigma non barbatum" 
(taken probably from no genuine species,) most evi- 
dently belongs to this section, as was first remarked in 
the Flora Britannica ; and it is clearly distinguished 
from all the other genera of the section by the capitate 
stigma hairy all over ; nor is any genus in the whole 
Class more natural, when the hitherto mistaken species 
are removed to their proper places. See Fl. Brit. 

*** Legume imperfectly divided into two cells, al- 
ways, as in all the following, without the character of the 
preceding sections. This is composed of the singular 
Biserrula, known by its doubly serrated fruit, of which 
there is only one species ; the Fhaca, Jacq. Ic. Far. t. 
151 ; and the vast genus of Astragalus, Engl. Bot. t. 
274, &c, lately illustrated in a splendid work by an able 
French botanist, Decandolle. 

#### Legume with scarcely more than one seed. Of 
this PsordJea, Curt. Mag. t. 665 ; the curious Stylosan- 
thes of Swartz ; the Hallia of Thunberg ; and our own 
Trifolium, Engl. Bot. t. 1770, 1048—1050, are exam- 
ples. The last genus, one of the most natural as to 


habit and qualities, is extremely untractable with re- 
spect to botanical characters. Some species, t. 1047, 
1340, 1769, have many seeds in each pod ; some have 
not even the capitate inflorescence made a part of the 
generic definition. The difficulty is lessened by estab- 
lishing Melilotus as a genus, with Jussieu : but the 
whole requires to be well reconsidered ; for, if possible, 
so great a laxity of definition, with such glaring excep- 
tions, should not disgrace any system. 

***** Legume composed of single -valved joints, 
which are rarely solitary. Hedysarum, t. 96, is the 
most important genus of this section, and is known by 
its obtuse or rectangular keel. Hippocrepis, t. 31 ; 
Ornithopus, t. 369 ; and Scorpiurus, known in gardens 
by the name of Caterpillar, from its worm-like pod, are 
further examples. Smithia, Ait. Hort. Kew. t. 13, is 
remarkable for having the joints of the legume connect- 
ed by means of the style, as by a thread ; the stamens in 
2 equal divisions, with 5 anthers to each ; and a two- 
lipped calyx. Hedysarum vespertilionis, Jacq. Ic. Rar. 
t. 566, in some points approaches this genus, and more 
certain species are possibly latent among the numerous 
unsettled papilionaceous plants of India. 

****** Legume of one cell, with several seeds. To 
this belong the genus Meliotus, if separated from Trifo- 
Sium ; the Indigofera, several species of which are so 
valuable for dyeing blue ; the handsome Ro!>i?iia, Curt. 
Mag. t. 311 ; Cytisius, t. 176, &c. ; and Clitora*, Ins. 

* From kxcmt, to close or shut up, ia allusion to the situation 
of the wings and keel. 


of Georgia, t. 18 : also Lotus, Engl. Bot. t. 925, and 
Medicago, t. 1616 ; which last is justly transferred by 
Willdenow from the foregoing section to this. 

Papilionaceous plants are rarely noxious to the larger 
tribes of animals, though some species of Galega intoxi-> 
cate fish. The seeds of Cytisus Laburnum have of late 
been found violently emetic, and those of Lathyrus sati- 
vus have been supposed at Florence to soften the bones, 
and cause death ; we know of no other similar instan- 
ces in this Class, which is one of the most abundant in 
valuable esculent plants. The negroes have a notion 
that beautiful little scarlet and black seeds of Abrus pre- 
catorius, so frequently used for necklaces, are extremely 
poisonous, insomuch that half of one is sufficient to kill a 
man. This is totally incredible. Linnaeus however as- 
serts rather too absolutely, that' " among all the legum- 
inous or papilionaceous tribe there is no deleterious 
plant to be found." 

Class 18. Polyadelphia. Stamens united by their 
filaments into more than 2 parcels. Orders 3, dis- 
tinguished by the number or insertion of their stamens, 
which last particular Linnaeus here overlooked. 

No part of the Linnaean system has been less accu- 
rately defined or understood than the Orders of the 
18th Class. Willdenow, aware of this, has made 
some improvements, but they appear to me not suffi- 
cient, and I venture to propose the following arrange- 

1. Dodecandria. Stamens, or rather Anthers, from 12 
to 20, or 25, their filaments unconnected with the 


calyx. Of this the first example that presents itself 
is Theohroma, the Chocolate tree, Mer'ian. Surin. t- 
26, 63, Lamarck Encycl. t. 635. The flowers have 
not been seen fresh in Europe, and we only know 
them from drawings made in the West Indies, one of 
which, preserved in the Linnaean herbarium, is my 
authority for the following descriptions. The fila- 
ments are inserted between the long tapering segments 
of a 5-cleft nectary, on its outside, and each bears at 
its summit 4 sessile, obtuse, spreading anthers. 
Aublet's figure of this genus, which Schreber and 
Willdenow seem to have followed, represents but 2. 
The fruit is perhaps most properly a berry with a 
hard coat, whose seeds, when roasted, make choco- 
late. Bubroma of Schreber, Guazuma Lamarck, t. 
637, confounded by Linnaeus with the preceding ge- 
nus, has similar filaments, but each bears 5 anthers ; 
Jussieu and Cavanilles say 3. The fruit is a woody 
capsule, with 10 rows of perforations. Abroma, Jacq. 
Hort. Find. v. 3. t. 1. Miller Illustr. t. 63, has 5 par* 
eels of anthers, nearly sessile on the outside of the 
nectary, between its obtuse, reflexed, notched lobes- 
It is difficult to say how many anthers compose each 
parcel, for the different accounts on record are totally 
irreconcileable. We have found 3 ; the drawing sent 
to Linnaeus represents 6 ; and Miller has a much 
greater number. Perhaps they may vary. In this 
uncertainty the genus in question is best placed with 
its natural allies in this order, with a reference to it in 

italics at the end of Polyadelphia Polyandria. Its 


fruit is a membranous winged capsule, opening at the 
top. Monsonia, Curt. Mag. t. 73, Lamarck, t. 638, 
removed by Schreber and Willdenovv to Monadel- 
phia, rather, I think, belongs to this chss vvheie Lin- 
naeus placed it. The 5 filaments, bearing each 3 
long-stalked anthers, are merely inserted into a short 
membranous cup, or nectary, for so the analogy of the 
3 preceding genera induces us to call it ; and if we 
refer Monsonia to Monadelphia, we fall into the error 
of Cavanilles mentioned p. 339. Lastly, Citrus, the 
Orange, Lemon, he, Lamarck, t. 639, most unques- 
tionably belongs to this Order. Its stamens are about 
19 or 20, combined variously and unequally in sev- 
eral distinct parcels ; but those parcels are inserted 
into a proper receptacle, by no means into the calyx, 
as the character of the Class Icosandria indispensably 
requires. Even the number of the anthers of Citrus 
accords better with most plants in Dodecandria than 
in Icosandria, notwithstanding the title of the latter. 

2. Icosandria. Stamens numerous, their filaments inser- 
ted (in several parcels) into the calyx. — To this Older 
Professor Willdenow properly refers Melaleuca Exot. 
Bot. t. 34 — 36, 55, 56, which had previously stood 
in Polyandria, botanists having only considered num- 
ber and not insertion in the Orders of Polyadelphia, 
whence a double mistake has arisen, concerning Cit- 
rus on the one hand, and Melaleuca on the other. 

>. Polyandria. Stamens very numerous, unconnected 
with the calyx. This Order consists of several gen- 
era. The most remarkable is Hypericum, Engl. Bot. 


t. 109, 1225 — 1227, &.c, whose stamens united into 
3 or 5 parcels, corresponding with the number of its 
styles. Munchhausia is a Lagerstro??7ia, nor does it 
appear to be polyadelphous at all. Linnaeus seems 
to have intended bringing Thea into this Order. 

Class 19. Syngenesia. Anthers united into a tube. 
Flowers compound. Orders 5. 

This being truly a natural Class, its Orders are 
most of them equally so, though some are liable to 
exceptions, as will presently be explained. 

1. Polygamia aqualis. In this each floret, taken sep- 
arately, is perfect or united, being furnished with its 
own pei feet stamens and pistil, and capable of bring- 
ing its seed to maturity without the assistance of any 
other floret. The Order consists of 3 sections. 

* Florets all ligulate, or strap-shaped, called by 
Tournefort Semijlosculous. These flowers are gen- 
erally yellow, sometimes blue, very rarely reddish. 
They expand in a morning, and close towards noon 
or in cloudy weather. Their herbage is commonly 
milky and bitter. Leontodon, Engl. Bot. t. 510 ; 
Tragopogon, t. 434, 638 ; Hieracium, t. 349, &c; 
and Cichorium, t. 539, exemplify this very natural 

** Flowers globose, generally uniform and regular, 
their Jlorets all tubular, S-cleft, and spreading. Car- 
duus, t. 107, 675, 973—976 ; Onopordum, t. 977 ; 
and Arctium, t. 1228, well exemplify this. Carh 


«c, /. 1 144, does not so exactly agree with the above 
definition, having a flat disk ; but its affinity to the 
other genera is indubitable. Its flattened disk and 
radiating: coloured calvx seem contrived to imitate 
the radiated flowers of the following Order. 

#■** Flowers discoid, their florets all tubular, regu- 
lar , crowded and parallel, forming a surface nearly flat : , 
or exactly conical. Their colour is most generally 
yellow, in some cases, pink. Santolina, t. 141 ; and 
Bidens, t. 1113, 1114, are genuine examples of this 
section : Eupatorium, t. 428, and the exotic Stceheli- 
na, Dicks. Dr. PL 13, approach to the preceding 
one. There is however the most absolute difference 
between these two sections, collectively, and the first ; 
while, on the other hand, they have considerable af- 
finity with some of the following Orders, as will be 
hereafter explained. 

2. Polygamia superflua. Florets of the disk perfect 
or united ; those of the margin furnished with pistils 
only ; but all producing perfect seed. 

* Discoid, the florets of the margin being obsolete or 
inconspicuous, from the smallness or peculiar form 
of the corolla ; as Artemisia, Engl. Bot. t. 338, 978, 
1230; Tanacetum, t. 1229 ; Conyza, t. 1195 ; and 
Gnaphalium, t. 267, 1157. In the last the marginal 
florets are mostly 5-cleft and tubular like the rest, on- 
ly wanting stamens. Caution is requisite to detect 
the difference between this section and the preceding 


** Ligulate, 2-lipped, of which Perdicium, a rare 
exotic genus, is the only instance. 

*** Radiant, the marginal florets ligulate, form- 
ing spreading conspicuous rays ; as Bel/is the Daisy, 
t. 424 ; Aster, t. 87, a very numerous genus in 
America; Chrysanthemum, t* 601, 540; Inula, t. 
1546, Sec. This section seems at first sight, a com- 
bination of the first and third sections of the former 
Order, but this is chiefly in the form of its corollas. 
It is rather an approach of that third section towards 
what is equivalent to becoming double in other tribes. 
Accordingly, the Chamomile, Anthemis nobilis, t. 980; 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum, t. 601 ; and some 
others, occasionally have their whole disk changed to 
ligulate white florets, destitute of stamens, and con- 
sequently abortive. Such are called double flowers 
in this Class, and very properly. Many exotic spe- 
cies so circumstanced are met with in gardens. A 
few very strange anomalies occur in this section, as 
already mentioned, p. 341, one Sigesbeckia having 
but 3 stamens, instead of 5, the otherwise universal 
number in the Class : and Tussitago hybrida, t. 430, 
as well as paradoxa of Retzius, having distinct an- 
thers. Nature therefore, even in this most natural 
Class, it is not without exceptions. 

3. Polygamia frustranea. Florets of the disk, as in the 
preceding, perfect or united ; those of the margin 
neuter, or destitute of pistils as well as of stamens ; 
only some few genera having the rudiments of pistils 
in their radiant florets. 


This Order is, still more evidently than the last, 
analogous to double flowers of other Classes. Ac- 
cordingly, Coreopsis is the very same genus asBidens, 
only furnished with unproductive radiant florets. C. 
bidens of Linnaeus is the same species as in B. cer- 
nua ; C. coronata is his B.frondosa ; and C. Icucan- 
tha, B. pilosa. Some species of Coreopsis indeed 
have never been found without rays. Linnaeus ex- 
presses his difficulties on this subject in Phil.. Bot. 
sect. 209, but seems inclined to unite the two genera. 
A similar ambiguity occurs between Gorteria and 
Atractylis, Relhania (of the last Order) and Atjiana- 
sia, and in some degree between Centaurea, Engl. 
Bot. t. 278, 1678, 56, &c, and Cardials, or Serra- 
tula ; only the scales of the calyx of Centaur ca gen- 
erally keep that genus distinct. 

I should be much inclined to abolish this Order. 
Those of its genera which have rudiments of pistils in 
their radiant florets, as Rudbeckia and Helianthus, 
would very commodiously range with their near rela- 
tions in Polygamia superflua, nor are we sure that 
such radiant florets are in all circumstances abortive, 
neither can a student often know whether they are so 
or not. It does not follow, from what has just been 
observed, that the presence of radiant florets, whether 
abortive or not, can never afford a generic character, 
provided there be no corresponding genus without 
them. This must be determined by experience and 
observation. They are indeed to be considered as a 
very secondary mark, the most essential in this Class 
being derived from the receptacle, crown of the seed. 


and calyx. These Gsertner has illustrated with the 
greatest accuracy and skill, but even these must not 
be blindly followed to the destruction of natural gen- 

4. Polygamia necessaria. Florets of the disk furnished 
with stamens only, those of the margin, or radius, 
only with pistils ; so that both aie necessary to each 
other. This is well seen in the common Garden Ma- 
rigold, Calendula, in whose calyx, when ripening seed, 
the naked and barren disk is conspicuous. Othonna, 
Curt. Mag. t. 306, 768, Arctotis, Osteospermum and 
Silphium, not rare in gardens, are further examples of 
this Order, which I believe is constant and founded 
in nature. We have no British specimens either of it 
or the fellowing. Filago, at least as far as our Flora 
is concerned, belongs to Gnaphalium. See Engl. 
Bot. t. 946, 1193, &c. 

5. Polygamia segregata. Several flowers, either simple 
or compound, but with united tubular anthers, and 
with a partial calyx, all included in one general calyx. 
Of these the Globe-thistle, Echmops, and Stoebe, with 
Seriphium and Corymbium, (which two last require to 
be removed hither from the abolished Linn<ean Order 
Syngenesia Monogamia,) have only 1 floret in each 
partial calyx ; Jungia has 3, Elephantopus 4, others 
more. In every case the partial calyx is distinguished 
from the chaffy seed-crown observable in several gen- 
era of the other Orders, (though the latter is indeed 
analogous to a calyx,) either by being inferior, or by 
the presence of a seed-crown, or feathery down, be- 


sides. See Lamarck, t. 718 — 723, where the plants 
in question are well represented. 

Class 20. Gynandria. Stamens inserted either upon 
the style or germen. Orders 9 in Linnaeus, but some 
alterations concerning them are necessary. 

This is one of those Classes abolished by the celebra 
ted Thunberg, and by several less intelligent writers who 
have followed him. The reasons which led to this 
measure appear to have been that Linnaeus has errone- 
ously placed in Gynandria several plants which have not 
the requisite character ; hence that character itself has 
been judged ambiguous, or not founded in nature, and 
the system has been supposed to be simplified by over- 
looking it. This appears to me a great mistake. The 
character of the Class, taken as above, is as evident, 
constant and genuine as that of any other in the system. 
No doubt can arise, if we be careful to observe that the 
stamens actually grow out of the germen or style, and 
not merely out of any part that supports the germen ; as 
will appear by examples. 

1. Monandria. Stamen, or sessile Anther, 1 only. 
This contains all the beautiful and curious natural 
family of the Orchidece, or Orchis tribe, except only 
Cypripedium, which belongs to the next Order. I 
am induced to consider the bulk of this family as mo- 
nandrous, upon a careful review of Professor Swartz's 
representation of the subject, in his excellent treatise, 
just come to my hands in English. See Tracts rela- 
tive to Botany translated from different Languages 


(by Mr. Konig,) printed for Phillips and Fardon, 
1805. I have already, p. 217, mentioned the glutin- 
ous nature of the pollen of these plants. This forms 
yellow elastic masses, often stalked, in each cell of the 
anther, and the cells are either parallel and close to- 
gether, or removed from each other to the opposite 
sides of the style : which serves to connect them, 
just as the filament does in many Scitamineous plants, 
alike therefore decided to be monandrous. Such a 
decision with regard to those also is justified by the 
analogy of other species, whose cells being approxi- 
mated or conjoined, properly constitute but one an- 
ther. The grand and absolute subdivision of the 
Orchideae is justly founded by Dr. Swartz, after Hal- 
ler, on the structure of the anther, whether it be, as 
just described, parallel, like that of Orchis, Engl. Bot. 
t. 22 ; Ophrys, t. 65 ; and Diuris, Exot. Bot. t. 9, 
&c. ; or vertical, consisting of a moveable lid on the 
top of the style, like Dendrobium, t. 10 — 12 ; ov 31a- 
laxis, Engl. Bot. t. 72. The style of the Or chide ce 
has been called a column, but I think that term now 
altogether superfluous. It is really a style, and the 
stigma is a moist shining space, generally concave, 
and situated, for the most part, in front of the style 
beneath the anther. In Orchis bifolia, t. 22, and 
others, it is just above the orifice of the spur. Con- 
cerning the nectary of these plants there has been 
much diversity of opinion. The calcar, spur, in Or- 
chis, and some other genera, is acknowledged to be 
such, and holds abundance of honey. This spur is 
judged by Swartz, as well as Linnaeus, a decisive 

oo4 (,\NANDKIA. 

generic mark of distinction, and it commonly is so ; 
but some Indian species brought by Dr. Buchanan 
prove it not to be absolute. The remarkable and 
often highly ornamented lip, considered by Swartz as 
the only corolla, for he takes all the other leaves of the 
flower for a calyx, has, by Linnaeus and others, been 
thought, either a part of the nectary, or, where no 
spur is present, the only nectary. Nor is this opin- 
ion so ill-founded as many botanists suppose ; for the 
front of the lip evidently secretes honey in Ophrys (or 
Epipactis) ovata, t. 1548, and probably in others not 
yet attended to. Nevertheless, this lip might, like 
the petals of lilies, be deemed a nectariferous corolla, 
were it certain that all the other leaves were truly a 
calyx. But the 2 inner are so remarkably different 
from the 3 outer ones in Ophrys, t. 64, 65, 71, 383, 
and above all, in Stelis, Exot. Bot. t. 75, that I am 
most inclined to take the former for the corolla, the 
latter being, according to all appearance, a calyx. 
An insensible gradation from one to the other, of 
which we have pointed out other instances in treating 
of this subject already, occurs in Diuris, t. 8, 9 ; 
while in some Orchidecs the leaves all partake more 
of the habit of a calyx, and in others of a corolla. 
Even the lip in Thelymitra, t. 29. assumes the exact 
form, colour, and texture, of the rest of the flower ; 
which proves that a dissimilarity between any of these 
parts is not always to be expected in the family under 
consideration. Vahl appears by the preface to his 
Enumeratio Plantarum to have removed the Scitami- 
nea to Gynandria, because the stamen of Canna ad- 


heres to the style. This, if constant, could only con- 
cern that genus, for the rest of the Order are in no 
sense gynandrous. 

2. Diandria. To this Order Cypripediwn, Engl. Bot. t. 

1, must be referred, having a pair of very distinct 
double-celled anthers. See Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 1. 1. 

2, 3. Here we find Forstera, so well illustrated by 
Professor Swartz in Sims and Konig's Annals of Bot- 
any, v. 1. 291, t. 6 ; of which genus Phyllachme, t. 
5 of the same volume, is justly there reckoned a spe- 
cies. Of the same natural order with Forstera is Sty- 
lidium, but that having I think, 4 anthers, belongs to 
the fourth Order of the present Class. Gunnera, plac- 
ed by Linnaeus in Gynandria Diandria } is not yet 
sufficiently well understood. 

3. Triandria. Solatia, if Linnaeus's description be 
right, is properly placed here ; but Jussieu doubts 
it, nor does my dried specimen serve to remove the 
uncertainty. Stilago proves to be merely the barren 
plants of Antidesma alexiteria, and belongs to Dioecia ; 
as Sisyrinchium and Ferraria do to Monadelphia, the 
tubular united stamens of the two last having been 
mistaken for a solid style. Rhopium of Schreber [Me- 
borea ofAublet, t. 323,) seems therefore the only cer- 
tain genus of the Order under consideration ; unless 
Lamarck be right in referring to it Jacquin's Strnmp- 

fia, upon which I have not materials to form any opin- 
ion. The original discoverer attributes to this plant 
5 stamens with united anthers ; hence it found a place 
in the Syngcnesia Monogamia of Linnasus. Lamarck 

356 ttYNANDUIA. 

merits attention, as he appears to have had an authen- 
tic specimen. See his t. 731. 

4. Tetrandria. Nepenthes, of whose extraordinary 
kind of leaf mention is made/;. 162, is the only genus 
of this Older in Linnaeus, but very erroneously plac- 
ed here, for it belon gs to Dioecia Monadelphia. The 
O der however must be retained for the sake of Styli- 
dium, a New Holland genus, related, as above men- 
tioned, to Forstera. This is my Ventenatia, Exot. 
Bot. t. 66, 67 ; but another genus having previously, 
without my knowledge, received the latter denomina- 
tion, that of Stylidium, under which I had, some time 
ago, communicated this genus to the French botan- 
ists*, and which they have adopted, becomes estab- 
lished. See La Billardiere's excellent work on New 
Holland plants, where several species of it are figured. 

d. Pentandria. The original genera of this Order, 
Ayenia, Gluta, and Passijiora, Exot. Bot. t. 28, most 
unquestionably have nothing to do with it, their sta- 
mens being inserted below the germen, merely on a 
columnar receptacle. The learned Schreber there- 
fore removed them to the 5th Class. 

But this Order may receive a reinforcement from 
the Linnasan Pentandria Digynia. Several of the 

* I was not aware of Loureiro's Stylidium, a plant, according 
to his description, of the 7th Class ; Fl. Cochinch. -v. 1. 221 ; but 
this can scarcely interfere with ours, being probably, as it grows 
about Canton, some well-known shrub that happened to have a 
7 -cleft flower. It should seem to belong to the Rubiacece, not 
withstanding some points in the description. 


Contorts have long been thought to belong to Gynan- 
dria ; see Pergularia^ Ic. Pict. t. 16, and Ander. Re- 
pos. t. 184. In this genus, as well as Cynanchum 
and Asclepias, the pollen is borne in 5 pair of glutin- 
ous masses, exactly like the pollen of Orchidea, by 5 
glands-upon the stigma. Some obscurity arises from 
each mass of pollen being received into a bag or cell, 
formed by a peculiar valvular apparatus that encircles 
the organs of impregnation, and bears a great resem- 
blance to stamens. The pollen however is, in the 
above genera, not attached to these cells or valves, but 
to the 5 glands, each of which is double, and all of 
them seated on that thick abrupt angular body which 
acts as a stigma*. Nor is it worth while to dispute 
whether this whole body be a stigma or not, with re- 
gard to the question under consideration, for it is 
borne by the styles, above the germen, and itself bears 
the anthers. I humbly conceive, however, with Lin- 
naeus and Jacquin, that as part of it, at least, receives 
the pollen, stigma is full as good a name for this body 
as Haller's term dolium, a tub ! Still less is it worth 
while to controvert with Kolreuter the propriety of 
the term pollen, because the substance in question is 
not actually a dry powder, any more than in the Or- 
chis tribe, or in Mirabilis, Exot. Bot. t. 23. That 
term is technically used for the matter which renders 
the seeds fertile, including its vehicle, whether the 

* Mr. R. Brown believes the cells secrete the pollen, and pro- 
ject it on the 9tigma, as the pollen of some Orchidece stick to 
any part of the plant. If so, these plants must remain in Pen- 


latter be capsular or glutinous, in short, whatever the 
appearance or texture of the whole may be. Anoth- 
er question remains, more immediately to our present 
purpose, whether these plants have 5 stamens or 10 ? 
Jacquin, who has well illustrated several of them in 
his Miscell. Austr. v. I. t. 1 — 4, and Rottboll in a 
dissertation on the subject, contend for the latter. 
Rottboll wrote to Haller, that " finding Linnaeus deaf 
to all that had been said, he sent him his treatise, to 
see whether he would persist in falsifying nature." 
Thus sordid underlings foment the animosities and 
flatter the failings of their superiors ! Linnaeus judi- 
ciously suspended his opinion, and, after all, proves 
to be most correct. The annalogies of the Orchidae 
and Scitaminete very clearly decide that the 2 cells, 
or the double masses of naked pollen, can only be 
considered as one anther of 2 lobes. Even Periploca 
gr<zca, though not gynandrous, confirms this. Each 
lobe of its anthers stands, as in many Scitammete, on 
the outermost edge of the filament ; thus meeting 
that on the adjoining filament, and in appearance con- 
stituting with it a 2-lobed anther, as the lobe of the Sci- 
taminea, where there is but one filament, meets its cor- 
responding lobe by embracing the style. 

6. Hexandria. Aristolochia, Engl. Bot. t. 398, a curi- 
ous genus, of which there are many exotic species, is 
the only example of this, Pistia being removed to 
Monadelphia Octandria, 

7. Octandria. The Scopolia of Linnaeus, which origi- 
nally constituted this Order, proves to be a Daphne , 


see Plant. Ic. ex Herb. Linn. t. 34. Cytinus how- 
ever, Cavan. Ic. t. 171, a singular parasitical plant on 
the roots of Cistas in the south of Europe, has pro- 
perly been brought hither from the Order Dodecan- 
dria, of which it originally formed the only example. 
The observations of Dr. Sibthorp and Mr. Ferd. 
Bauer confirms those of other botanists, that the an- 
thers are 8, not 16, and that they are truly inserted 
upon the style. 

8. Decandria is now abolished. Of the two genera 
which constituted it, Kleinhovia belongs to the Class 
Dodecandria, having 15 stamens, see Cavan. Mona, 
delph. t. 146 ; and Helicteres to Decandria Mono- 

9. Dodecandria is likewise abolished. 

10. Polyandria is in a similar predicament, for I am 
not aware of any genus that can be admitted into it. 
Xylopia goes with the greatest propriety to its natural 
allies in Polyandria Polygynia, Annona, &c, its short 
stamens being inserted into the receptacle below the 
germen. Grervia, as well as Schreber's Microcos if 
a good genus, belong to Polyandria Monogynia, the 
organs of impregnation being merely elevated on a 
common stalk, like those of Passijlora and Ayenia. 
Ambrosinia, Arum, and Calla, are alt justly removed 
by Schreber to Monoecia, though I think, for reasons 
hereafter given, they are more commodiously and 
naturally placed in the Order Polyandria of that Class, 

\IO\0K< I V. 

than in the Order Monandria. Dracontium and Po- 
those of the same natural family, having perfect or uni- 
ted flowers, the former with 7 stamens to each, the latter 
with -!, are undoubtedly to be referred to their cor 
responding Classes, Ileptandria and Tetrandria- 
Zostera, the only remaining genus of Gynandria 
Polyandria in Linnaeus, I have long ago ventured to 
remove to Monandria Monogynia ; see Engl. Bot. t. 

Class 21. Monoecia. Stamens and Pistils in sepa- 
rate flowers, but both growing on the same individual 
plant. Orders 9 or 10. 

Several reformers of the Linnsean system have also 
abolished this Class and the two following, by way of 
rendering that system more simple. Ten years' ad- 
ditional experience since the preface to the 7th vol- 
ume of English Botany was written, have but con- 
firmed my opinion on this subject. If any plants 
ought to be removed from these Classes, they must 
be such as have the structure of all the accessory 
parts of the flower exactly alike, (the essential parts, 
or stamens and pistils only, differing,) in both barren 
and fertile flowers ; and especially such as have in 
one flower perfect organs of one kind, accompanied 
by rudiments of the other kind, for these rudiments 
are liable occasionally to become perfect. By this 
means dioecious species of a genus, as in Lychnis, 
Valeriana, Rumex, &c, would no longer be a re- 
proach or inconvenience to the system. But, on the 
other hand, some difficulty would occasionally arise 


to a student, in deciding whether there were any real 
difference of structure between these accessory parts 
or not, and it might puzzle an adept to determine the 
question. For instance, whether the nectary in Salix, 
different in the barren and fertile flowers of some spe- 
cies, should lead us to keep that genus in Dioecia, 
though in other species the nectary is precisely alike 
in both the kinds, and occasionally an abortive ger- 
men occurs in the barren flowers, as stamens do, 
more rarely, in some fertile ones. Considering all 
this, I should refer Salix to Diandria Monogynia. 

With respect to those Monoecious or Dioecious 
genera whose barren flowers are decidedly unlike the 
fertile ones, the former being in a catkin, the latter 
not, as Corylus, Quercus, &.c, I conceive nothing more 
pernicious or troublesome can be attempted than to 
remove them to the Classes of united flowers. They 
meet with no allies there, but, on the contrary, form 
so natural an assemblage by themselves, as to be 
unanimously kept separate by the authors of every 
natural system that has appeared. But even if this 
were not the case, there is a most important reason 
for keeping them as they are, which regards the 
artificial system more particularly, and of which its 
author was well aware ; they are of all plants most 
uncertain in the number of their stamens. Now this 
uncertainty is of little moment, when we have them 
primarily distinguished and set apart from other plants 
by their Monoecious or Dioecious character ; because 
the genera being few, and the Otders constructed 
widely as to number of Stamens, we find little diffi- 


culty in determining any genus, which would be by 
no means the case if we had them confounded with 
the mass of the system. Even the species of the 
same genus, as well as individuals of each species, 
differ among themselves. How unwise and unscien- 
tific then is it, to take as a primary mark of discrim- 
ination, what nature has evidently made of less conse- 
quence here than in any other case ! It is somewhat 
like attempting a natural system, and founding its 
primary divisions on the artificial circumstance of 
number of stamens. 

I proceed to give some illustrations of the Orders 
in Monoecia, 

1. Monandria. Zannichellia, Mill. Illustr. t. 77, and 
Aegopricon, Plant. Ic. ex Herb. Linn. t. 42, are gen- 
uine examples of this Class and Order, having a dif- 
ferent structure in the accessory parts of their barren 
and fertile flowers. Artocarpus, the celebrated Bread- 
fruit, may likewise be esteemed so on account of a 
partial calyx in the barren flower. The other amen- 
taceous genera may most intelligibly perhaps be re- 
ferred to the Order, Polyandria. Chara is now re- 
moved to the first Class in the system ; see Eng. Bot. 
t. 336. 

2. Diandria. Anguria can remain here only till the pro- 
posed reformation takes place, having no difference of 
structure in its flowers. Lemna, so imperfectly known 
when Linnaeus wrote, is now well understood, and, 
having frequently united flowers, belongs to the sec- 
ond Class ; see Engl. Bot. t. 926, 1095, 1233. 


3. Triandria. The great genus of Carex, t. 1051, 928, 
993 — 995, gcc, and some other grassy plants, are 
found here. Typha, t. 1455 — 1457, is less clear in 
its structure ; Sparganium, t. 744, 745, 273 is suffi- 
ciently so. Tragia, Hernandia and Phyllanthus are 
properly placed in this Class and Order. 

4. Tetrandria. Littorella, t. 468 ; the valuable genera 
Betula, t. 1508, and Buxus, t. 1341; also the Net- 
tle Urtica, t. 1236 ; are good examples of this. Mo- 
rns the Mulberry, of the same natural order as the 
Nettle, has scarcely any difference of structure in the 
accessory organs of the flowers. This tree however is 
remarkable for being often inclined to become even 
dioecious in its constitution, one individual bearing- 
most fruit when occompanied by another whose barren 
flowers are more effective than its own. Empleurum^ 
Exot. Bot. t. 63, is one of those ambiguous genera 
which are but imperfectly monoecious. 

5. Pentandrla. Xanthium, dmbrosia, Nephelium, Par- 
thenium, Iva and Clibadium all partake, more or less 
accurately, of the nature of compound flowers, but 
their anthers not being united, they could not be re- 
ferred to the Class Syngenesia ; particularly Xanthi- 
um and Nephelium, whose fertile flowers have no re- 
semblance to that Class, dmaranthus, an extensive 
dunghill genus in warm countries, analogous to our 
Chenopodium, follows next. Leea is the same with 
Aguilicia, and belongs to Pentandria Monogynia, the 
former name being retained for the sake of the highly 
meritorious botanist and cultivator whom it commem 


orates. The Gourd tribe, (142) Cucurbita, Cucumis. 
Bryonia, Engl. Bot. t. 439, might be brought hither 
from the abolished Order Syngenesia, unless it should 
be thought better to consider them as polyadelphous, 
to which I am most inclined. 

6. Hexandria. Zizania, Tr. of Linn. Soc. v. 7. t. 13 ; 
and Pharus, Browne' s Jamaica x t. 38, both grasses, 
compose this Order, to vvhieh S<hreber has added 
Epibaterium and Pometia of Forster, as well as the 
splendid Guettarda, Hort. Mai. v. 4. t. 48. The 
latter varies from 6 to 9 in the parts of the flower, 
and constitutes the Order Heptandria in Linnasus, 
according to his usual principle, of placing such ir- 
regular plants, as much as possible, in small Classes 
or Orders, that they might be the more easily found. 

7. Polyandria. Stamens more than 7. Ceratophyllum, 
Engl. Bot. t. 947, 679 ; Myriophyllum, t. 83, 218 ; 
and the handsome Sagittaria, t. 84, stands here at 
present, but the accessory parts in their two kinds of 
flowers are alike. Begonia, Exot. Bot. t. 101, has 
the number of its petals, though various in several 
species, always sufficiently different in the barren and 
fertile flowers to fix it here. — The most indubitable 
plants of this Order are amentaceous, (143) Quercus, 
Engl. Bot. t. 1342 ; Fagus, t. 886 ; Corylus, t. 723 ; 

(142) [The Cucurbitacex, or Gourd tribe of Linnaeus, include 
the Melon, Cucumber, Pumpkin, and others of similar fruit. 
The Passion Flower is referred to this natural order.] 

(143) [The Amentacea are a natural order, whose fruit is an 
anient or catkin,' as the Oak, Walnut, Poplar, Willow, Alder, &cl 


Carpimis, Juglans, Platanus, &c. — Arum, t. 1298, 
Calla and Ambrosinia, all brought hither from the 
20th Class, seem to me perfectly intelligible as simple 
monoecious flowers, the barren one, with many sta- 
mens, being superior or interior with respect to the 
fertile, like the generality of monoecious as well as all 
compound flowers, and not inferior, or, as in every 
simple one, exterior. 

8. Monodelphia. The Fir, Pinus, ( 144) so magnificently 
illustrated by Mr. Lambert, is very distinct in its two 
kinds of flowers. Each barren one consists of a 
naked tuft of monadelphous stamens, accompanied 
only by a few bracteas at the base. The fertile ones 
are catkins, with similar bracteas, each scale bearing 
on its upper side a pair of winged seeds, and on its 
under a leaf-like style and acute stigmas ; as Jussieu 
first, rightly I believe, suggested, though some bot- 
anists have understood these parts otherwise. Aca- 
lypha, Croton, Jatropha, Ricinus and several others 
of the natural order of Euphorbia, acrid milky plants, 
form a conspicuous and legitimate part of Monoeeia 
Monadelphia. Omphalea is justly associated with them 
by Schreber, though placed by Linnaeus in the Order 
Triandria, and this alteration is the more fortunate, 
as one of its species is diandrous. Sterculia is best 
removed to the 11th Class, next to Kleinhovia. 

9. Polydelphia. If the system should be preserved in 
its present etate, without regard to agreement or dif- 

(144) [The Pine, Cypress, Larch, and others, whose fruit is a 
••one or strobilus, from their natural order Coni/erte.'] 

366 D10ECIA. 

ference in the accessory parts of the barren and fer- 
tile flowers, I conceive this order might be established 
for the reception of the Gourd tribe, as already hinted 
under the 5th Order. Their filaments are united, in 
3 sets, a character much more intelligible and con- 
stant than the casual and irregular connexion of their 
anthers, which led Linnaeus to reckon them syngen- 
esious ; for they only afford an additional proof that 
union of anthers is, in simple flowers, neither a good 
natural nor artificial guide. If the monoecious and 
dioecious classes, be reformed according to the plan 
to which I have so often adverted, these plants should 
go to the Class Polyadelphia. 

10. Gynandria is scarcely tenable, being paradoxical in 
its character, and the two Linnaean genera which 
compose it, Andrachne and Agyneia, seem most 
properly, even as the system stands at present, to be- 
long to the 8th Order, to great part of which they 
are, moreover, naturally related, 

Class 22. Dioecia. Stamens and Pistils in separate 
flowers, situated on two separate plants. Orders 8. 

The foregoing remarks on the Orders of Monoecia 
apply also to those of this Class. I shall therefore 
only briefly mention some genera properly illustrative 
of each Order, more particularly specifying such as 
require to be placed elsewhere, 

1. Monandria. Brosimum of Swartz, and Ascarina of 
Forster, seem, by their descriptions, to be well placed 
here. Pandanus {Athrodactylis of Forster) is more 


doubtful, not having any partial calyx or corolla to 
divide the stamens into separate blossoms, so that the 
whole may be taken either for a polyandrousor a mo- 
nadelphous flower, as well as for an assemblage of 
monandrous ones. Najas is a good and immutable 
example of this Order. Of Thunberg's Phelypcsa I 
have not materials to form a judgment. 

2. Diandria. The wonderful Valisneria, already de- 
scribed/?. 262, is a decisive example of this. Cecro- 
pia also seems unexceptionable. Of Salix, see Engl. 
Bot.v. 20 and 21, &c, I have already spoken, p. 
361. The scales of its barren and fertile catkins are 
alike ; its nectaries various. 

3. Triandria. Eleg'ia and JRestio, hard rushy plants 
chiefly of the Cape of Good Hope and New Holland, 
appear to be without any difference in the accessory 
parts of their flowers, which is certainly the case with 
Empetrum, Engl. Bot. t. 526, Ruscus, t. 560, 
brought hither from Dioecia Syngenesia, Osyris, Ex- 
ececaria and Maba ; Caturus only seeming differently 
constructed in this particular ; but I have not been 
able to examine the three last. 

4. Tetrandria. Tropins, Bath, and Hippophae, t. 425, 
are good examples of this, though Mr. Viborg is re- 
corded by Schreber to have occasionally found united 
flowers intermixed with the barren ones in the last- 
mentioned genus. If this be usual, Hppophae must 
be removed to Polygamia Dioecia. The rest of the 
Order appear to have the accessory parts alike in both 
flowers, as Viscum, t. 1470. 

•368 DIOECIA. 

3. Pentandria. Hamulus, t. 427, is almost the only 
certain instance here. Spinacia, Acnlda and Cannabis 
would be unexceptionable, but they are less absolute- 
ly dioecious, being sometimes monoecious ; see p. 
259. The rest of the Order is at best doubtful ; 
nor can the pretended amentum of the barren- flowered 
Pistacia entitle it to a permanent place in this Class, 
for its fructification is truly a panicle. Clutia, more 
properly Cluytia, may possibly remain here. It has 
no business in the Order Gynandria. 

6. Hexandria. No difference of structure is discernible 
between the barren and fertile flowers of any genus in 
this Order ; witness Tamus, t. 91, though something 
to the contrary is mentioned in the Genera Plantarum 
of Linnaeus. 

7. Polyandria. Under this Order I would certainly 
comprehend all dioecious plants that have from 8 to 
any greater number of stamens, according to the ex- 
ample set by Linnaeus himself in the last Class. The 
genera are exceedingly variable in this respect ; and 
if all those the accessory parts of whose flowers are- 
uniform were taken away, the remainder would be so 
few, that it is hard to say whether any would remain 
at all. Instances of the Order as it now stands are 
Populus, t. 1618,1619; Hydrocharis, t. 808 ; Mercu- 
rialis, t. 559. The fertile flowers of the latter have, in 
some cases, a nectary or corolla of two slender leaves, 
not found in the barren ones, which may entitle it to 
a permanent place here. Carica will also probably 
remain. Rhodiola can scarcely be kept distinct from 


Sedum. Coriaria and Jilanthus, having often united 
flowers, are best in the 10, h Class, as Euclea in the 
11th. 1 find no genera truly icosandrous here, 
though Schreber esteems Flacourtia and Hedycarya 
to be so. 

8. Monadelphia. Taxus. t. 74% and perhaps Juniperus, 
t. 1 100, also the exotic Ephedra, are legitimate ex- 
amples of this Older. Spurious ones are Nepenthes, 
Myristica the Nutmeg, and Schreber's Xanthe, all 
placed by him in the now abolished Order Syngenesis 
and which can only take shelter here while the Class 
remains as it is, for they have no difference of struc- 
ture in the accessory parts of their flowers. 

Class 23. Polygamia. Stamens and Pistils separate 
in some flowers, united in others, either on the same 
plant or on two or three distinct ones ; such differ- 
ence in the essential organs being moreover accom- 
panied with a diversity in the accessory parts of the 
flowers. Orders 3. 

1. Monoecia. United flowers accompanied with barren 
or fertile, or both, all on one plant. Atriplex, EngL 
Bot. t. 261, 232, &c, is an instance of this, having 
the barren flowers of 5 regular spreading segments, 
the united ones of 2 compressed valves, which, be- 
coming greatly enlarged, protect the seed. In sever- 
al species however the flowers are none of them unit- 
ed, each having only stamens or only pistils. 
Throughout the rest of the Order, as it stands in Lin- 
naeus and Schreber, I can find no genus that has thf- 



requisite character. Some of the grasses indeed have 
awns to one kind of flower only, but that part is too 
uncertain to establish a character upon ; and this 
family is so natural in itself, and so liable to variations 
in the perfecting of its flowers or florets, that there 
can be no doubt of the propriety of classing its gene- 
ra simply by the number of their stamens and styles, 
which are very constant. 

2. Dioecia. The different flowers on two different 
plants. I can scarcely find a certain instance of this, 
except Hippophae, already mentioned under Monoecia 

3. Trioecia. Of the only two genera which have ever 
been placed here, Ceratonia, Cavan. Ic. t. 1 13, be- 
longs to Pentandria Monogynia. Ficus is so cele- 
brated for the diversity of its flowers, as connected 
with the history of vegetable impregnation, see p. 262, 
that we are glad to take advantage of a trifling differ- 
ence in the calyx of the two florets, (the barren one 
being most frequently three-cleft, the fertile five-cleft,) 
to keep it here. 

All things being considered, this Class may be 
thought scarcely worth retaining. Yet as we know 
two or three genera entitled to a place in it, upon 
principles which the analogy of the two preceding 
Classes shows to be sound, we cannot tell but others 
may exist in the unexplored parts of the globe. For 
this reason, and for the uniformity of the system, I 
would venture to preserve it. If the 2 1 st and 22d Clas- 
ses should hereafter be reformed by some judicious 


and experienced hand, according to the principle I 
have suggested, of retaining in them such genera only 
as have a permanent difference in the accessory as 
well as the essential parts of their flowers, their bulk 
being by such a reformation much diminished, it 
migt be advisable to reduce them to one Class, in 
which the slender remains of Polygamia might com- 
modiously be included, and the title of such a Class 
should be Diclinia y expressing the two distinct seats 
or stations of the organs of fructification. 

Class 24. Cryptogamia. Stamens and Pistils either 
not well ascertained, or not to be numbered with any 
certainty. Orders 5. 

1. Filices. Ferns. The parts of their flowers are al- 
most entirely unknown. The fructification, taken 
collectively, and proved to be such by the production 
of prolific seeds, grows either on the back, summit, 
or near the base of the frond. Some are called annu- 
late, annulated, their capsules being bound with an 
elastic transverse ring ; others thecatfi, or more prop- 
erly exannulatce, from the want of such an appendage, 
of which some of the latter have nevertheless a spu- 
rious vestige. All the former, and some of the lat- 
ter, are dorsiferous, bearing fruit on the back of the 
frond, and of these the fructification is either naked, 
or else covered with a membranous involucrum. 
The genera are distinguished by Linnaeus according 
to the shape and situation of the spots, or assemblages 
of capsules, besides which I have first found it nec- 
essary to take into consideration the absence or 


presence of the involucrum, and especially the direc- 
tion in which it bursts. See Tracts relating to Nat, 
Hist. 215, t. 1. 

Polypodium, Engl Bot. t. 1139, has no involu- 
crum ; Jspidium, t. 1458 — 146 1, has a single, and 
Scolopendrium, t. 1150, a double one. Osmunda, t. 
209, has been remarked by Professor Svvartz to 
have a spurious ring. It is one of those ferns the 
lobes of whose frond are metamorphosed, as it were, 
into spikes of capsules. Botrychhim of Swartz, more 
distinctly spiked, and having no vestige of a ring, is 
separated by him from Osmunda. See one species of 
it in Engl. Bot. t. 318. Ophioglossum, t. 108, and 
Equisetum, t. 915, 929, are other examples of spiked 
ferns. Each seed of the latter is embraced by 4 fila- 
ments, judged by Hedwig to be the stamens. Sup- 
posed ferns with radical fructifications are Pilularia y t. 
521, and Isoetes, t. 1084 ; but the former might pos- 
sibly be referred to Monoecm Polyandria, and latter to 
Monoecia Monandria, as the system at present stands. 
Jjycopodium, t. 224, 1148, Sec, is a fern, at least in 
my opinion, with axillary fructification. 

2. Musci. Mosses. These are really herbs* with dis- 
tinct leaves and frequently as distinct a stem. Their 
conical membranous corolla is called a calyptra,f. 151, 
or veil, its summit being the stigma. This veil clothes 
the capsule, which, before the seed ripens, is elevated 
on a fruit-stalk. The capsule is of one cell and one 

• Hedwig's term musci frondosi is incorrect. 


valve, opening by a vertical lid, / 213f. Seeds very 
numerous and minute. The barren flowers of mosses 
consist of an indefinite number of nearly cylindrical, 
almost sessile anthers, / 190 ; the fertile flowers of 
one, rarely more, perfect pistils, accompanied by sev- 
eral barren pistils,/ 192. Both stamens and pistils 
are intermixed with numerous succulent jointed 
threads, / 191, which perhaps answer the purpose 
of a calyx or corolla, as far as protection is concerned. 
Some few species of moss have the stamens and pis- 
tils associated in the same flower, but they are gen- 
erally separate.. Hypnum, Engl. Bot. t. 1424, 1425, 
has a scaly sheath, or perichtetium,/. 150, at the base 
of its fruit-stalk, composed of leaves very different 
from the foliage of the plant. This is considered as 
a sort of calyx, see p, 202, and as such is allowed to 
enter into the generic character ; but there is some 
reason to esteem it rather of the nature of bracteas. 
The capsule of Splachnum, Engl. Bot. t. 144, &c, 
stands on a peculiar fleshy base, called apophysis,/. 
189 a. 

Micheli in his Genera Plantarum, published in 
1729, tab. 59, has well represented the parts above 
described, though he mistook their use, being quite 
ignorant of the fecundation of plants. Dillenius took 
the one flower precisely for the other, and yet absurd- 
ly called capsula what he believed to be anthera. Lin- 
naeus, who had previously formed just ideas on the 
subject, as appears from his manuscript Tour to Lap- 

t This part in Phascum only does not separate from the cap- 


land, too implicitly submitted his own judgment to 
that of Dillenius, and adopted his hypothesis, at the 
same time correcting, as he thought, his phraseology. 
Hence the whole glare of the blunder of Dillenius has. 
fallen on Linnaeus ; for while we read in the Linnzean 
definitions of mosses every where the word anthera, 
and in those of Dillenius, usually accompanying them, 
capsula ; few persons, who have lately been instruct- 
ed by Hedwig that the part in question is really a 
capsule, take the trouble to recollect that Dillenius so 
grossly misused that word* Various ideas have been 
started on this subject by Haller, Necker, and others, 
which could only claim attention while it remained in 
great obscurity. The excellent Hedwig has entire- 
ly the merit of an original discoverer in this branch of 
physiology. He examined all that had been done be- 
fore his time, detected the truth, raised mosses from 
seed,y^ 193 — 196, and established their characters on 
the principles we have already explained. 

The Linnaean genera of Mosses are chiefly found- 
ed on the situation of the capsule, whether lateral or 
terminal, with some other circumstances. They are 
too few, and not strictly natural. Hedwig first 
brought into notice the structure of the fringe, peris- 
tomium, which in most mosses borders the orifice of 
the capsule. This is either simple, f. 189 b, or 
double, f. 213, 214, and consists either of separate 
teeth, or of a plaited and jagged membrane. The 
external fringe is mostly of the former kind, the in- 
ner, when present, of the latter. The number of teeth, 
remarkably constant in each genus and species, is 


either 4, 8, 16, 32 or 64. On these therefore Hed- 
wig and his followers have placed great dependence, 
only perhaps going into too great refinements relative 
to the internal fringe, which is more difficult to exam- 
ine, and less certain, than the outer. Their great er- 
ror has been laying down certain principles as absolute 
in forming genera, without observing whether all such 
genera were natural. Such mistakes are very excus- 
able in persons not conversant with botany on a gen- 
eral scale, and whose minute and indefatigable atten- 
tion to the detail of their subject, more than compen- 
sates the want of what is easily supplied by more 
experienced systematics. Thus Barbula of Hedwig 
is separated from Tortula,*Engl. Bot. t. 1663, and 
Fissidens from Dicranum, t. 1272, 1273, on account 
of a difference of form or situation in the barren flow- 
ers, which is evidently of no moment, and merely di- 
vides genera that ought to be united. The same may- 
be said of genera founded on the union of the stamens 
and pistils in one flower. On this subject I have 
been more diffuse in a paper on Mnium, in Tr. of 
Linn, Soc. v. 7, 254, to which I beg leave to refer 
those who are desirous to study it further. Various 
and abundant specimens of this tribe of plants, show- 
ing the various structure of the fringe, lid and other 
parts, may be seen in the latter volumes of English 
Botany more especially. 

Mosses are found in the hottest and coldest cli- 
mates. They are extremely tenacious of life, and, 
after being long dried, easily recover their health and 
vigour by moisture. Their beautiful structure can- 


not be too much admired. Their species are nume- 
rous, and in some cases difficult to determine, partic- 
ularly in the genera Tortula and Orthotrichum ; nor 
is the generic character of the latter so easy or certain 
as most others. Schreber, Dickson, Swartz, Biidel, 
Weber, Mohr and Turner are great names in this 
department of Botany, besides those of whom we 
have already spoken. 

3. Hepatictz. Liverworts. Of these the herbage is 
commonly frondose, the fructification originating from 
what is at the same time both leaf and stem. This 
character, however, proves less absolute than one 
founded on their capsules, which differ essentially 
from those of the preceding Order in having nothing 
like a lid or operculum. The corolla or veil of some 
of the genera is like that of Mosses, but usuallv bursts 
at the top. The barren flowers are unlike the organ- 
ized stamens of the last-mentioned plants, being 
either undefined powdery heads, as in Jungermamiia, 
see Hedvvig's T/woria, t. 15, or of some peculiar con- 
formation, as in Marchantia, Engl. Bot. £. 210, where 
they are imbedded in a disk like the seeds of Lichens, 
in a manner so contrary to all analogy, that botanists 
can scarcely agree which are the barren and which 
the fertile flowers of this genus. The four-valved 
capsule of Jungermannia, with the veil bursting at 
its summit to let the fruit-stalk pass, may be seen in 
Engl. Bot. t. 185, 186, which are both frondose spe- 
cies, like /. epiphylla, t. 771, whose calyx as well as 
corolla are evident ; and t. 605 — 608, which have 


apparently distinct leaves, like Mosses. Anthoceros, 
t. 1537, 1538, is a curious genus of the Hepatica. 
Linnaeus comprehended this Order under the follow- 
ing one, to which it is, most assuredly, far less akin 
than to the foregoing. 

4. Alga. Flags. In this Order the herbage is fron- 
dose, sometimes a mere crust, sometimes of a leathe- 
ry or gelatinous texture. The seeds are imbedded, 
cither in the frond itself, or in some peculiar recepta- 
cle. The barren flowers are but imperfectly known. 
Here we find that great natural Order, comprehended 
by Linnjeus under one genus by the name of Lichen^ 
the fructification of which, for the most part, consists 
of a smooth round disk, f. 198, flat, convex, or con- 
cave, with or without an adventitious border, in the 
substance of which disk the seeds are lodged. In 
some others they are placed in powdery warts, or in 
fibrous receptacles. The barren flowers are supposed 
to be powdery also, f. 197, very much like those of 
Jungermannia. See Engl. Bot. t. 126, and various 
other parts of that work, where a great number of 
species are figured. The whole tribe has been much 
investigated, and attempted to be divided into natural 
genera founded on habit, by Dr. Hoffmann of Goct- 
tingen, whose figures are perfect in their kind. But a 
more complete scheme for reducing this family to 
systematic order has been recently made known to 
the world by Dr. Acharius, a learned Suede, who in 
his Prodomus, and Methodus Lichcnum, has divided 

it into genera founded on the receptacle of the seeds 


alone. Hence those genera, though more technical, 
are less natural than Hoffmann's ; but they will, most 
likely, prove the foundation of all that can in future 
be done on the subject, and the works of Acharius 
form a new £era in cryptogamic botany. It is only 
perhaps to be regretted that he has been somewhat 
too prodigal of new terms, which when not wanted 
are always a burthen to science, and rather obscure 
than illustrate it. Thus Hedwig used the term spo- 
rangium for a seed-vessel, pericarpium, in which the 
learner would seek in vain for any distinction, or new 
idea. A student might very justly complain if, in a 
science necessarily so overburthened with words, he 
were required to call the same part by a different name 
in every different family. I would gladly therefore 
retain the wovdfrons in preference to the thallus of 
Acharius, receptaculum for his apothecium, pedicel/us 
for his bacillum or podetium, and semina for his spora, 
because I see no improvement in the change. When 
this or any other writer strikes out new ideas, and dis- 
criminates parts hitherto mistaken or unknown, we 
thankfully receive from him new terms to express his 
discoveries. Thus the cyphella of Acharius is a pe- 
culiar sort of pit or pore on the under side of the 
frond in that section of Lichens called Sticta, see 
Engl. Hot. t. 1103, 1104 ; his UrelU are the black 
letter-like receptacles of the genus Opegrapha, t. 
1753 — 1756 ; his trica the analogous parts, resemb- 
ling a coiled horse-hair, in Gyrophola, the Umbilicaria 
of Hoffmann, t. 522. These terms are necessarv 


and instructive, and are chosen with that accuracy 
and taste for which Dr. Acharius is conspicuous. 

The aquatic or submersed Algae form a distinct 
and peculiar tribe. Some of these abound in fresh 
water, others in the sea, whence the latter are com- 
monly denominated sea- weeds. The chief genera 
are Ulva, t. 419, 420, 1276, well defined by its seeds 
being dispersed under the cuticle throughout the 
membranous or gelatinous substance of the frond ; 
Fucus, t. 1066 — 1069, &c, whose seeds are collect- 
ed together in tubercles or swellings, of various forms 
and sizes ; and Conferva, of which the 24th and 25th 
volumes of Engl. Bot., more especially, show various 
specimens. This last genus is commonly known by 
its capillary, and, for the most part, jointed frond. 
The seeds of some species are lodged in external 
capsules or tubercles ; of others in the joints of the 
frond ; and hence the ingenious Dr. Roth has formed 
a genus of the former, called Ceramium. His Rivu- 
laria, Engl. Bot. t. 1797—1799, is perhaps more 
satisfactorily separated from Conferva, as we trust is 
Vaucheria, t. 1765, 1766, a fresh-water genus named 
after M. Voucher of Geneva, who has published an 
elaborate and faithful microscopical work on Fresh- 
water Confervas. The submersed Alga in general 
are merely fixed by the roots, their nourishment be- 
ing imbibed by their surface. Many of them float 
without being attached to any thing. The genus 
Fucus has received more botanical attention than the 
rest of this tribe, and the works of Gmelin, Esper, 
Stackhouse and Velley have ascertained many spe- 


cics, which the labours of Dr. Goodenough, Mr. 
Woodward and Mr. Turner have reduced to system- 
atic order. Still a more perfect combination of the 
skill of the painter and the botanist is to be desired, 
relative to the genus in question, and this is about to 
be supplied by the Historia Fucorum of the writer 
last mentioned, and his friend Mr. W. J. Hooker. 

5. Fungi. Mushrooms. These cannot properly be 
said to have any herbage. Their substance is fleshy, 
generally 7 of quick growth and short duration, differ- 
ing in firmness, from a watery pulp to a leathery or 
even woody texture. By some naturalists they have 
been thought of an animal nature, chiefly because of 
their foetid scent in decay, and because little white 
bodies like eggs are found in them at that period. 
But these are truly the eggs of flies, laid there by the 
parent insect, and destined to produce a brood of 
maggots, to feed on the decaying fungus, as on a dead 
carcase. Ellis's beautiful discoveries, relative to co- 
rals and their inhabiting polypes, led to the strange 
analogical hypothesis that these insects formed the 
fungus, which Munchausen and others have asserted. 
Some have thought yw/zg-z were composed of the sap 
of corrupted wood, transmuted into a new sort of be- 
ing, an idea as unphilosophical as the former, and 
unsupported by any semblance of truth. 

Dryander, Schseffer and Hedwig have, on much 
better grounds, asserted their vegetable nature, de- 
tected thsir seeds, and in many cases explained their 
parts of fructification. In fact, they propagate their 


species as regularly as any other organized beings, 
though, like others, subject to varieties. Their se- 
questered and obscure habitations, their short dura- 
tion, their mutability of form and substance, render 
them indeed more difficult of investigation than com- 
mon plants, but there is no reason to suppose them 
less perfect, or less accurately defined. Splendid and 
accurate works, illustrative of this Order, have been 
given to the world by Schasffer, Bulliard and Sower- 
by, which are the more useful as the generality of 
fungi cannot well be preserved. The most distin- 
guished writer upon them, indeed the only good sys- 
tematic one, is Persoon, who has moreover supplied 
us with some exquisite figures. His Synopsis Me- 
thodica Fungorum helps us to the following arrange- 

1. Angiocarpi, such as bear seeds internally. These 
are either hard, like Sphceria, Sowerb. Fung. t. 159, 
160 ; or membranous, tough and leathery, like Ly- 
coperdon, t. 331, 332 ; Cyathus (Nidularia) t. 28, 
29 ; or Batarrea ( ' LycoperdonJ t. 390. 

2. Gymnocarpi, such as bear seeds imbedded in an 
appropriate, dilated, exposed membrane, denomina- 
ted hymenium, like Helvetia, t. 39, in which that part 
is smooth and even ; Boletus, t. 34, 87, 134, in which 
it is porous ; and the vast genus Agaricus, t. 1, 2, 
&c, in which it consists of parallel plates called la- 
mellae, or gills. 

Persoon has been commendably sparing of new 
terms. Besides Hymenium above explained, he has 
scarcely introduced any other than peridium, for the 

392 PALM1E. 

round membranous dry case of the seeds in some ot 
the 1st section. The term pileus, a hat, is used by 
all authors for the head of those fungi that compose 
the 2d section. 

Appendix. Palmce. The natural order of Palms 
was so little understood when Linnaeus formed his 
systematical arrangement of plants, and so few of their 
flowers had been scientifically examined, that he was 
under the necessity of leaving this order as an appen- 
dix to his system, till it could be better investigated. 
To its peculiar habit and physiology we have adverted 
in several of the foregoing pages, see p. 58 — 60, 63, 
117, &c. 

Late observations show Palms to have for the most 
part 6 stamens, rarely 3 or 9, with 3 or 6 petals, and 
1 or 3 styles ; which last are sometimes in the same 
flower with the stamens, sometimes in a separate one, 
but both flowers always agree in general structure. 
Their fruit is generally a drupa. They are akin to 
the liliaceous tribe, and Linnaeus happily terms them 
the princes of the vegetable kingdom. His most nu- 
merous remarks concerning them occur in his Pra- 
lectiones in Ordines Naturales Plantarum, published 
by Professor Giseke at Hamburgh in 1792, from pri- 
vate lectures and conversations of Linnaeus. This 
work however is necessarily full of errors and mis- 
takes, not only from its mode of compilation and the 
intricacy of the subject, but because Linnaeus had 
only partially studied certain parts of that subject, and 
was undecided in his sentiments upon those parts. 


It was a singular instance of indulgent liberality in 
him to allow his disciples Fabricius and Giseke to 
make notes, for their own use, of what he considered 
himself as scarcely competent to lay in a finished form 
before the public. We are obliged to the editor for 
preserving these valuable though crude materials, and 
he has shown ability in digesting and elucidating them. 
I should scarcely, for my own part, have thought it 
right to furnish still more crude and imperfect guesses 
and opinions, from manuscripts which their illustri- 
ous author had purposely, as it appears, withheld from 
his auditors, lest he should lead them into error. 
This will explain a note in Professor Giseke's preface, 
p. 19, which however was printed before his request 
came to my knowledge ; for two very intelligent 
friends, through whom it was meant to be conveyed, 
judged it unreasonable to be made, as well as im- 
proper to be complied with, and therefore suppressed 
the message. 

I have only to add a few practical remarks on the 
preparation and use of an Herbarium or Hortus Siccus. 
The advantages of preserving specimens of plants, as far 
as it can be done, for examination at all times and sea- 
sons, is abundantly obvious. Notwithstanding the 
multitude of books filled with descriptions and figures 
of plants, and however ample or perfect such may be, 
they can teach no more than their authors observed ; 


but when we have the works of Nature before us, we 
can investigate them for ourselves, pursuing any train of 
inquiry to its utmost extent, nor arc we liable to be mis- 
led by the errors or misconceptions of others. A good 
practical botanist must be educated among the wild 
scenes of nature, while a finished theoretical one requires 
the additional assistance of gardens and books, to which 
must be superadded the frequent use of a good herba- 
rium. When plants are well dried, the original forms 
and positions of even their minutest parts, though not 
their colours, may at any time be restored by immersion 
in hot water. By this means the productions of the 
most distant and various countries, such as no garden 
could possibly supply, are brought together at once un- 
der our eyes, at any season of the year. If these be as- 
sisted with drawings and descriptions, nothing less than 
an actual survey of the whole vegetable world, in a state 
of nature, could excel such a store of information. 

Some persons recommend the preservation of speci- 
mens in weak spirits of wine, and this mode is by far the 
most eligible for such as arc very juicy. But it totally 
destroys their colours, and often renders their parts less 
fit for examination than the above-mentioned mode. It 
is besides incommodious for frequent study, and a very 
expensive and bulky way of making an herbarium. 

The greater part of plants dry with facility between 
the leaves of books, or other paper, the smoother the 
better. If there be plenty of paper, they often dry best 
without shifting ; but if the specimens are crowded, 
they must be taken out frequently, and the paper dried 
before they are replaced. The great point to be attend- 


td to is that the process should meet with no check. 
Several vegetables are so tenacious of their vital princi- 
ple, that they will grow between papers, the conse- 
quence of which is a destruction of their proper habit 
and colours. It is necessary to destroy the life of such, 
either by immersion in boiling water, or by the applica- 
tion of a hot iron, such as is used for linen, after which 
they are easily dried. I cannot however approve of the 
practice of applying such an iron, as some persons do, 
with great labour and perseverance, till the plants are 
quite dry, and all their parts incorporated into a smooth 
flat mass. This renders them unfit for subsequent ex- 
amination, and destroys their natural habit, the most 
important thing to be preserved. Even in spreading 
plants between papers, we should refrain from that pre- 
cise and artificial disposition of their branches, leaves, 
and other parts, which takes away from their natural as- 
pect, except for the purpose of displaying the internal 
parts of some one or two of their flowers, for ready ob- 

After all we can do, plants dry very variously. The 
blue colours of their flowers generally fade, nor are 
reds always permanent. Yellows are much more so, 
but very few white flowers retain their natural aspect. 
The Snowdrop and Parnassia, if well dried, contin- 
ue white. Some greens are much more permanent 
than others ; for there are some natural families whose 
leaves as well as flowers turn almost black by drying, 
as Melampyrum, Bartsia, and their allies, several Wil- 
lows, and most of the Orchidea. The Heaths and 
Firs in general cast off their leaves between papers, 



which appears to be an effort of the living prin- 
ciple, for it is prevented by immersion of the fresh 
specimen in boiling water. Nandina domestica, a Jap- 
anese shrub, lately introduced among us by Lady 
A. Hume and Mr. Evans of Stepney, is very remark- 
able in this respect. Every leaflet of its very com- 
pound leaves separates from its stalk in drying, and 
even those stalks all fall to pieces at their joints. 

Dried specimens are best preserved by being fas- 
tened, with weak carpenter's glue, to paper, so that 
they may be turned over without damage. Thick 
and heavy stalks require the additional support of a 
few transverse strips of paper, to bind them more 
firmly down. A half sheet, of a convenient folio size, 
should be allotted to each species, and all the species 
of a genus may be placed in one or more whole sheets. 
On the latter the name of the genus should external- 
ly be written, while the name of every species, with 
its place of growth, time of gathering, the finder's 
name, or any other concise piece of information, may 
be inscribed on its appropriate paper. This is the 
plan of the Linnsean Herbarium, in which every spe- 
cies, which its original possessor had before him when 
he wrote his great work the Species Plantarum, is 
numbered both in pencil and in ink, as well as nam- 
ed, the former kind of numbers having been tempo- 
rary till the book to which they refer was printed, af- 
ter which they were confirmed with a pen, and a co- 
py of the book, now also in my hands, was marked 
in reference to them. Here therefore we do not de- 
pend on the opinion merely, even of Linnaeus, for wq 


have always before our eyes the very object which 
was under his inspection. We have similar indica- 
tions of the plants described in his subsequent works, 
the herbarium being most defective in those of his 2d 
Mantissa, his least accurate publication. We often 
find remarks there, made from specimens acquired 
after the Species Plantarum was published. These 
the herbarium occasionally shows to be of a different 
species from the original one, and it thus enables us 
to correct such errors. 

The specimens thus pasted, are conveniently kept 
in lockers, or on the shelves of a proper cabinet. Lin- 
naeus in the Philosophia Botanica exhibits a figure of 
one, divided into appropriate spaces for- each class, 
which he supposed would hold his whole collection. 
But he lived to fill two more of equal size, and his 
herbarium has been perhaps doubled since his death 
by the acquisitions of his son and of its present posses- 

One great and mortifying impediment to the per- 
fect preservation of an herbarium arises from the at- 
tacks of insects. A little beetle called Ptinus Fur is, 
more especially, the pest of collectors, laying its eggs 
in the germens or receptacle of flowers, and others of 
the more solid parts, which are speedily devoured by 
the maggots when hatched, and by their devastations 
paper and plants are alike involved in ruin. The 
most, bitter and acrid tribes, as Euphorbia, Gentiana 7 
Prunus, the Syngenesious class, and especially Wil- 
lows, are preferred by these vermin. The last-men- 
tioned family can scarcely be thoroughly dried before 


it is devoured. Ferns are scarcely ever attacked, and 
grasses but seldom. — To remedy this inconvenience 
I have found a solution of corrosive sublimate of 
mercury in rectified spirits of wine, about two drams 
to a pint, with a little camphor, perfectly efficacious. 
It is easily applied with a camel-hair pencil when the 
specimens are perfectly dry, not before ; and if they 
are not too tender, it is best done before they are pas- 
ted, as the spirit extracts a yellow dye from many 
plants, and stains the paper. A few drops of this so- 
lution should be mixed with the glue used for pasting. 
This application not only destroys or keeps off all 
vermin, but it greatly revives the colours of most 
plants, giving the collection a most pleasing air of 
freshness and neatness. After several years' experi- 
ence, I can find no inconvenience from it whatever, 
nor do I see that any dried plants can long be preserv- 
ed without it. 

The herbarium is best kept in a dry room without 
a constant fire. Linnaeus had a stone building for his 
museum, remote from his dwelling-house, into which, 
I have been told, neither fire nor candle was ever ad- 
mitted, yet nothing can be more free than his collec- 
tion from the injuries of dampness, or other causes of 

I 389 } 


Tab. 1*fig. 1. Anatomy of wood, after Mirbel. See 
p. 30. f. 2. Embryo of Pinus Cembra, shown in a 
section of the seed, then separate, and magnified, 
from Mr. Lambert's work. See p. 91, 229. f. 
3. Seedling plants of the Dombeya, or Norfolk 
Island Pine, with its 4 cotyledons, and young leafy 
branches of the natural size, p. 91. f. 4. A garden 
bean, Vicia Fabia, laid open, showing its 2 cotyledons, 
p. 90 ; f the radicle, or young root, p. 90 ; g the 
germ or corculum, p. 90, Above is a bean which 
has made some progress in vegetation, showing the 
descending root, the ascending plumula. and the 
skin of the seed bursting irregularly. 

Tab. 2. Roots, f. 5. Fibrous, in Grass, p. 96. f. 6. 
Creeping, Mint, p. 96. f. 7. Spindle-shaped, Rad- 
ish, accompanied by its cotyledons and young leaves, 
p. 197. f. 8. Abrupt, Scabiosa succisa : f. 9. Tube- 
rous, Potatoe, p. 198. f. 10. Oval knobs of some 
Orchidece : f. 11. Palmate ones of others : yi2. 
Several pairs of knobs in Satyr'mm albidum : p. 109. 
f. 13. solid Bulb in Crocus : f. 14. Tunicate Bulb in 
Allium: f. 15. Scaly one in LHium : p. 100. f. 16. 
Granulated Root of Sax{/raga granulata,p. 101. 


Tab. 3. Stems and Buds. f. 17. Forked Stems, in 
Chlora perfoliate!, p. 105. f. 18. Scaly, in Orobein- 
che : f 19. Radicans, or Clinging, in Ivy,j&. 106. 
f 20. Twining from left to right, in Lonicera ;f. 21 : 
from right to left, in Convolvulus, p. 107. f 22. 
Sarmentum, a Runner, in the Strawberry, p. 108. 
f 23. Caulis determinate ramosus, as in the Azalea, 
family, /?. 122. f. 24. Three pair of Buds, in Loni- 
cera ccerulea, f 25. Bud of the Horse Chesnut, 
p. 137. 

Tab. 4. Leaves. / 26. Tufted leaves, p. 126. / 27. 
Imbricated : f. 28, Decussated : f. 29. Two-ranked, 
Yew : / 30. Unilateral,/?. 147. / 31. Peltate, Nas- 
turtium,/?. 149. f. 32. Clasping the stem, p. 150. 
/ 33. Perfoliate : / 34. Sheathing :/ 35. Equitant : 
/ 36. Decurrent, p. 130, and spinous, p. 162. / 37. 
Flower-bearing, Ruscus aculeatus, p. 130. 

Tab. 5. f 38. Orbicular, Hedysarum styracfolium, p. 
131. / 39. Roundish, Pyrola : f. 40. Ovate : / 41. 
Obovate : /42. Elliptical or oval : f 43. Spatulate, 
p. 154. f. 44. Wedge-shaped : f. 45. Lanceolate : 

f. 46. Linear : / 47. Needle-shaped : / 48. Trian- 
gular, p. 155. f 49. Quadrangular, (also abrupt, p. 
159), Tulip-tree : / 50. Deltoid : • / 51. Rhomboid : 

/ 52. Kidney- shaped,/?. 133. / 53. Heart-shaped : 

f. 54. Crescent-shaped : f. 55. Arrow-shaped : f. 56. 
Halberd-shaped, (also acute,/?. 137), / 57. Fiddle- 
shaped, (also obtuse, /?. 137), Rumex pulcher, p. 157. 

/ 58. Runcinate : / 59. Lyrate : / 60. Cloven : f. 


61. Three-lobed 7 Anemone Hepatica : f. 62. Sinua- 
ted, Oak : f. 63. Deeply divided, Helleborus, p. 135. 
f. 64. Laciniated : 

Tab. 6. / 65. Palmate : / 66. Pinnatifid : f. 67. 
Doubly pinnatifid,/?. 136. / 68. Pectinate : / 69. 
Unequal, Begonia : / 70. Jagged-pointed, p. 160. 
f. 71. -Refuse, Rumex digynus : f. 72, Emarginate : 
/ 73. Pointed : / 74. Blunt with a small point,/*. 
161. f. 75. Sharp pointed, Ruscus aculeatus : / 
76. Cirrose : / 77. Spinous, p. 138. / 78. Frin- 
ged : / 79. Toothed : / 80. Serrated : / 81. 
Crenate, p. 139. 

Tab. 7. f. 82. Doubly as well as sharply crenate, ap- 
proaching to / 80. : / 83. Jagged : / 84. Wavy, 
Menyanthes nymphxoides : f. 85. Plaited, p. 165. 
/ 86. Undulated ;/ 87. Curled,/?. 141./ 88. Veiny : 
/ 89. Ribbed : / 90. Three-ribbed, p. 167./ 91. 
Three- -ribbed at the base : / 92. Triply-ribbed : 
/ 93. Cylindrical, Concilium, p. 142. / 94. Semicy- 
lindrical : / 95. Awl-shaped :/ 96. Doubly tubular, 
Lobelia Dortmanna : / 97. Channelled,/?. 143./ 98. 
Hatchet-shaped,/?. 171. / 99. Three-edged, Mes- 
embryanthemum deltoides : / 100. Four-edged : 

Tab. 8. / 101. Alienated, Mimosa virlicillata, p. 
145.* / 102. Hooded, Sarracenia.p. 146. / 103. 

* I have found by recent experiment, that the first leaf of 
JYathyrus JVissolia is like the rest, not pinnated, but simple and 
sessile. See p.. 173. 


Furnished with an appendage, Dionaa muscipula : J. 
104. Jointed, Fagara tragodes, p. 149./ 105. Bin- 
ate,/?. 148. / 106. Ternate : / 107. Interruptedly 
Pinnate, p. 148. f. 108. Pinnate in a lyrate form, p. 
149./! 109. Pinnate in a whorled manner, p. 150. 
f. 110. Auricied : / 111. Compound, p. 150. / 
149. Doubly compound, or Twice ternate : f. 113. 
Thrice compound, or Thrice ternate :f. 114. Pedate, 
Helleborus, p. 151. 

Tab. 9. Appendages, f. 115. Stipulas of Lathyrus 
latifolius, p. 178 ; also an abruptly pinnated leaf, end- 
ing in a tendril, p. 176. f. 116. Stipulas united to 
the footstalk, in Rosa, p. 178 ; also a pinnated leaf 
with a terminal leaflet, p. 148. f. 117. Floral leaf of 
T/lia, p. 180. f. 118. Coloured floral leaves, Lavan- 
dula Stoechas : /T 1 19. Spinous ones, Atractyhs can- 
eellata : f. 120. Thorns, Hippophae rhamnoides, p. 
223. / 121. Prickles, p. 182. / 122. Tendril, 
Lathyrus latifohus : f. 123. Glands of the Moss 
Rose, p. 226. /. 124. Hairs : f. 125. Bristles of 
Echium pyrenaicum, p. 185. 

Tab. 10. Inflorescence, f. 126. Whorl, in Lamium, 
p. 188./! 127. Whorled leaves, and axillary flowers, 
of Hippuris vulgaris, p. 188./! 128. Cluster, Ribes : 
f. 129. Spike, Ophrys spiralis : f. 130. Less correct 
Spike, Veronica spicata, p. 180. f. 131. Spikelet, 
Biomus.p. 189. /. 132. Corymb: /! 133. Corym- 
bose fascicle, Achillea, p. 190. /! 134. Fascicle, 
Dianthus Armeria, p. 190. /. 135. Head or Tuft, 


Trifolium : f. 136. Simple Umbel, Eucalyptus pi- 
perita, p. 191. f. 1S7. Simple Umbel in the natural 
order of Umbellate?, Astrantia major, with the Involu- 
crum, a : 

Tab. 11. f. 138. Compound Umbel, Laserpitium 

simplex, with its general Involucrum, a, and partial 

one, b, p. 198. f. 139. Cyme, Laurustinus, p. 192. 

/ 140. Panicle, Oat,/;. 192. / 141. Bunch, Com- 

mon Vine, p. 193. 

Calyx. / 142. Perianthium, or Calyx properly 
so called, Dianthus deltoides, p. 197. f. 143. Involu- 
crum, so called, in Anemone, p. 198. f. 144. Invo- 
lucrum or Indusium of Ferns, p. 199. f. 145. One 
of the same separate, with a capsule and its ring. f. 
146. Catkin of the Hasel-nut p. 200. 

Tab. 12. Calyx and corolla, with Nectary, f. 147- 
Sheath of the Narcissus ; a, the Petals, called by 
Jussieu, Calyx ; b, the Crown or Nectary, seep. 212. 
/ 148. / Husk of Grasses, p. 201. / 149. Awns, 
f. 150. Scaly Sheath, Pterogonium Smithii, p. 20L 
/ 151. Veil of the same, p. 203. / 152. Jun- 
germannia epiphylla, showing a, the Calyx, p. 201 ; 
b, the Veil or Corolla, p. 203 ; and c, the uno- 
pened Capsule. /. 153. Wrapper, Agaricus : f. 
154. Radical Wrapper,/?. 203./ 155. Monopetalous 
Salver-shaped Corolla, p. 206. / 156. Polypet- 
alous Cruciform Corolla : f. 1 57. A separate Petal 



of the same ; a, Claw ; b, Border ; / 158. Unequal 
Corolla, Butomus, p. 206. 

Tab. 13. / 159. Bell-shaped Corolla : / 160. Fun- 
nel shaped:/ 161. Ringent :/. 162. Personate, 
Antirrhinum reticulatum, p. 207. / 163. Papiliona- 
ceous, Lathyrus ; f. 164. Standard of the same ; 
/ 165. One of the Wings; / 166. Keel ; / 167. 
Stamens, style &c, : f. 168, Incomplete Corolla, Rit- 
tera.f. 169. Peloria, or regular-flowered variety of 
Antirrhinum Linaria, p. 207. f. 170. Nectary in the 
Calyx of Tropceolum: f, 171. Nectary of Aquilegia, 
p. 266. / 172, 173. The same part in Epimedi- 
um : f. 174. Pair of Nectaries in Aconitum, p. 214. 
f. 175. Fringed Nectaries in Parnassia, p. 214. 

Tab. 14. Stamens, Pistils and Fruit. / 176. A Sta- 
men : c, filament ; b y anther, p. 217. f. 177. 
Pistils : a, ^vrmen ; b> style ; e, stigma, p. 218. f. 
178. Capsule of an annual Mesembryanthemum, open 
and shut, p. 221. f. 179. Transverse section of the 
capsule of Datura, p. 221, showing the partitions and 
columella, f. 180. Siliqua, or Pod : / 181. Silicula, 
or Pouch, p. 222. / 182. Legume,/?. 223./ 183. 
Stone-fruit,/;. 282. / 184. Apple : / 185. Berry : 
/ 186. Compound Berry, p. 225. / 187. Berry of 
Passiflora suberosa, p. 284. f. 188. Cone, Larch, />. 
227. f. 189. Capsule of a Moss, Splachnum, with 
its fleshy base, or apophysis, a, and fringe, b, p. 


Tab. 15. f. 190. Barren flower of a Moss, much mag- 
nified, after Hedvvig : f. 191. Stamens, with the Pol- 
len coming forth, and the jointed filaments, p. 215. 
f. 192. Fertile flower of a Moss, consisting of num- 
erous pistils, only one of which in general comes to 
perfection. They are also accompanied by jointed 
filaments : f. 193. A germinating seed of Gy mnos- 
tomum pyriforme^ from Htdwig likewise, showing its 
expanding embryo : f. 194. The same more advan- 
ced : f. 195. The same much further advanced, and 
become a young plant,showing its leaves and branched 
cotyledons, p. 274. f. 19 . Young plant of Funaria 
hygrometrica, exhibiting the same parts, p. 276. f. 
197. Powdery wart of a Lichen, presumed to be its 
barren flower : f. 198. Perpendicular section, magni- 
fied, of the shield or fruit of a Lichen, showing the seeds 
imbedded in its disk, p. 311. f. 199. Section of the 
seed of a Date, Phoenix dactylifera, from Gaertner, the 
bulk of which is a hard Albumen, p. 230, having a lateral 
cell in which is lodged the horizontal embryo, #,/>. 229. 
f. 200. Section of the Vitellus in Zamia, from the same 
author, with its embryo a, with which it is, like a co- 
tyledon, closely connected, p. 231. f. 201. Rough 
coats of the seeds in Cynoglossum, p. 298. f. 202. 
Arillus of a Carex, p. 235. / 203. Seed of Afzelia, 
with its cup-shaped Arillus. p. 235. f. 204. Pappus, or 
seed-down, of Tragopogon, p. 237. f. 205. Tail of 
the seed in Dryas : f. 206. Beaked fruit of Scandix, 
with its seeds separating from their base, p. 238. 
/ 207. Winged seed of Embothrium, p. 238. / 


208. Section of the conical Receptacle of the Dais?, 
with its calyx : /. 209. Cellular Receptacle of Ono- 
pordum,p. 241. / 210. Ligulate floret with both 
stamens and pistil, in a Dandelion, />. 242. f. 211. 
Ligulate floret with only a pistil, in the radius of a 
Daisy, p. 242. / 212. Tubular floret from the disk 
of the same, having stamens and a fertile pistil, p. 242, 
/ 213. Capsule of a Moss with^a double fringe, the 
lid shown apart, p. 373. /. 214. A portion of the 
same fringe magnified, p. 374. 

i 39 * 3 



Abroma, 345 

Abrus Precatorius, 344 

Acer, 326 

.. saccharinum, 67 

JEsculus Hippocastanum, 120 

Agrimonia, 283 

Ailanthus, 369 

Algs, 377 

Alopecurus bulbosus, 102 

Amaranthus, 363 

Amaryllis formosissima, 251 

Ambrosinia, 365 

Anagallis, 253 

Angiopteris, 300 

Annona hexapetala, 1 84 

Aponogeton, 324 

Aquilicia, 363 

Arenaria, 261 

Aristolochia Clematitis, 263 

Sipho, 263 

Arum, 85 
Ash, 62 
\sperifolis, 320 

Athrodactylis, 366 
Atriplex, 369 
Aucuba, 288 

Bamboo, 73 
Barberry, 255 
Bauhinia, 291 
Black rose, 82 
Blandfordia, 281 
Bonapartea, 270 
Brodixa, 2 1 1 
Browallia. 297 
Bryonia, 297 
Bubroma, 345 
Buffonia, 297 

Cactus coccinellifer, 265 
Cxnopteris, 300 
Calamagrostis, 30Q 
Calceolaria, 289 
Calla, 359 
Canna, 354. 



Capura, 323 

Carpinus Betulus, 201 

Caryocar, 337 

Caryophyllus, 330 

Celosia, 254 

Ceratonia, 370 


C.hara, 361. 

Cherry, double-blossomed, 219 

Chrysanthemum indicum, 77 

Cistus creticus, 156 

Citrus, 346 

Cleome, 337 

Climbing plants, 107. 

Cluytia, 368 

Coffee, 268 

Columniferae, 339 

Conchium, 291 

Conferva bullosa, 1 73 

Contortx, 321 

Coriaria, 369 

Cornus mascula, 156 

Corymbium, 349 

Cucumis, 364 

Cucurbita, 364 

Cuscuta, 319 

Cyamus Nelumbo, 287 

Cycas revoluta, 259 

Cytinus, 358 

Darea, 302 
Devil's-bit, 97 
Dicksonia, 292 
Dictamnus albus, 156 
Dillenia, 291 

Dionxa muscipula, 146 
Dodecatheon Meadia, 35 
Dog-rose, 250 
Dombeya, 9 1 
Dorstenia, 291 
Dracontium, 360 

Epimedium alpinum, 2W 
Eriocalia, 371 
Ervum, 347 
Euclea, 370 
Euphorbia, 3&5 

Ferns, 371 
Ficus, 262, 376 
Filices, 371 
Flores tristes, 78 
Fontainesia, 290 
Fraximus Ornus, 157 
Fungi, 380 

Gentiana, 289 
Glaucium phcenicium, 253 
Glycyrrhiza, 289 
Goodenia, 290 
Gourd tribe, 364 
Grasses, 318 
Grewia, 359 
Guettarda, 364 
Gundelia, 290 
Gypsophila, 289 

Hastingia coccinea, 31 1 
Hedysarum gyrans, 172 
Helianthns annuus, 171,15^ 



Helianthus tuberosus, 98 
Helicterea, 366 
Hemerocallis, 289 
Hemp, 258 
Hepalicse, 376 
Hernandia, 29 1 
Hillia, 297 

Hippomane Mancinella, 167 
Hippophae rhamnoides, 367 
Hippuris, 349 
Holmskioldia, 311 
Hop, 157 

Horse-chesnut, .1 20 
Humea, 290 

Jatropha urens, 251 
Jerusalem artichoke, 98 
Jungermannia, 376 

Kalmia, 255 
Kleinliovia, 359 
Knappia, 292 

Lace-bark, 38 
Lachenalia tricolor, 101 
Lasiopetalum, 289 
Lathy rus Apliaca, 180 
Lavatera arborea, 95 
Leea, 363 
Lenina, 344, 361 
Lichen, 377 
Liliacex, 323 
Lilium bulbiferum, 61, 
Linnaea, 291 
Lithospermum, 289 

Liverworts, 376 
Lobelia longiflora, 167 
Lonicera Cxrulea, 1 18 
Luridse, 320 

Magnolia, 291, 323 
Maltese oranges, 82 
Malvacex, 339 
Marchantia, 376 
Meadow Saffron, 349 
Melaleuca, 346 
Mentha, 335 
Mimosa pudica, 210 

sensitiva, 172 

Mirabilis, 357 
Monocotyledones, 60 
Mansonia, 346 
Morus, 364 
Mosses, 372 
Murray, 296 
Musa, 250 
Musci, 372 
Mussxnda, 181 
Mysosotis, 187 
Myristica, 369 
Myrti, 330 

Nandina domestica, 387 
Naatus, 73 
Nelumbium, 287 
Nepenthes distillatoria, 356 

Nopal, 265 

Norfolk island, pine of, 9 1 
Nymph^a, 260, 168 



Omphalea, 365 
Orchidese, 352 
Origanum, 289 
Ornithopus perpusillus, 121 
Orobus sylvaticus, 130 
Oxalis sensitiva, 172 

Palmse, 382 
Pandanus, 366, 288 
Papilionaceas, 341 
Passiflora, 338 
Periploca grsca, 357 
Phleum pratense, 102 
Phyllachne, 352 
Pine-apple, 348 
Pinus, 365 
Pistatij L,entiscus, 270 

Pistia, 339 


Plane-tree, its buds, 1 19 
Pomacese, 330 
Populus dilatata, 157 
Potamogeton, 260 
Pothos, 360 
Precise, 320 
Primula marginata, 85 
Pteris, 300 

Rhapis, 251 
Rhodiola, 368 
Rivularia, 376 
Rosacea, 330 
Rotaces:, 320 
Rubiace*, 319, 219 
Rumex sanguineus, 72 
Rutacese, 235 

Ruta graveolens, 254 

Salix, 361 

Salvia pomifera, 270 
Sarracenia, 146, 161 
Scheuchzeria, 29 1 
Scitamineae, 316 
Scopolia, 358 
Seriphium, 349 
Silene inflata, 271 
Sisyrinchium, 344 
Smithia sensitiva, 343, 292 
Solandra grandiflora, 123 
Spergula, 281 
Sprengelia, 292 
Sterculia, 328 
S.tilago, 35 5 
Strelitzia, 291 
Strumpfia, 354 
Stuartia, 90 
Stylidium, 369 

Tabasheer, 7$ 
Tamarindus, 344 
Taxus nucifera, 227 
Thea, 347 
Theobroma, 345 
Tmesipteris, 300 
Tournefortia, 290 
Tragopogon major, 270 
Tropaeolum, 326 
Tulbaghia, 2 1 1 

Umbelliferae, 321 
Uredo frumenti, 271 



Valisneria spiralis, 252 
Vauchcria, 380 
Vcntenatia, 355 
Viscum album, 170 

Willows, 15€ 

Xanthe, 369 
Xylopia, 359 

Yew, 227 
Zostera, 360 


[ 402 ] 



Abrupt leaves, 136 
Abruptly pinnate leaves, 148 
Abrupt root, 97 
Absorption, 157 
Acaules plant*, 113 
Acerosum folium, 132 
Acid secretions, 71 
Acinaciforme folium, 144 
Acinus, 224 
Acrimony, 77 
Aculeus, 182 
Acuminate leaf, 137 
Acuminatum folium, 137 
Acute leaf, 137 
Acutum folium, 137 
Adpressa folia, 127 
Adscendens caulis, 106 
JLqualis polygamia, 309, 347 
Aggregate flowers, 243 
Aggregati pedunculi, 116 
Air vessels, 164 
Ala, 238, 207 
Alatus caulis, 1 1® 

Alatus petiolus, 1 17 
Albumen, 230 
Alburnum, 43 
Alg<e, 377 

Alienatum folium, 145 
Alkaline secretions, 72 
Alterna folia, 125 
Alterne ramosus caulis, 108 
Alterne pinnatum folium, 149 
Ament, 200 
Amentacex, 364 
Amentum, 200 
Amplexicaulia folia, 129 
Anceps caulis, 1 10 
Anceps folium, 144 
Angiocarpi fungi, 381 
.Angiospermia, 308, 336 
Angulosus caulis, 110 
Annual roots, 94 
Anther, 217 
Anthera, 217 
Aphyllae plant*, 124 
Apophysis, 373 



Apothecium, 378 
Appendiculatum folium, 146 
Appendages of plants, 178 
Apple, 223 
Arillus, 234 
Arista, 202 

Arrow shaped leaf, 134 
Articulatus caulis, 1 10 
Articulatum folium, 147 
Articulatus culmus, 114 
Articulata radix, 101 
Articulate pinnatum folium, 

Artificial system, 279 
Asperifoliae, 320 
Atmosphere, 173 
Astringent principle, 7 1 
Auriculatum folium, 150 
Avenium fol. 141 
Awl shaped leaf, 143 
Awn, 202 
Axillaris pedunculus, 115 

Bacca, 225 
Bacillum, 378 
Bark, 38 

Barren flowers, 241 
Basi trinerve fol. 142 
Beak, 238 
Beard, 202 

Bell shaped corolla, 206 
Berry, 225 
Bicornes, 327 
Biennial roots, 94 
Bifid leaf, 134 
Biflori pednuculi, 1 16 

Bigeminatum fol. 151 
Bijugum fol. 150 
Bilobum fol. 135 
Bina folia, 125 
Binatum folium, 148 
Bipinnatifidium fol. 136 
Bipinnatum fol. 1 5 1 
Biternatum fol. 151 
Bitter secretion, 71 
Blistery leaf, 140 
Blunt leaf, 137 
Border, 205 
Brachiate stem, 109 
Brachiatus caulis, 109 
Bracte, 180 
Bractea, 180 
Buds, 119 

Bulbiferous stem, 10© 
Bulbosa radix, 100 
Bulbous root, 100 
Bullatum fol. 140 
Bunch, 193 

Caducous, (falling early, ) 179, 

Calycanthemse, 325 
Calyculatus calyx, 197 
Calyptra, 203 
Calyx 194—197 
Cambium, 45 
Campanulata corolla, 206 
Canaliculatum fol. 143 
Capitulum, 190 
Capsule, 221 
Capsiila, 221 
Carina, 207 



Carinatum folium, 144 
Cartilagineum fol. 138 
Caryophylleae, 327 
Catkin, 200 
Catulus, 200 
Cauda, 238 
Caudcx, 95 
Caulina folia, 125 
Caulinus pedunculus, 115 
Caulis, 105 

Cellular integument, 36 
Central vessels, 54 
Channelled leaf, 143 
Characters, 283 
Ciliatum folium, 138 
Ciliatum perianthium, 197 
Cirrhiier petiolus, 117 
Cirrhosum folium, 137 
Cirrhose pinnatum, fel. 148 
Ciirhus, 182 
Classes, 303 
Clasping leaves, 129 
Clavus (Ergot) 271 
Climbing stems, 107 
Climbing petioles, 117 
Cloven le.»f, 134 
Cluster, 187 
Coccum, 222 
Coloratum foiium, 142 
Columniferse, 339 
Coloured !■ af, 142 
Colours, 79 
Coma, 238 
Completus flos, 241 
Composite folia, 1 50 
Compound flowers, 242 

Compressum folium, 143 
Compressed leaf, 143 
Compressus petiolus, 1 17 
Concavum folium, 141 
Concave leaf, 141 
Conduplicatum folium, 140 
Cone, 238 
Conferta folia, 125 
Conifer*, 365 
Conjugatum folium, 150 
Conjugate leaf, 150 
Connata folia, 129 
Connate leaves, 129 
Conniventia stamina, 2 1 6 
Contort*, 321 
Corculum, 228 
Cordate leaf, 133 
Cordatwm folium, 133 
Coriaceum folium, 145 
Coriaceous leaf, 145 
Corolla, 205 
Coronariae, 323 
Cortex, 38 
Cortical glands, 165 
Corymb, 189 
Corymbus, 189 
Costatum folium, 141 
Cotyledons, 90, 229 
Creeping root, 96 
Creeping stem, 106 
Crenatum folium, 139 
Crenateleaf, 139 
Crescent shaped leaf, 134 
Crispum folium, 141 
Cruciformis corolla, 206 
Cruciform flowers, 336 



Cryptogamia, 307. 371 
Cucullatum folium, 146 
Cucurbitacex, 364 
Culmus, 113 
Culm, 113 

Cuneiforme folium, 132 
Cuneiform leaf, 132 
Cup of the flower, 194 
Curled leaf, 141 
Cuspidatum folium, 137 
Cuticle, 3 1 
Cylindrical leaf, 143 
Cyme, 192 
Cyma, 192 
Cyphella, 378 

Decandria, 327 
Deciduum folium, 145 
Deciduous leaf, 145 
Declinata stamina, 216 
Declined stamens, 216 
Decompositum folium, 1 50 
Decompound leaf, 150 
Decurrentia folia, 130 
Decurrent leaves. 130 
Decus'sata folia, 126 
Decursive pinnatum folium, 
Deltoides folium. 133 
Deltoid leaf, 133 
Demersa folia, 128 
Dentatum folium, 138 
Dentate leaf, 138 
Depressa folia, 127 
Depressum folium, 143 
Determinate ramosus caulis, 
Diadelphia, 305, 340 

Diamond shaped leaf, 1S3 
Diandria, 317 
Dichotomus caulis, 105 
Dichotomous stem, 105 
Dicotyledones, 90 
Didynamia, 354, 334 
Diffusus caulis, 108 
Digitatum folium, 147 
Digitate leaf, 147 
Digynia, 307 
Dioecia, 306, 366 
Dioecious flowers, 242 
Dioici flores, 242 
Discoid flowers, 348 
Discus, 242 
Disk, 242 
Dissectum folium, 135 

Dissepimentum, 221 

Dissepiment, 22 1 

Disticha folia, 126 

Distichus caulis, 108 

Divaricate stem, 109 

Divaricatus caulis, 109 

Dodecandria, 328 

Dolabriforme folium, 144 

Down of the seed, 
149 237 

Drupa, 220 

Drupe, 224 

Dumoss, 322 

Dust of the anther, 2 1 7 

Elliptic leaf, 132 
Ellipticum folium, 132 
109 Emarginate leaf, 137 

Emarginatum folium, 137 



Embryo, 228 
Emersum folium, 128 
Enerve folium, 141 
Enneandria, 326 
Enodis culmus, 113 
Ensats, 317 
Ensiforme folium, 144 
Ensiform leaf, 144 
Entire leaf, 1 3 1 
Epidermis, 31 
Equitantia folia, 1 30 
Erecta folia, 127 
Erectus caulis, 106 
Ergot, 271 
Eroded leaf, 139 
Erosum folium, 139 
Essential character, 283 
Essential oils, 70 
Evaporating pores, 165 
Excitability, 65 
Exserta stamina, 316 
Exserted stamens, 316 

Factitious character, 283 
Fall of the leaf, 266 
Fasciculatus caulis, 1 13 
Fasciculus, 190 
Fascicle, 190 
Ferns, 37 1 
Fertile flowers, 241 
Fibrosa radix, 96 
Fibrous root, 96 
Fiddle shaped leaf, 134 
Filament, 216 
Filamentum, 216 

Filices, 371 

Fingered leaf, 147 

Fissum folium, 134 

Fistulous stem, 1 12 

Flagelliformis caulis, 107 

Fleshy leaf, 143 

Flexuosus caulis, 108 

Flexuous stem, 108 

Floral leaf, 180 

Flores tristes, 75 

Florets, 242 

Florifera folia, 1 3§ 

Flosculi, 242 

Floscular umbel, 191 

Flowing of the sap, 63—67 

Folium, 124 

Follicle, 222 

Folliculus, 222 

Forcing, 84 

Forked stem, 105 

Fringe of mosses, 374 

Fringed leaf, 138 

Frond, 117 

Frons, 117 

Fructification, 194 

Fructus, 220 

Fruit, 220 

Frustranea polygamia, 309, 349 

Fulcrum, 178 

Functions of stamens and pistils, 

Fungi, 380 

Funnel formed corolla, 306 
Furrowed stem, 1 12 
Fusiformis radix, 97 



Fusiform root, 97 

Galbulus, 287 
Galls, 268 
Gangrene, 265 
Gemma, 119 

Gemmaceus pedunculus, 116 
Genera, 279 
Generic names, 287 
Geniculatus culmus, 114 
Genus, 279 
Germ, 218,219 
Germination, 82 
Gibbum folium, 143 
Gibbous leaf, 143 
Girdling trees, 58 
Glaber, glabrous, 1 1 1 
Gland, 284 

Glandula, 184 

Glandulosum folium, 139 

Glaucous, 112 

Gluma, 201 

Glume, 201 

Grafting, 82 

Gramina, 318 

Granulata radix, 101 

Grasses, 3 1 8 

Gruinales, 339 

Gymnocarpi 381 

Gymnospermia, 308, 334 

Gynandria, 305, 352 

Hairs of plants, 184 
Halberd shaped leaf, 134 
Hastatum folium, 134 
Hastate leaf, 134 

Hatchet shaped leaf, 144 

Head, 190 

Heart shaped leaf, 1 33 

Heat of plants, 83 

Hepaticue, 376 

Heptandria, 324 

Herbarium, 383 

Hesperides, 330 

Hexandria, 323 

Hilum, 233 

Hirtus, 1 1 1 

Hispidus, 1 1 1 

Hollow leaf, 141 

Honey, 212 

Honey dew, 189 

Hood, 203 

Hooded leaf, 146 

Horizontalia folia, 127 

Horizontal leaf, 127 

Husk, 201 

Hypocrateriformis corolla, 206 

Hypocrateriform, 206 

Icosandria, 329, 303 
Imbricata folia, 126 
Imbricate leaves, 126 
Imbricate calyx, 197 
Impari pinnatum folium, 

Inanis caulis, 112 
Incanus, 112 
Incisum folium, 135 
Inclusa stamina, 216 
Included stamens, 216 
Incompleta corolla, 207 
Incompletus flos, 241 



Incomplete flowers, 241 
Incurva folia, 127 
Incurva stamina, 216 
Incurved leaves, 127 
Incurved stamens, 216 
Indusium, 199 
Inequale folium, 136 
Inerme folium, 188 
Inferior germ, 219 
Inferior flower, 219 
Inflated calyx, 197 
Inflexa folia, 127 
Inflorescentia, 187 
Inflorescence, 187 
Infundibuliformis corolla, 206 
Integerrimum folium, 137 
Integrum folium, 130 
Internodis pedunculus, 116 
Interrupte pinnatum folium, 149 
Involucellum, 198 
Involucre, 198 
Involucrum, 198 
Involutum folium, 140 
Involute leaf, 140 
Irregular corolla, 205 
lulus, 200 

Jagged leaf, 139 
Jagged pointed leaf, 136 
Jointed leaf, 150 
Jointed culm, 1 1 4 
Jointed stems, 110 
Jussieu, system of, 313 

Keel, 207 

Keeled leaf, 144 
Kidney shaped leaf, 133 

Labellum, (Ufi) 354 
Labials, 335 
Labiate flowers, 206 
Laciniatum folium, 135 
Lactescent (milky) plants, 6S 
Lxvis, 111 
Lamellae, 381 
Lamina, 205 
Lanatus, 112, 
Lanceolate leaf, 1 32 
Lanccolatum folium, 132 
Lateralis pedunculus, 116 
Lateral footstalk, 1 1 6 
Laxus caulis, 108 
Leathery leaf, 145 • 
Legumen, 223 
Leguminous plants, 341 
Liber, 38 

Light, effect of, 170 
Lignum, (wood) 41 
Ligula, 180 
Ligulate florets, 242 
Ligulati flosculi, 242 
Liliaceous flowers, 323 
Limb, 205 
Limbus, 205 
Lineare folium, 132 
Linear leaf, 132 
Lingulatum folium, 1 45 
Linnsi systema, 302 
Lion toothed leaf, 134 
Lip, 354 



Lirella, 378 
Liverworts, 376 
Lobatum folium, 130, 134 
Lobed leaf, 130, 134 
Loment, 224 
Lomentum, 224 
Lunulatum folium, 134 
Luridae, 320 
Lyrate leaf, 134 
Lyratum folium, 134 
Lyrate pinnatum folium, 149 

Maculatus, 1 10 
Malvaceae, 339 
Margin, 205 
Medulla, 46 
Membrana, 233 
Membranaceum folium, 145 
Membranous leaf, 145 
Monadelphia, 305, 338 
Monandria, 316 
Monocotyledones, 60, 90 
Monoecia, 306,360 
Monoecious flowers, 242 
Monoici flores, 242 
Monogamia syngenesia, 309 
Monogynia, 307 
Monopetalous corolla, 205 
Mosses, 372 
Mucilage, 69 
Mucronatum folium, 137 
Mucronate leaf, 137 
Multiflori pcdunculi, 116 
Multisiliqux, 332 
Muricatus calyx, 197 

Muricated calyx, 197 
Musci, 372 
Mutica gluma, 202 

Naked flower, 241 

Natantia folia, 128 

Natural system, 313, 278 

Necessaria polygamia, 309,351 

Nectariferous glands, 214 

Nectariferous pores, 213 

Nectariferous scales, 213 

Nectarium, 212 

Nectary, 212 

Needle shaped leaf, 132 

Nervosum folium, 141 

Nerved leaf, 141 

Nerveless leaf, 141 

Nicked leaf, 142 

Night scented flowers, 

Nitidus, 1 1 1 

Nomenclature, 286 

Notched leaf, 137 

Nucamentum, 200 

Nudum folium, 142 

Nudus flos, 241 

Nut, 224 

Oblique leaf, 127 
Oblong leaf, 132 
Oblongum folium, 132 
Obovate leaf, 131 
Obovatum folium, 131 
Obtuse leaf, 137 
Obtusum folium, 137 
Obtusum cum acumine, 137 




Ochrea, 181 
Octandria, 325 
Odour of plants, 75 
Oil, 70 

Operculum, 374 
Opposita folia, 125 
Opposite leaves, 125 
Opposite pinnata folia, 149 
Orbicular leaf, 131 
Orbiculatum folium, 131 
Orders, 307 
Oval leaf, 132 
Ovale folium, 131 
Ovate leaf, 131 
Ovatum folium, 131 

Palate, 206 
Palms, 307,382 
Palmatum folium, 135 
Palmate leaf, 135 
Panduriforme folium, 134 
Panicle, 192 
Panicula, 192 
Papilionacea corolla, 207 

Papilionaceous 207 

Papilionaceous flowers, 341 
Papillosus, 1 1 1 
Pappus, 237 
Partial involucre, 198 
Partial flower stalk, 115 
Partitum folium, 135 
Patentia folia, 127 
Pectinate leaf, 136 
Pectinatum folium, 136 
Pedateleaf, 151 

Pedatum folium, 151 
Pedicellus, 115 
Pedicelled down, 237 
Peduncle, 115 
Pedunculus, 1 15 
Pellicula, 234 
Peltate leaf, 128 
Peliatum folium, 128 
Pentagonus caulis, 1 10 
Pentandria, 320 
Pepo, 226 
Perennial roots, 94 

Perfect flowers, 241 

Pet foliata folia, 1 29 

Perfoliate leaves, 129 

Periunthium, 197 

Pericarp, 220 

Pericarpium, 220 

Perichaetium, 202 

Peridiurn, 381 

Peristomium, 374 

Personata corolla, 206 


Perspiration of leaves, 154 

Petal, 205 

Petalum, 205 

Petiolata folia, 128 

Petioled leaf, 128 

Petiole, 1 1 7 

Petiolus, 117 

Pileus, 382 

Pilosus, 1 1 1 

Pilus, 184 

Pinnatifidum folium, 135 

Pinnatind leaf, 135 



Pinnatum folium, 148 

Pinnate leaf, 148 

Pisti:, 218 

Pistillum, 218 

Pith, 46 

Plaited leaf, 140 

Plicatum folium, 140 

Plumula, 90 

Pod, 223 

Podetium, 378 

Pointed leaf, 137 

Pollen, 217 

Polyadelphia, 305, 344 

Polyandria, 332 

Polygamia, 306, 369 

Polygynia, 307 

Polypetalous corolla, 206 

Pomacex, 330 

Pomum, 223 

Pores, 165 

Pouch, 223 

Prasmorsa radix, 97 

Precis, 320 

Prickle, 182 

Prismaticum perianthium, 197 

Procumbens caulis, 106 

Procumbent stem, 106 

Prolifer caulis, 109 

Proliferous stem, 109 

Prostrate stem, 106 

Prostratus caulis, 106 

Pubescence, 184 — 5 

Punctaium folium, 140 

Quadrangular leaf, 133 

Quadrangular stem, 1 10 
Quadrangularis caulis, 1 10 
Quadrangulare folium, 133 
Quaterna folia, 126 
Quina folia, 126 
Quinate leaves, 126, 148 
Quinatum folium, 148 
Quinquangulare folium, 133 
Quinquangularis caulis, 110 

Raceme, 187 
Racemus, 187 
Radiate flowers, 349 
Radiate umbel, 191 
Radical leaves, 125 
Radicalia folia, 125 
Radicans caulis, 106 
Radicula r 94 
Radix, 94 
Ramea folia, 125 
Rameus pedunculus, 1 1 5 
Ramosus caulis, 109 
Ramosssimus caulis, 109 
Rays, 191 
Receptacle, 240 
Receptaculum, 240 
Reclinatum folium, 127 
Reclinatus caulis, 106 
Rectus caulis, 108 
Recurva folia, 127 
Recurved leaves, 127 
Reflexa folia, 127 
Reflexed leaves, 127 
Reniforme folium, 133 
Reniform leaf, 133 



Repandum folium, 139 
Repand leaf, 139 
Repens caulis, 106 
Repens radix, 96 
Resupinata folia, 127 
Resin, 69 

Retusum folium, 136 
Revolutum folium, 139 
Revolute leaf, 139 
Reversed corolla, 206 
Rhoeadeae, 332 
Rhombeum folium, 133 
Rhomboidal leaf, 133 
Ribbed leaf, 141 
Ribless leaf, 141 
Ringens corolla, 206 

Ringent 206 

Root, 94 

Rosaceous corolla, 207 
Rostrum, 238 
Rotaceae, 320 • 
Rotata corolla, 206 
Rotate corolla, 206 
Rugged leaf, 140 
Rubiaceae, 319 
Rugosum folium, 140 
Runcinate leaf, 134 
Runcinatum folium, 134 

Salver shaped corolla, 206 
Saggitatum folium, 134 
Samara, 222 
Sap, 56, 63 
Sap vessels, 49 
Sramentosus caulis, 108 

Scaber, 1 1 1 

Scaly roots, 100 

Scandens caulis, 107 

Scandens petiolus, 117 

Scape, 1 14 

Scapus, 114 

Scar of the seed, 233 

Scariosum perianthium, 197 

Scimetar shaped leaf, 144 

Scitamineac, 316 

Secretions of plants, 68 

Secunda folia, 126 

Secunda panicula, 193 

Secunda spica, 189 

Seeds, 228 

Seed vessel, 220 

Segregata polygamia, 309, 35 1 

Semina, 228 

Semicylindraceum folium, 143 

Semiflosculosi, 347 

Seminal leaves, 90 

Semiteres caulis, 1 10 

Semiteres petiolws, 117 

SenticosJe, 33 lj 

Sepiariae, 317 

Separated flowers, 351 

Serrate leaf, 138 

Serratum folium, 138~v 

Serrulatum folium, 139 

Sessile flowers, 1 16 

Sessile leaves, 129 

Sessiles flores, 116 

Sessilia folia, 129 

Sharp leaf, 137 

Sheath, 129, 201 



Sheathing leaf, 129 
Silicle, 223 
Silicula, 223 
Siliculosa, 308, 336 
Siliqua, 223 
Silique, 223 
Siliquosa, 308, 337 
Silver grain, 55 
Simple leaves, 130 
Simple stem, 105 
Simplicia folia, 130 
Sinuate leaf, 135 
Sinuatum folium, 135 
Sleep of plants, 172 
Solid bulb, 100 
Solitariuspedunculus, 116 
Spadix, 201 

Sparsa folia, 125 

Sparsi pedunculi, 116 

Spathe, 201 

Spatha, 201 

Spathacex, 323 

Spatulate leaf, 132 

Spatulatum folium, 132 

Species of plants, 279 

Specific characters, 285 

Spica, 188 

Spicula, 189 

Spike, 188 

Spikelet, 189 

Spina, 181 

Spinosum folium, 138 

Spiral vessels, 52 

Spiral stalk, 1 14 

Sporse, 378 

Sporangium, 378 

Spur, 253 

Squamosum perianthium, 197 

Squarrosum perianthium, 197 

Squarrose calyx, 197 

Stamen, 214 

Stamina, 214 

Standard, 207 

Stellate, 319 

Stem, 105 

Stigma, 218 

Stipes, 1 18 

Stipitate down, 337 

Stipula, 178 

Stone fruit, 224 

Striatus caulis, ) 12 

Striate stem, 112 

Strictus caulis, 108 

Strobilus, 228 

Strophistum, 239 

Stylus, 218 

Style, 218 

Submersum folium, 128 

Subrotundum folium, 131 

Subsessile folium, 146 

Subulatum folium, 143 

Subulate leaf, 143 

Sugar, 72 

Sulcatus, 112 

Superflua polygamia, 309, 348 

Superior flower, 2 1 9 

Superior germ, 219 

Suprsdecompositum folium, 151 

Sword shaped leaf, 144 

Syngenesia, 305, 347 



Tail of a seed, 238 
Tanning principle, 71 
Tendrils, 182 
Teres caulis, 110 
Teres folium, 143 
Teres petiolus, 1 17 
Terminal footstalk, 1 1 6 
Terminalis pedunculus, 1 1 6 
Terna folia, 125 
Ternatum folium, 148 
Ternate leaf, 148 
Testa, 233 

Tetradynamia, 305, 336 
Tetragonum folium, 145 
Tetragonus caulis, 110 
Tetragynia, 307 
Tetrandria, 319 
Thallus, 378 
Thorn, 191 
Thyrsus, 193 
Tomentosus, 1 1 2 
Tongue shaped leaf, 145 
Toothed leaf, 138 
Triandria, 317 
Triangulare folium, 133 
Triangularis caulis, 1 10 
Tries, 378 

Trigonum folium, 144 
Trigonus caulis, 1 10 
Trigynia, 307 
Trilobum folium, 135 
Trinerva folium, 141 
Tricecia, 870 
Triplinerve folium, 142 
Triqueter caulis, 110 

Triquetrum folium, 144 
Trivial names, 292 
Trowel shaped leaf, 133 
Truncatum folium, 136 
Truncate leaf, 136 
Tuberosa radix, 98 
Tuberous root, 98 
Tubular leaf, 143 
Tubulosa floscula, 242 
Tubular florets, 242 
Tubulosum folium, 143 
Tubus, 205 
Tubes, 51 
Tuft, 190 
Tunic, 234 
Tunicated bulb, 100 
Turbinatum perianthium, 19; 
Two edged stem, 1 10 

Umbel, 191 
Umbella, 191 
Umbelliferae, 322 
Undivided leaf, 130 
Undulatum folium, 140 
Unequal leaf, 136 
Unguis, 205 
Uniflori pedunculi, 116 
United flowers, 242 
Utriculi, 221 
Utricles, 165 

Vaginantia folia, 129 
Variegatum folium, 142 
Variegated leaf, 142 
Varieties, 279 



Vegetation, 87 
Veil, 208 
Veinless leaf, 141 
Veiny leaf, 1 4 1 
Venosum folium, 141 
Ventricosum perianthium, 197 
Verrucosus, 1 1 1 
Verticalia folia, 127 
Vertical leaves, 127 
Verticillata folia, 126 
Verticillats, 335 
Verticillatus caulis, 109 
Verticillus, 187 
Vexillum, 207 
Villosus, 112 
Villous, 112 
Viscid us, 1 1 1 
Viscid, 111 

Vitellus, 231 
Volubilis caulis, 108 
Volva, 203 

Warty, 1 1 1 
Wax, 70 
Wavy, 139, 140 
Wedge shaped leaf 132 
Wheel shaped corolla, 206 
Whorl, 187 
Whorled leaves, 126 
Wing, 238, 207 
Winged stem, HO 
Wood, 41 
Wrapper, 203 

Yoked leaf, 150 
Yolk, 231 


Page 71, line 13th from bottom, for" Crinita" read, crinita ; etparia passim. 
„ 131, bottom line, for " Alnisolia," read, Alnifolia. 
„ 146, 1. 3d from bot. for " Sarracennia," read, Sarracenia ; for" Fivesad- 

dle," read, Sidesaddle. 
„ 139, 1. 4th for " vinnata,'' read, pinnata. 
„ 198, 1. 14th from bot. for " Ventricosus," read, Ventricosum ; 1. 12, for 

" Prismaticus" read, Prismaticum. 
„ 224, 1. 4th, from bot. for " principle," read, pericarp. 
„ 295, 1. 15th from bot, for M meaning," read, names. 

,/,//,W it Head Boston, if i.Erdc? I'lulad* Manh loll. 

91 J l0 ° \ 

Kmass St 

KlltaSr St